Types of Drama


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Humanities 1 - Art appreciation

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Types of Drama

  1. 1. Drama
  2. 2. What is Drama? “ A composition in prose or in verse, adapted to be acted and is represented with accompanying gesture, costume, and scenery, as in real life.”
  3. 3. Types of Drama <ul><li>Ancient Drama </li></ul><ul><li>The tragedy and comedy originated in Greece in the festivals of Dionysus in the 6 th and 5 th centuries B.C. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Further Detail The first known tragedy was by Thespis of Icaria around 534 B.C. Of all Greek drama, only the works of Aeschyus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes survived. Fortunately, these playwrights were considered to be among the finest.
  5. 5. Examples <ul><li>Tragedy </li></ul><ul><li>Aeschyus </li></ul><ul><li>Seven Against Thebes </li></ul><ul><li>Sophocles </li></ul><ul><li>Oedipus Rex </li></ul><ul><li>Euripides </li></ul><ul><li>Medea </li></ul><ul><li>Comedy </li></ul><ul><li>Aristophanes </li></ul><ul><li>The Acharnians </li></ul><ul><li>The Knights </li></ul><ul><li>The Clouds </li></ul>
  6. 6. Medieval Drama <ul><li>The mystery play </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the Holy Scriptures </li></ul><ul><li>The morality play </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophical play where characters represented qualities like vice and death. Contained humor </li></ul><ul><li>The secular drama </li></ul><ul><li>Plays that dealt with everyday characters </li></ul>
  7. 7. Further Detail <ul><li>Mystery </li></ul><ul><li>Bible stories </li></ul><ul><li>Morality </li></ul><ul><li>This showed how the Medieval man should have acted. The most well known morality play is Everyman </li></ul><ul><li>Everyman </li></ul><ul><li>Examined the question of Christian salvation by use of allegorical characters, and what Man must do to attain it. </li></ul><ul><li>Secular </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as “Manner” plays, these plays were similar to morality plays but instead applied to social aspects, instead of spiritual. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Renaissance Drama <ul><li>Greek and Roman dramatists were imitated in Italy, France, Germany, and England. </li></ul><ul><li>The “comedia del arte” was and impromptu drama preformed on platforms on the streets by strooling players. The masks and costumes told the audience what to expect. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Examples/Further Detail <ul><li>Elizabethan drama </li></ul><ul><li>The most notable of Renaissance drama, with playwrights such as Shakespeare and Marlowe. </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare </li></ul><ul><li>Romeo and Juliet </li></ul><ul><li>King Lear </li></ul><ul><li>Hamlet </li></ul>
  10. 10. 17 th Century Drama <ul><li>England: Under Charles I, dramas were sophisticated, witty comedies </li></ul><ul><li>France: From France came both classical tragedies and comedies. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany: Only one notable playwright: Hans Sachs. But drama devolved into improvised farce. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 18 th and 19 th Century Drama <ul><li>18 th Century </li></ul><ul><li>France: Farcical Comedy </li></ul><ul><li>England Comedy of manners and Domestic drama </li></ul><ul><li>19 th Century </li></ul><ul><li>Romantic drama flourished throughout Europe </li></ul>
  12. 12. Modern Drama <ul><li>Norwegian dramatist Ibsen contributed much to modern drama. His work stimulated a great burst of dramatic activity everywhere. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Modern Drama <ul><li>As a result </li></ul><ul><li>In France: Brief revival of romantic fantasy and impressionism </li></ul><ul><li>Post WWI Germany: Expressionism </li></ul><ul><li>England and United States: Comedy </li></ul><ul><li>Poetic drama reached new heights in England, Ireland, France, Spain, and the United States </li></ul>
  14. 14. Philippine Drama <ul><li>Early Drama, before the Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>Duplo: Poetical debated held by trained men and women in the 9 th night, the last night of the mourning of the dead </li></ul><ul><li>The bellacos, the men, were the heads of the game </li></ul>
  15. 15. Philippine Drama <ul><li>Karagatan: Like the duplo, but the participants were amatures. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Philippine Drama <ul><li>Spanish Era </li></ul><ul><li>Cenakulo </li></ul><ul><li>A drama showing the life sacrifices and death of Jesus Christ. </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrated during Holy Week </li></ul><ul><li>There are the ablada (oral) and kantada (song) presentations </li></ul>
  17. 17. Philippine Drama <ul><li>Moro-moro </li></ul><ul><li>A cloak and dagger play depicting the wars between the Christians and Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>The Christians always win </li></ul><ul><li>The first was staged in Manila in 1673, by Fr. Jeronimo Perez. To commemorate Gen. Consuera's victory of the Muslims of Midanao </li></ul>
  18. 18. Philippine Drama <ul><li>Zarzuela </li></ul><ul><li>A melodrama with songs and dances. It is a three in one act play. </li></ul><ul><li>Meant to make the mass feeling towards any emotional reaction sublime. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Further Detail The zarzuela replaced the moro-moro at the beginning of the American rule. Early zarzuelas were nationalistic. Examples: Pag-ibig sa Lupang Tinubuan by Pascual Poblete Kahapon, Ngayon at Bukas by Aurelio Tolentino Malaya by Tomas Remigio The zarzuelas were banned by American authorities and Poblete and Tolentino were jailed.
  20. 20. Philippine Drama <ul><li>Moriones </li></ul><ul><li>A Lenten ritual celebrated in Marinduque during Holy Week </li></ul><ul><li>Morion means mask </li></ul><ul><li>At the climax, the pugutan ceremony is held noon on Easter Sunday </li></ul>
  21. 21. Further Detail <ul><li>The pugutan ceremony reenacts Longinus actions, that he stabbed Christ on the cross, proclaimed Christ's Divinity after his resurrection, and his exceution for doing so. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Philippine Drama <ul><li>Ati-atihan </li></ul><ul><li>A pagan ritual celebrated in Kalibo, Aklan every 3 rd Sunday of January for Infant Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>The origin of this drama was forgotten long ago </li></ul><ul><li>The Spaniards tried to do away with this Pagan ritual but instead chose to give it Christian meaning </li></ul>
  23. 23. Philippine Drama <ul><li>Modern </li></ul><ul><li>Rejuvenated upon the establishment of the Repertory Philippines in June 1967 </li></ul><ul><li>Became the country's leading theater company </li></ul>
  24. 24. Japanese Drama <ul><li>Noh plays </li></ul><ul><li>The oldest Japanese drama. Developed in the 1300s, it reached its present form in the 1600s. </li></ul><ul><li>They are poetic treatments of history, legends, love and war stories, influenced by Buddhism and Shintoism. </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter than Western plays and undramatic. Preformed by masked actors. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Further Detail <ul><li>2 types: the dramatic and dream Noh </li></ul><ul><li>Dream Noh is rich in symbolic and poetic beauty </li></ul><ul><li>Although roughly 1000 plays were written, only about 250 plays are used today. </li></ul><ul><li>Hagoromo is one of the most performed Noh plays </li></ul>
  26. 26. Japanese Drama <ul><li>Joruri / Bunraku </li></ul><ul><li>A puppet drama. The puppets are extremely complex. </li></ul><ul><li>The puppeteers are often visible on stage. </li></ul><ul><li>Founded 1864 in Osaka. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Further Details The puppets height range from 2 ½ to 4 feet tall. The mouth, tongue, eyelids, etc. can be manipulated and some can even transform into a demon's face The most popular subject for these plays was the lovers' double suicide
  28. 28. Japanese Drama <ul><li>Kabuki </li></ul><ul><li>The most popular form of traditional Japanese Drama </li></ul><ul><li>Originated at the end of the 16 th century, it is much more extravagant than the Noh plays </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on the visual aspects of theater, heavy makeup, exaggerated acting, and special effects. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Further Detail <ul><li>FUN FACTS </li></ul><ul><li>While Kabuki is performed with only males today, it was founded by a woman. </li></ul><ul><li>However, this early style Kabuki play was too erotic. Many of these performers were prostitutes. </li></ul><ul><li>So, women were banned from the stage and were replaced by attractive young men. </li></ul><ul><li>Good? Not really, these young men caused the exact same problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Kabuki was still too erotic and many of the pretty boys were prostitutes, for women AND men. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, only adult men were allowed to perform Kabuki. </li></ul>
  30. 30. More Stuff <ul><li>Bunraku and Kabuki were very similar </li></ul><ul><li>Many plays were performed by both kabuki actors and puppet troups </li></ul><ul><li>A popular subject was the 47 Ronin, which focused on Bushido </li></ul><ul><li>The most famous playwright was Chikamatsu Monzaemon &quot;Shakespeare of japan&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The Love Suicides at Sonezaki and the battles of Coxinga </li></ul><ul><li>Sonezaki was so popular, it caused many copycat suicides. Lovers' suicide plays were later banned by the government. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Chinese Drama <ul><li>Three types of plays </li></ul><ul><li>Vun Pan Shi </li></ul><ul><li>The oldest form, focuses on patriotism and filial devotion. Music and action are meant to play on the audience's emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Sin Pan Shi </li></ul><ul><li>This play presents civil and military condidtions. It differs from the Vun Pan Shi in the manner of singing certain roles and in the acting. </li></ul><ul><li>Vun Min Shi </li></ul><ul><li>The Modern Play. Colloquial dialects are allowed instead of Mandarin </li></ul>
  32. 32. Further Detail Until the Communist takeover in 1949, selected and modified traditional operas and dramas were staples of the Chinese theater. War plays were also common but as a whole, theater was varied and modern. Plays became more contemporary, focusing on social unrest and oppression by the wealthy. Under Communist rule, Chinese drama was used to condemn and deviations from Mao Tse Tung's philosophy.
  33. 33. Cinema <ul><li>The newest and most popular form of drama today </li></ul><ul><li>Millions either go to the Cinema or watch on TV </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects range from educational viewing to non-stop action </li></ul><ul><li>More than just entertainment, it has intellectual, imaginative, and technical aspects </li></ul>
  34. 34. Brief History <ul><li>1926 – Hollywood silent movies are shown in the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>1927 – The Silos brothers make “The Three Tramps” a short comedy </li></ul><ul><li>1929 – Collegian Love is written and directed by Carlos Vander Tolosa </li></ul>
  35. 35. History <ul><li>Petronilo Tolentino bought the negatives and prints of four movies from Jose Nepomuceno. </li></ul><ul><li>Asuncion Leyba bought two movies from Nepomuceno. </li></ul><ul><li>Nepomuceno's competitor, Rafael Fernandez, formed Banahaw Pictures With attractive salaries, he took man of Nepomuceno's best actors and actresses. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Banahaw Pictures was the last to produce silent films. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. History <ul><li>George Musser produced the first Tagalog talking picture for Manila Talkatone. It was Ang Aswang and was exhibited at the Lyric Theater in Manila in 1932 </li></ul><ul><li>1933 – Nepomuceno started to make Tagalog talkies with Americans </li></ul>
  37. 37. WWII and Movies <ul><li>The war temporarily crippled the movie industry. The Japanese imposed censorship and introduced propaganda. </li></ul><ul><li>Many famous actors and actresses went to the stage. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Present Movie Development <ul><li>Local movies have been gradually improving. </li></ul><ul><li>The slow pace for Philippine movie development is caused by factors like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited market for local movies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate equipment and facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But Philippine movies can compare with other Asian productions in terms of quality </li></ul>