2 hrly eb ch 08 customer interface


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2 hrly eb ch 08 customer interface

  1. 1. E-Commerce Customer Interface
  2. 2. Customer Interface
  3. 3. Agenda            Introduction The seven design elements of the customer interface The alternative “look and feel” approaches to design The five content archetypes Be concerned with community The levers used to customize a site Types of communication a firm maintains with its customer base Firms connect with other businesses The alternative pricing models of commerce archetypes Case studies: Palm Conclusion
  4. 4. Quote  "On the Internet, ease of use comes first and transfer of money comes second. Revenues on the Web are determined almost completely by usability."  Jakob Nielsen, The Economist , April 28, 2001
  5. 5. Introduction   The customer interface is the virtual representation of a firm's chosen value proposition Seven design elements of the customer interface (7 Cs)  Context  Content  Community  Customization  Communication  Connection  Commerce
  6. 6. 7 Cs of the customer interface     Context  Site’s layout and design. [how] Content  Text, pictures, sound, and video that the website contains. [what] Community  The way that the site enables user-to-user communication. [Shop with a friend] Customization Sites ability to tailor itself to different users or to allow users to personalize the site.
  7. 7. 7 Cs of the customer interface  Communication  The way the site enables site-to-user [email notification], user-to-site[customer service request], or two-way communication [instant messaging] Connection  Degree that site is linked to other sites.  Commerce  Site’s capability to enable commercial transactions. Sale of goods and services on the site. 
  8. 8. 7Cs of the Customer Interface Context Content Text, pictures, sound and video that web pages contain Site’s layout and design Commerce Site’s capabilities to enable commercial transactions Community The ways sites enable user-to-user communication Connection Customization Site’s ability to selftailor to different users or to allow users to personalize the site Degree site is linked to other sites Communication The ways sites enable siteto-user communication or two-way communication
  9. 9. Business Model Business Model Individual Supporting FIT Context Context Content Content Community Communication Communication Customization Customization Consistent Reinforcement Commerce Commerce Connection Connection
  10. 10. Online and Offline Integration of the 7Cs The integration of online and offline strategies is important to success: Context Polo.com Both online and offline stores appear simple and elegant. Community Both the site and the store attempt to create a culture surrounding the product offering. Commerce Both storefronts enable and facilitate commerce. Communication Online sales help is available, just like in stores. Connection Polo is very independent in both formats, with few links on the website and no apparent in-store relationships. Content Same clothes, same prices, similar selection. Ralph Lauren, Madison Ave., NY Customization The online shopping experience is more customizable (registration, shopping cart, etc.) than the offline experience.
  11. 11. 1-Context   The context of a website captures its aesthetics and functional look-and-feel Dimensions of Context  Function Refers to the organization and accessibility of information  Section Breakdown is the way the site is organized into subcomponents    Linking Structure enables users to move easily between sections Navigation Tools facilitate how the user moves through the site Site Performance is measured in terms of speed, reliability, platform independence, media accessibility and usability
  12. 12. What is Archetypes?   the original pattern or model of which all things of the same type are representations or copies prototype; also : a perfect example
  13. 13. Context (Cont’d)  Aesthetics Refers to the visual characteristics of a site    Color Scheme refers to the colors used throughout the site Visual Themes help to tell the story portrayed across the site Context Archetypes  Aesthetically Dominant: Emphasis is on the look-and-feel of the site. This type of site makes heavy use of visual elements  Functionally Dominant: Emphasis is on the display of textual information. This type of site limits the visual design to a minimum  Integrated: Balance of form and function. These sites have a clear and appealing theme that support the underlying graphics
  14. 14. Form vs. Function — The Design Context Frontier The age old argument of form vs. function is being changed by the Web: High Integrated Aesthetically Dominant Aesthetic/ Form Frontier is Frontier is gradually gradually moving outward moving outward as technology as technology advances advances Low Functionally Dominant Low High Function
  15. 15. Aesthetic Example — KMGI.com High form, low function: The KMGI approach used to make heavy use of visual elements, but lacked performance capability. BEFORE Now, KMGI has integrated more functionality into its site, while still maintaining some of the strong visual elements. AFTER
  16. 16. Functional Dominant — @Brint.com Low form, high function: Brint.com assumes its users have little need for visual elements or themes and instead seek ease of use and plentiful information: Notice the Notice the plethora of plethora of links links The site is The site is also textalso textladen laden
  17. 17. Integrated Approach Example — Patagonia.com Patagonia’s integrated approach is a balance of form and function that creates an attractive and easy-to-use interface: The links, for instance, are both textual and graphical
  18. 18. The 7Cs of CarPoint CarPoint takes a predominantly functional approach to the context of the site: The site is informationThe site is informationintensive with lots of intensive with lots of links and options to links and options to access other parts of the access other parts of the site. site. Visually, the site’s graphics Visually, the site’s graphics denote the theme of the denote the theme of the value proposition; even if value proposition; even if there were no words, there were no words, one could still derive that one could still derive that this is a site devoted to this is a site devoted to car sales. car sales. Functionally, the site Functionally, the site appears to have appears to have adequate speed, adequate speed, reliability and usability. reliability and usability.
  19. 19. 2-Content  Content   Text, pictures, sound, and video that the website contains. Dimensions of Content     Offering Mix: product, information, services  Less emphases on information or services Appeal Mix: promotional & communication  Cognitive: functional aspects eg: low price  Emotional: affect of product or brand; humor or stories Multimedia Mix: text, audio, images, video Content Type: time sensitive vs. reference
  20. 20. Dimensions to Content There are four key dimensions to content, each carrying choices about how to convey the site’s content:: Dimension Dimension Offering Mix Offering Mix Products Choices Appeal Mix Appeal Mix Cognitive functional, low price, availability, etc. Information Services Multimedia Multimedia Mix Mix Content Type Content Type Text Current Audio Image Emotional humor, warmth, stories, etc. Video Reference Graphics
  21. 21. Content Archetypes      Superstore Based Category Killer Mix Specialty Store Information Dominant Market Dominant on Offering
  22. 22. Five Contents Archetypes    Superstore  one-stop shop where a customer can find a wide range of goods in multiple categories. Category killer  exclusively provide products and services by specific products or by a customer-need category. Specialty store (Offering Dominant): focuses on exceptional quality and exclusivity while selling single or multiple products.
  23. 23. Superstore Example — Amazon.com One-stop shop where the customer can find a wide range of goods in multiple product categories: Note the array Note the array of product of product categories on categories on the site. the site.
  24. 24. Category Killer Example — Petsmart.com Exclusively provides products and services by specific product or by a customerneeds category: Again, note the Again, note the categories; categories; rather than rather than being broad, being broad, they focus on a they focus on a single vertical. single vertical.
  25. 25. Specialty Store Example — Frontgate.com Focuses on exceptional quality and exclusivity while selling single or multiple categories of products: The site offers a The site offers a broad array of broad array of products, but products, but they are all highthey are all highend, premium end, premium quality products quality products
  26. 26. Contents Archetypes   Information Dominant  focus heavily on information, a subset of these sites focuses on entertainment as well. Market Dominant  do not directly offer goods or services for sale but create a market where buyers and sellers congregate to conduct transactions.
  27. 27. Information-Dominant Example — Business 2.0 Organize and house vast archives of information and provide tools to the customer to explore areas of interest and find answers to specific questions: “New economy, “New economy, new rules, new new rules, new leaders” — this leaders” — this site is focused site is focused entirely on entirely on providing timely providing timely information to information to business leaders business leaders
  28. 28. Offering-Dominant Archetypes Multiple Number of Product Categories Single Superstore Specialty Store Category Killer Broad Narrow Depth of Product Line
  29. 29. Market-Dominant Example — PlasticsNet.com Create markets where buyers and sellers congregate to conclude transactions: This site creates This site creates an online market an online market for the plastics for the plastics industry; note the industry; note the supplier supplier information and information and product specs product specs available available
  30. 30. Content Archetypes vs. Offering Types Content Archetype Physical Product Information Service Superstore Walmart.com CEOExpress.com IBMSolutions.com Category Killer Petsmart.com DowJones.com Schwab.com Specialty Frontgate.com tnbt.com Tradex.com Census.gov IFilm.net Digitalthink.com PlasticsNet.com VerticalNet.com Monster.com Information and Entertainment Market Maker
  31. 31. 3-Community    Community includes a feeling of membership in a group along with a strong sense of involvement and shared common interests Community refers to the interaction between site users Dimensions of Community  Interactive Communication: Users can directly exchange responses with one another in real time via Chat, Instant Messaging, Message Boards or Member-to-Member e-mails  Non-interactive Communication: Site presents static information and only allows unidirectional communication with users
  32. 32. Communities — Elements, Types and Benefits Elements of Community •• Cohesion Cohesion •• Effectiveness Effectiveness •• Help Help •• Relationships Relationships •• Language Language •• Self-Regulation Self-Regulation Types of Communities Just Friends Just Friends Member Outcomes: Participation and Benefits Degree of Degree of Participation Participation Enthusiasts Enthusiasts Friends in Friends in Need Need Need Fulfillment Need Fulfillment •• Inclusion Inclusion Players Players •• Mutual Influence Mutual Influence Traders Traders •• Shared Emotional Shared Emotional Experiences Experiences
  33. 33. Elements of community Six criteria.  Cohesion  Sense of group identity and sense of belonging to the group.  Effectiveness  Impact of group on member’s life  Help  Perceived ability to ask for and receive help
  34. 34. Elements of community    Relationships  Likelihood of individual interaction and friendship. Language  The prevalence of specialized language. Self-Regulation  The ability of the group to police itself.
  35. 35. Types of Communities   Just Friends—social Enthusiasts, shared interests     Community of Practice Friends in need, support groups Players, games Traders
  36. 36. Degrees of Participation    Passives, look but don't post Actives, participate in topics created by others Motivators, create topics, plan activities   Hosts Caretakers or moderators, keep order
  37. 37. Member benefits  Need fulfillment: emotional or information needs  Inclusion: encourage to participant in each others activities.   Mutual influence: Openly discuss issues. Shared emotional experiences
  38. 38. Intro. to Six Community Archetypes Each archetype will be defined and an example of each will be given: Bazaar Bazaar Theme Park Theme Park Club Club Shrine Shrine Theatre Theatre Cafe Cafe
  39. 39. Archetypes of CommunityCommunity Classification    Bazaar  allow users to wander through a number of interest areas but does not provide any means for users to interact with one another. Yahoo games Theme Park  focus on finite number of interest areas that are categorized by categories and sub categories Club  highly focused on only one area of interest and promotes a considerable amount of interaction among members.
  40. 40. Archetypes of Community    Shrine  highly focused community with minimal interactions between members. Intensely personal rather than public eg: biographies of TV shows Theater  focused in a particular area but allows for moderate interaction among members. Café  focuses on a common area of interest but provides considerable interaction among members.
  41. 41. Bazaar Example — Yahoo Games Community that allows users to wander through a vast number of interest areas but does not provide any means for users to interact: The site offers a wide The site offers a wide collection of games collection of games that can be played with that can be played with other users, but other users, but community is not a community is not a priority; the elements priority; the elements of community are not of community are not present (cohesion, present (cohesion, effectiveness, etc.). effectiveness, etc.).
  42. 42. Theme Park Example — VoxCap.com Community that focuses on a finite number of interest areas that are organized by categories and subcategories: This site encourages This site encourages activism on world activism on world and community and community issues, but it is issues, but it is activism that is the activism that is the theme. theme.
  43. 43. Club Example — Gillette Women’s Cancer Connection Community that is highly focused on one area of interest and promotes a considerable amount of interaction among members: The most The most prominent link prominent link on the site on the site encourages encourages member member communication communication on message on message boards boards
  44. 44. Shrine Example — The Unofficial Cheers Website Highly focused community with minimal interaction between members: This site allows This site allows comprehensive comprehensive exposure to a exposure to a single topic (in single topic (in this case, a TV this case, a TV show) with no show) with no interaction interaction among users. among users.
  45. 45. Theater Example — iFilm.com Community that is focused in a particular area but allows for moderate interaction among members: Not as focused Not as focused as a “shrine,” this as a “shrine,” this site concentrates site concentrates on film, but still on film, but still allows for little allows for little interaction interaction among users. among users.
  46. 46. Cafe Example — Bolt.com Community that focuses on a common area of interest but also provides for considerable interaction among members: “Everything you need “Everything you need to speak your mind, to speak your mind, hang out, hook up... hang out, hook up... whatever” — this teen whatever” — this teen site allows for a high site allows for a high level of interaction level of interaction among its users. among its users.
  47. 47. 4-Customization   Customization refers to a site's ability to tailor itself to each user or to be tailored by the user Dimensions of Customization   Personalization: The user initiates and manages the customization process Tailoring by site: Software dynamically publishes unique versions of the site to address specific user's interests, habits and needs more appropriately  Tailoring based on past user behavior  Tailoring based on behavior of other users with similar preferences
  48. 48. Personalization by User Example — Mylook.com Enables the user to modify site content and context based on consciously articulated and acted-upon preferences: The first step in this The first step in this site’s customization site’s customization process is to process is to choose the choose the category with which category with which you are the best fit; you are the best fit; content will then be content will then be customized customized accordingly. accordingly.
  49. 49. Tailoring by Site Example — Amazon.com Enables the site to reconfigure itself based on past behavior by the user or by others with similar profiles: Without consciously Without consciously articulating articulating preferences, users preferences, users find that find that Amazon.com makes Amazon.com makes recommendations recommendations based on their past based on their past buying habits. buying habits.
  50. 50. 5-Communication   Communication refers to the dialogue between a site and its users Dimensions of Communication  Broadcast: One-way information exchange from organization to user. Broadcast communication can be in the form of mass mailing, FAQ, e-mail newsletters, content-update reminders and broadcast events  Interactive: Two-way communication between the organization and a user. Interactive communication can be in the form of ecommerce dialogue, customer service and user input  Hybrid: Combination of broadcast and interactive communication
  51. 51. Communication Archetypes  One-to-many, non-responding user   One-to-many, responding user    Seminar, chat, celebrity chat One-to-one, non-responding user   Survey, questionnaire, etc. One-to-many, live interaction   No need to respond Updates or reminders via e-mail One-to-one, responding user: order notices One-to-one, live interaction: LivePerson
  52. 52. 6-Connection with Other Businesses   Connection is the degree to which a given site is able to link to other sites Dimensions of Connection  Links to Sites: Links that take the user completely outside the home site and into a third-party site  Home Site Background: Links that take the user to a third-party site, but the home site is noticeable in the background  Outsourced Content: The site content is derived from third parties  Pathway of Connection: Refers to the links to access additional information   Pathway-out - links cause the user to completely exit website Pathway-in - links cause the retrieval of material from the same or other sites without exiting the current website
  53. 53. Dimensions of Connection Sites connect with other businesses in the following ways: Links Links Links can take the user completely outside of the home site % of Home Site Content % of Home Site Content %? What percentage of content originates from the home site and how much is outsourced? Home Site Background Home Site Background Outsourced Content Outsourced Content Links can take the user to a new site, but the home site is still in the background Pathway of Connection Pathway of Connection ? Does the site lead users to other sites, or does it simply retrieve information from outside sites? Site content is derived from third parties KEY Home site Connected Sites
  54. 54. Connection Archetype  Six alternative connection approaches       Destination site Hub site Portal site Affiliate Programs Outsourced contents Meta software
  55. 55. Connection (Cont’d)  Connection Archetypes  Destination Site: Provides almost exclusively site-generated content with very few links to other sites  Hub Site: Provides a combination of site-generated content and selective links to sites of related interests  Portal Site: Consists almost exclusively of links to a large number of other sites  Affiliate Programs: Directs users to affiliated websites through embedded links  Outsourced Content: Contains content generated by third parties  Meta-Software: Utilities and Plug-in software applications created to assist user in narrowly defined tasks
  56. 56. Intro. to Six Connection Archetypes Each archetype will be defined and an example of each will be given: Destination Destination Hub Hub Portal Portal Affiliate Affiliate Outsourced Content Outsourced Content Meta-Software Meta-Software PATHWAY-OUT PATHWAY-OUT Links lead the user outside Links lead the user outside the environment of the site; the environment of the site; links are absolute in that the links are absolute in that the user’s click causes an exit user’s click causes an exit from the original website. from the original website. PATHWAY-IN PATHWAY-IN Links are hybrid; the user’s Links are hybrid; the user’s click causes the retrieval of click causes the retrieval of material from the same or material from the same or other sites without exiting the other sites without exiting the current website. current website.
  57. 57. 7-Commerce   Commerce refers to the sale of goods, products or services on the site. Dimensions of Commerce Functional tools that are the commerce-enabling features of a website  Registration  Orders Through Affiliates  Shopping Cart  Configuration Technology  Security  Order Tracking  Credit-Card Approval  Delivery Options  One-Click Shopping 
  58. 58. Commerce (Cont’d)  Commerce Archetypes  Catalog Pricing: The price of goods and services are preset by the seller  Auction Pricing: Buyers bid against each other, and the highest bid wins the supplier's products or services  Reverse-Auction Pricing: Sellers bid against each other, and the lowest bid wins the buyer's business  Demand-Aggregation Pricing: Buyer demand for specific products is aggregated in order to achieve economies of scale  Haggle Pricing: Buyer and seller can negotiate over price
  59. 59. Archetypes of Commerce (Transaction Models) The following are Internet-based transaction models: Catalog Pricing Seller dictates price to buyer Demand Aggregation Auction Pricing Multiple buyers bid (seller chooses highest bid) Reverse Auction Multiple sellers bid (buyer chooses lowest bid) Haggle Pricing KEY Buyer demand is aggregate d to achieve economie s of scale Buyer Buyers and sellers negotiate Seller
  60. 60. The 7Cs of Palm.com Context Content Palm.com takes an integrated approach to the look and feel of its site; there are prominent graphics, but also functionality. Palm.com is an informationdominant site with all of its content created in-house. Commerce Community The Palm Store is located at Palm.com; hardware, software and peripherals can all be purchased. Palm.com has a community section with message boards, software exchange and other online user-to-user info. Connection Customization Palm.com provides links to a number of alternate providers of software products in a metasoftware environment. MyPalm allows users to personalize the site to handle all of their Palm data online. Communication Palm.com is a one-to-many nonresponding site; it sounds out updates on product info, but users response is limited.
  61. 61. Learning outcome       7 Cs of the customer interface in detail Critical factors in the layout (Function) The levers used to customize a site Dimensions of performance Dimensions of Connection Dimensions of Commerce