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  1. 1. LESSON 31MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTION TEAMSMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1High-quality interactive multimediaapplications are the products of aproduction team.A multimedia team will produce fine-qualityhigh-end applications such as games,information kiosks, commercial training andeducational applications. They are usuallyproduced by a specialised team.MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTION TEAMA multimedia production team consists of a Project Manager, Subject MatterExpert (SME), Graphic Artist, Audio-Video Technician, Instructional Designerand Programmer.THE PROJECT MANAGERS ROLESThe Project Managers roles are to define the scope of the project anddiscuss with the client.A project manager has to search for financial resources, equipment andfacilities.The project manager also needs to coordinate the production team.117
  2. 2. SMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1THE SUBJECT MATTER EXPERTS ROLEThe Subject Matter Experts role is to do research on the content of amultimedia program.The Subject Matter Expert has to provide content for the multimediacontent.118
  3. 3. THE GRAPHIC ARTISTS ROLESMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1The Graphic Artists role is to develop the graphic elements of the programsuch as backgrounds, buttons, photo collages, 3D objects, logos andanimation.THE AUDIO-VIDEO TECHNICIANS ROLEThe Audio Technician is responsible for recording the voice. He edits thesound effects. He records and edits music. The Video Technician isresponsible for capturing, editing and digitizing the video.119
  4. 4. SMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1THE INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNERS ROLESThe Instructional Designers roles are to decide on the best educationalstrategies and practices to present the information.THE PROGRAMMERS ROLEThe Programmer’s role is to write the program code lines or scripts using theauthoring tool.He combines the multimedia elements into a multimedia program.120
  5. 5. EXTENSION : WEBMASTERSMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1New technology has now made itvery easy for many people toaccess the Web.Designing interesting Web sites isvery important for manybusinesses.The webmasters main job is to create and maintain the Web site.He should be able to integrate the multimedia elements into a Web page.He also handle enquiries and feedback.LESSON 32MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTION PHASESA multimedia program are developed by multimedia developers that must gothrough multimedia production phases.Multimedia developers have to plan a series of phases to producemultimedia application.PHASES IN MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTIONThere are six phases involved in the production of a multimedia project.121
  6. 6. SMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1The six phases involved can be categorised into 3 main stages.Pre-production is the process before producing the multimedia project.Production is the process of producing the multimedia project.Post-production is a process after producing the multimedia project.OVERVIEW OF THE PHASESAnalysis PhaseDuring the Analysis Phase, the multimedia developers interview the clientsto find out their needs and write the Problem Statement and a Proposal.Design PhaseBased on the needs of target users, the multimedia developer will design aFlow Chart and Storyboard. This phase is known as the Design Phase.Implementation PhaseOnce the Storyboard is confirmed, the multimedia developers will startImplementation Phase.The Implementation Phase refers to the process of converting the designplan into a multimedia program. This is the phase where the multimediaprogram is produced.122
  7. 7. Testing PhaseSMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1The multimedia developers will use a Checklist to test the multimediaprogram. If there are any errors, the programmer will fix the program.Evaluation PhaseIn the Evaluation Phase, selected users will use an Evaluation Form to tryout the program and give feedback.Publishing PhaseFinally, when the multimedia program is completed, it will be published toCD.EXTENSION : PROTOTYPEMany multimedia production companies try to shorten the production phase.One of the ways is to use a prototype.123
  8. 8. LESSON 33SMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1Prototype means a standard or modelexample.A prototype is a basic model of a newmultimedia program that is to bedeveloped.This is done so that the new designcan be tested and changed before thestage of actual production.By using a prototype, users can helpto decide suitable designs of themultimedia project.MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTION : ANALYSIS PHASEANALYSIS PHASEThe Analysis Phase is the main phase ofa multimedia production.It will enable multimedia developers toset the focus of the project.In this phase, the multimedia developerswill identify the project title, problem,objectives, possible solution and targetusers.PROBLEM STATEMENT AND PROPOSALEXAMPLEWe are to develop a multimedia project for our school. From observations wefound that students need to be informed on the danger of drugs.124
  9. 9. SMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1The followings are questions that we can use to determine the focus of ourproject:What is the project title?What is the problem?What are the objectives to achieve?What is the possible solution to the problem?Who are the target users?We need to analyse the findings andidentify the problems.After identifying the problems, write a Proposal for a multimedia project.125
  10. 10. EXTENSION : ANALYSIS TOOLSSMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1In order to understand a problem, we need to use analysis tools. Thesetools will point out what needs to be done.There are three types of analysis - namely the Focus Group Analysis,Content Analysis and Goal Analysis.Focus Group Analysis usesthe Questionnaire to findthe needs of target users.The Content Analysis helpsmultimedia developers tochoose the contents forthe multimedia program byusing Content AnalysisForm.In Goal Analysis, we usethe Goal Analysis Form toguide multimediadevelopers.It helps them to set up thefocus of the project.126
  11. 11. LESSON 34SMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTION : DESIGN PHASEBefore any product or invention can be made, it needs to be designed.Similarly, in producing a multimedia program, design plays an importantrole.DESIGN PHASEThe Design Phase is the second phase in multimedia production.The Design Phase refers to the planning of the design of the multimediaprogram to be developed.There are two popular tools used in the Design Phase, namely the FlowChart and Storyboard.127
  12. 12. FLOW CHARTSMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1In the example of "Say NO To Drugs", the multimedia developers drew aFlow Chart.Flow Charts help multimedia developers to lay out the flow of a multimediaprogram.128
  13. 13. STORYBOARDSMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1Storyboards are rough sketches ofeverything that are included in amultimedia program.The multimedia developers write a Storyboard forthe program based on the Flow Chart.In the Storyboard, we have to consider the contentof the program, navigational system to be used andthe layout of the program.Next, multimedia developers produce theStoryboard in detail.129
  14. 14. SMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1The storyboard lays out how the multimedia elements are to be put in amultimedia program.CASPER SCREEN DESIGN PRINCIPLESScreen design refers to how the multimedia programwill look when it is displayed on the computer screen.In screen design, CASPER design principles are used.CONTRASTContrast refers to the usage of different types ofmultimedia elements.It is one of the way to make the multimedia programmore attractive.Alignment refers to the arrangement of multimediaelements on the screen.For example, graphics or text should be arranged at themost suitable position.SIMPLICITYSimplicity refers to the simple and easy way of presenting the multimediaprogram. For example, using a simple design with less graphics, animationand text makes the multimedia program more attractive and easy tounderstand.PROXIMITYProximity refers to the concept of grouping a similar or related element.For example, the arrangement of "Main Menu" and graphics must be inone group.130
  15. 15. EMPHASISSMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1Emphasis refers to creating the focus point on the screen. It will highlightthe important part of the screen to attract the user’s attentionREPETITIONRepetition refers to the concept of repeating the same texture, colour, sizeof font and style in the multimedia program. Repetition adds a visual interestinto the multimedia program.CASPER principles are used to make sure that the multimedia program isuser-friendly.EXTENSION : WEB DESIGN STORYBOARDA Web Design Storyboard is an outline of what your Web site will includebefore it is actually created.A business Storyboard may include: Main page or index, About us, Servicesoffered, Product offered, Contact us.It needs to include the title, navigation buttons, content and graphics.LESSON 35MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTION : IMPLEMENTATION PHASEIMPLEMENTATION PHASEThe third phase of multimedia production is Implementation.In the Implementation Phase, the multimedia developers will convert adesign plan such as a Storyboard into a multimedia program. This is thephase where the multimedia program is produced.131
  16. 16. SMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1In the Implementation Phase, we useToolbook Assistant 2004 as the authoring toolto integrate the multimedia elements.IMPLEMENTATION OF PROGRAMSee demonstration from the CD.CREATING TEXTSInsert text in the presentation area. Look at the storyboard and create thetext as stated in the storyboard.See demonstration from the CD.INSERTING GRAPHICSWe can insert graphics by taking pictures using a digital camera, scanningprinted photo through a scanner and downloading pictures from the internet.See demonstration from the CD.INSERTING ANIMATIONAnimation can be applied on the graphics we have inserted.See demonstration from the CD.INSERTING AUDIOBefore inserting the audio we must make sure that the audio formatcomplies with the multimedia authoring software we are using.We can obtain audio files by recording our voices in a digital form,downloading audio from the Internet and creating our own audio file byusing a special software.See demonstration from the CD.132
  17. 17. INSERTING VIDEOSMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1We can get video files by using a digital video camera, downloading videofiles from the Internet, creating our own video files and buying ready-madevideos from multimedia publishers.See demonstration from the CD.INSERTING HYPERLINKAnother element that will apply in the Implementation Phase is theinteractivity, we let the user use our multimedia program according to theirneeds.To do so, hyperlinks are used. Each page can be linked through objects ortext in the presentation area.See demonstration from the CD.EXTENSION : COPYRIGHTSProducers and users of multimedia programs need to be aware of copyrightlaws and abide by them. Multimedia productions combine a variety ofelements from many different sources.It is important to know that the use of these materials must be legal anddoes not go against copyright laws. In most cases you have to pay to useother people’s material.It is also necessary to be aware of copyright issues for elements we use inthe Implementation Phase.Use royalty free audio, video, animation and graphic downloaded fromWeb sites.Learn more about copyrights on the Internet and Cyberlaw from thefollowing Web sites:
  18. 18. LESSON 36SMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTION : TESTING PHASETESTING PHASEThe Testing Phase begins after the ImplementationPhase.The Testing Phase involves multimedia developers.The purpose of testing is to ensure that the programruns correctly without errors.CHECKLISTSample of a Checklist used for a multimedia program.In this Checklist the aspects focused are content, interface and navigation.Multimedia developers usually testthe content, interface and navigationof multimedia program.The content refers to the goals ofthe program, text, graphics, audio,video, nimation, language used andhow informative the program is.For the interface, CASPER principlesare used for the items in themultimedia program.They are Contrast, Alignment,Simplicity, Proximity, Emphasis andRepetition.For Navigation, aspects tested are the navigation aids and consistency.134
  19. 19. GO THROUGH A CHECKLISTTest the program using the checklist.SMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1It is important to test the design and the functions of the multimediaprogram that we have developed.After testing, the program is then fixed.EXTENSION : ALPHA AND BETA TESTING STAGESWhen we test a multimedia program, we must make sure our product iserror-free.The Alpha testing is about testing the newlydeveloped product at the developers site.Then, a group of selected users would test therevised product at their computers.This type of testing is known as Beta testing.After that, the final release of the product will be delivered to the targetusers.135
  20. 20. LESSON 37SMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTION : EVALUATION PHASEEVALUATION PHASEThe Evaluation Phase begins after the Testing Phase. Selected users areinvolved in the evaluation of multimedia programs.The Evaluation Phase focuses on overall presentation and effectiveness ofthe multimedia.EVALUATION FORMEvaluation of the product needs to be evaluated in 2 aspects: content anduser interface.In the presentation of the contents, allitems are complete and all key ideashave been included.A suitable introduction, reason, effect,prevention and conclusion make upthe key ideas of the content.A good user interface will haveconsistency, clarity, context, navigationand flexibility of the multimediaprogram.The Evaluation Form has features thatallow selected users to check themultimedia program. They can give theirremarks based on the features.See demonstration from the CD.136
  21. 21. LESSON 38SMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTION : PUBLISHING PHASEBefore publishing the multimedia program, we need to test and evaluate theprogram thoroughly to ensure they are free from error.We also need to confirm the program is finalised and there would not be anymodifications and changes.PUBLISHING PHASEThe Publishing Phase is the last phase in a multimedia production. Generally,we have two options of mediums used in delivering multimedia contents.First, multimedia can be delivered throughWeb pages. Thus, we can package ourmultimedia program to be a Web-basedmultimedia.Secondly, multimedia can be deliveredthrough compact discs.PRODUCING A MULTIMEDIA CDBy using the AutoPackager wizard, multimedia developers are able to gatherall the necessary multimedia files such as audio, graphics and video into aninstallation set.The installation set makes the "Say NOTo Drugs" program run automatically.See demonstration from the CD.137
  22. 22. SMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1PRODUCING A CD, CD COVER AND CD LABELIn the Publishing Phase, the process of producing a CD and its cover is done.Multimedia developers require a CDwriter to produce a multimedia CD.Use the software that comes with the CDwriter to produce the CD.See demonstration from the CD.Use the software that comes with the CDwriter to produce the CD cover and CDlabel.See demonstration from the CD.138
  23. 23. CASING FOR PACKAGINGSMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1In this phase, the casing for packaging also needs to be considered. Here isan example of a CD jewel case. It is a three-piece plastic case that usuallycontains a compact disc along with an insert for a CD cover and an inlay.CD sleeves are another popular solutionfor storing CDs.EXTENSION : DUPLICATION AND REPLICATIONThe first step to be taken in duplication or replication of CDs is to have amaster copy of the program. A CD-ROM Writer or a DVD-ROM Writer is moresuitable for duplication.139
  24. 24. LESSON 39SMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1If many copies need to be produced, then thereplication process should be taken. It reducescost and time.The types of equipment involved in replicationare recorders, tower, automated, copies, CDprinters and other packaging equipment.Replication of CDs are normally done by anestablished replication factory.PRODUCE AN INTERACTIVE EDUCATIONAL MULTIMEDIAPROJECTTo produce a multimedia project,we need to undergo a series ofsteps. We must go through theAnalysis Phase to define our projecttitle.We need to gather the materialssuch as text, graphics, audio, videoand animation.We use Toolbook Assistant 2004 as the authoring tool to create amultimedia program.We need to test our program.We also need someone to evaluate the program and give feedback.Once we are satisfied with the program, we can use a CD writer to producea CD.PRODUCING A MULTIMEDIA PROGRAMCo-curriculum activities are important to students. Students will need tojoin a society, a sports club and a uniformed body.As you analyse the problem faced by students, you found that students haveproblems in selecting suitable co-curriculum activities for themselves140
  25. 25. SMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1One of the causes of the problems is that there is not enough promotiongiven to the students on co-curriculum activities.Being in the Reporters’ Club, you need to produce a multimedia program forthe club. This program will promote the club and you will be able to recruitnew members.Based on the problem analysis, we write the Problem Statement and aProposal.DESIGNING THE MULTIMEDIA PROGRAMIn the Design Phase, the Flow Chart and Storyboard are used.The Flow Chart will show the flow of theprogram.141
  26. 26. Multimedia developers will provide the Storyboard.MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTION TEAMSMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1A multimedia production team consists of a Project Manager, Subject MatterExpert (SME), Graphic Artist, Audio-Video Technician, Instructional Designerand Programmer.142
  27. 27. PREPARE RESOURCESSMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1We need to prepare our resourcesbefore the project begins.Our main resource for content matter isin text form. Most of the time, thiscomes through the Storyboardsprovided by the content writers.Other sources for text would be fromthe Internet, school textbooks andother reference books in the market.We can use the ready made animation tools provided by the multimediaauthoring software. Besides this, free animation can be downloaded from theInternet.We can gather graphics by taking pictures with digital cameras, scanningprinted photos with scanners and downloading pictures from the Internet.Firstly, we must confirm that our audio resources comply with the audioformats of the multimedia authoring software that we are using.We can obtain audio files by recording voice overs in digital form,downloading audio from the Internet and creating our own audio files byusing audio editing software.We can gather video resources by using digital video cameras, downloadingvideo files from the Internet, creating our own video files and buying readymade video from multimedia publishers.143
  28. 28. IMPLEMENTATION PHASESee demonstration from the CD.SMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1APPLY MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTION PHASESAfter you have completed your multimediaprogram, you can use the checklist to view yourprogram.Test the functionality of your program. Seewhether your program fulfills the criteria in theChecklist. If the multimedia program has problems,fix and repair it.After testing, you can ask your friends to help youevaluate your program. It is advisable to let otherpeople such as your teacher, club advisor or yourprincipal to evaluate your program.When everything is finalised, you can proceed topackage your CD by using Autopackager. You needto use a CD writer to produce the multimediaprogram. You can also design your CD cover andCD label.144
  29. 29. SMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1EXTENSION : WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT?Project management is about managing resources. There must be enoughresources for the project to finish on time. These resources must also bewithin budget. The satisfaction of the end user should be the final aim ofproject management.Projects are planned to be completed within a period of time. Projectmanagement can be divided in this way:Division into sub-tasksThis means breaking down the overall task into a series of sub-tasks.Team allocationPeople with different skills are brought together to work as a team.Working in teams means that the expertise of individuals can be groupedtogether. Ideas can be shared and developed dynamically.LESSON 40INTRODUCTION TO IMMERSIVE MULTIMEDIAINTRODUCTION TO IMMERSIVE MULTIMEDIAThe history of Immersive Multimedia began withthe concept of Virtual Reality.In the late 1960s, the desire of computerscientists and artists was to create, digitally-made ‘near-to-reality’ experiences throughInteractive Multimedia.This became known as Virtual Reality. VirtualReality, today, is a computer-createdenvironment that a user can experience throughthe senses of sight, hearing and touch.Immersive Multimedia is a combination ofmultimedia elements and interactivity in VirtualReality.145
  30. 30. SMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1EXAMPLE OF IMMERSIVE MULTIMEDIAEducationMedical students today can perform surgicaloperations on virtual patients.This enhances learning as these students canfreely practice doing many operations withoutany risks.BusinessVirtual tours give you a 360 degree view ofphysical space. These tours providecustomers with a detailed viewingexperience.Customers can navigate through theenvironment as if they are taking a walk-through tour.Come of these virtual tours even allowcustomers to add their own design.Immersive Multimedia is very useful for property agents and hotels.EntertainmentVideo games like the Star Wars, Ages ofEmpire II, Worldwide Soccer Manager andThe Sim2 brings its players to take ondifferent roles and live in differentenvironments and lifestyles.Another popular application in entertainmentis "Home for PlayStation3". "Home for PlayStation3" is where the userbecomes a resident in a 3D virtual world. Thisvirtual world has its own population, socialactivities and virtual lands where theresidents can own and live in.146
  31. 31. EXTENSION : VRMLSMK Sultan Yahya Petra 1VRML, also pronounced as ‘ver – mul’, isthe term for Virtual Reality ModelingLanguage. VRML is a programming language used tocreate 3D interactive graphics orenvironments for use on the Internet,such as virtual galleries and virtualgaming.It is also used to develop multimedia presentations where users can interactwith animation, sound, lighting and other objects in a virtual world.147