Reward and punishment


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Reward and punishment

  1. 1. KPP6044 Motivation & Self Efficacy[1]1.0 INTRODUCTIONThe use of rewards and reward systems are very common in schools. Teachers frequentlyuse systems of rewards in order to promote appropriate behaviors and to increaseacademic output (Akin-Little & Little, 2009). Many questions remain about theeffectiveness of rewards. Indeed, the important question is no longer whether rewards areeffective or ineffective as it was a decade or so ago (Cameron & Pierce, 1994; Cameron,2001; Deci, Ryan, and Koestner, 2001). Rather, assuming that teachers will use rewards,the question now is, how should rewards be used so that they are not harmful over time(Brophy, 2004; Lepper & Henderlong, 2000)? For whom and under what conditions arerewards effective? What are the long-term effects of rewards? What conditional aspectsof rewards need to exist in order to increase intrinsic motivation?Introduced by B.F. Skinner, punishment has a more restrictive and technical definition.Along with reinforcement it belongs under the Operant Conditioning category. OperantConditioning refers to learning with either punishment or reinforcement. It is alsoreferred to as response-stimulus conditioning. In psychology, punishment is the reductionof a behavior via application of an adverse stimulus ("positive punishment") or removalof a pleasant stimulus ("negative punishment"). Extra chores or spanking are examples ofpositive punishment, while making an offending student lose recess or play privileges areexamples of negative punishment. The definition requires that punishment is onlydetermined after the fact by the reduction in behavior; if the offending behavior of thesubject does not decrease then it is not considered punishment. There is some conflationof punishment and aversive, though an aversive that does not decrease behavior is notconsidered punishment in psychology. Punishment is an aversive stimulus that occursafter some specific response and is intended to suppress that response. Punishment canbe anything that decreases the occurrence of a behavior: physical pain, withdrawal ofattention, loss of tangibles or activities, a reprimand, or even something others would findrewarding but the particular individual does not like. (Azoulay,1999)
  2. 2. KPP6044 Motivation & Self Efficacy[2]2.0 TYPES OF MOTIVATIONTwo types of motivation:(i) Intrinsic MotivationIt is motivation that comes from within students and helps them to become curious,inspired, and engaged (Deci, 1995 )(ii) Extrinsic MotivationFor many parents and educators, motivation means providing some reward, a prize, aprivilege, or a word of praise.(Kohn, 1999)3.0 OPERANT CONDITIONING THEORY
  3. 3. KPP6044 Motivation & Self Efficacy[3]Behaviorists believe that rewards reinforce desired behaviors because behavior is a resultof external responses to the environment. Indeed, rewards have been a hallmark of theoperant view of learning. The idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavioris the premise of behaviorism, including Skinner‟s stimulus response theory. Stimulusresponse theory presupposes that changes in behavior are the result of an individualsresponse to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment. A response produces aconsequence, either positive or negative. A behavior that is followed by a reinforcingstimulus (a stimulus that strengthens or weakens the behavior) has a greater probability ofoccurring again in the future. Conversely, a behavior that is no longer followed by areinforcing stimulus runs the risk of extinction (Skinner, 1950, 1953, 1954).4.0 TYPES OF REWARDS(i) “if-then“ means “If you do A, then you will get B.”This type of rewards is related to expected rewards. The expected rewards are, as theirname implies, rewards that are assumed to be available, such as receiving a high gradebecause one has studied very hard.(ii) “Now-that” means “Now that you have done A, you will get B.”This type of rewards refer to unexpected rewards. This rewards are given without notice;the recipient does not know that their behavior or action will be rewarded.There are conflicting findings concerning whether or not expected and unexpectedrewards are detrimental to intrinsic motivation and the desire to engage in a task. Itappears that giving an expected reward for an already high interest task may undermineintrinsic motivation for completing that task.However, giving a reward for a low interest task or a reward for high performance mayactually increase intrinsic motivation. Furthermore, unexpected rewards may notnegatively affect the decision to return to an interrupted task, whereas an expected rewardmay decrease that decision.
  4. 4. KPP6044 Motivation & Self Efficacy[4]5.0 DO REWARDS INCREASE MOTIVATION?According to reinforcement theory, rewards serve as rein forcers to increase thepossibilities of desired behaviors. While they appear to be effective, the use of rewardsand incentives in educational settings has generated considerable controversy (Cameron,Pierce, Banko, & Gear, 2005).Some researchers argue that once the rewards are no longer available, students‟ intrinsicmotivation is undermined (e.g. Lepper & Greene, 1975; Lepper, Greene, & Nisbett, 1973;Deci, Koestner & Ryan, 1999, 2001).(Kohn, 1999; Pink, 2009), external rewards may work for some people in some cases, butfor other people in different circumstances, not only might they fail to motivate, they mayserve as disincentives.Deci (1995) had college students play with a puzzle game called Soma for 30 minutes.One group was offered a financial reward for solving the puzzles. The second group wasoffered no rewards. The purpose was to determine if the rewarded students would playwith the puzzle on their own longer than the non-rewarded students. The results showedthat the rewarded students were far less likely to continue working on the puzzle on theirown than the non rewarded students. As Deci wrote, “Stop the pay, stop the play” .Kohn (1999) admitted that”*rewards do work in the short term. Students will perform for the prizes; however, theresult is not really motivation, but compliance.*rewards are not solutions, but tricks to bring out a desired behavior, and as such, theycover the problem rather than resolve it.* Rewards do not motivate students except for increasing their desire to gain morerewards.
  5. 5. KPP6044 Motivation & Self Efficacy[5]Others claim that any negative effect associated with the use of rewards is uncommon,and found only in isolated situations where other factors are also at work to counteracttheir effectiveness. According to these findings, rewards can increase not onlyperformance, but also a student‟s intrinsic motivation when used properly (e.g. Cameron,2001; Cameron & Pierce, 1994; Pierce, Cameron, Banko, & So, 2003).There are social-cognitive researchers such as Deci & Ryan, who advocate limiting theuse of rewards in the classroom, given potential harmful long-term outcomes (Deci,1972b; Deci & Ryan, 1992; Deci, Koestner, and Ryan, 1999a, b). There are thebehaviorists, who suggest that rewards can produce optimal learning outcomes if usedappropriately, and who largely oppose the view presented by the social-cognitiveresearchers (Cameron & Pierce, 1994; Eisenberger & Cameron, 1996).Bandura (1997) suggested that intrinsic motivation can be increased by performance-contingent rewards because they lead people to believe they are competent. In contrast,rewards that are given for vaguely set standards or for participating in a task willundermine intrinsic motivation (Eisenberger et al., 1999a) because the reward is notlinked directly to performance, which in turn will not produce competence. Mostresearchers would agree that simply giving rewards without thought as to how they aredelivered and what they are delivered for will undermine intrinsic motivation (Deci &Ryan, 1985a; Eisenberger et al., 1999a; Witzel & Mercer, 2003). In sum, when rewardsconvey task importance and are presented for meeting or exceeding a specific standard,perceptions of competence can be enhanced and subsequently intrinsic motivation.
  6. 6. KPP6044 Motivation & Self Efficacy[6]6.0 GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE REWARDS (PRAISE)Effective Praise Ineffective Praise1. Is delivered contingently 1. Is delivered randomly orunsystematically2. Specifies the particulars of theaccomplishments2. Is restricted to global positive reaction.3. Shows spontaneity, variety, and other signs ofcredibility; suggests clear attention to thestudents accomplishment.- “you earned the honor of being class leader nextweek for accomplishing level 2 of the rubric, yourbest work yet.”3. Show bland uniformity, which suggest aconditional response made with minimalattention.4. Rewards attainment of specified performancecriteria.- The positive effect were not found whenchildren were rewarded only for taskparticipation or task completion.- When rewards are given only for studentsparticipation, the importance of progressor improvement is not emphasized.4. Rewards mere participation, withoutconsideration of performance process oroutcome.5. Provide information to the students about theircompetence or the value of their accomplishment.5.Provides no information at all or givesstudents information about their status.6.Orients students towards better appreciation oftheir own task –related behaviour and thinkingabout problem solving.6. Orients students toward comparingthemselves with others and thinking aboutcompeting.7. Use students ‘ own prior accomplishment as thecontext for describing present accomplishment7. Uses accomplishment of peers as thecontext for describing students presentaccomplishment.8. Is given in recognition of noteworthy effort orsuccess at difficult task.8. Is given without regard to the effortexpand or the meaning of theaccomplishment.9. Attributes success to effort and ability, implyingthat similar successes can be expected in thefuture.9. Attributes success to ability alone or toexternal factors such as luck or easy task.
  7. 7. KPP6044 Motivation & Self Efficacy[7]10. Foster endogenous attributions (students thatthey expand effort on the task because they enjoythe task and /or want to develop task relevantskills)Foster exogenous attributions (studentsbelieve that they expand effort on the taskfor external reasons- to please theteacher, win a competition11. Focuses students ‘ attention on their own taskrelevant behavior.11. Focuses students’ attention on theteacher as external authority figure who ismanipulating them12.Foster appreciation of and desirableattributions about task relevant behavior after theprocess is completed12. Intrudes into the ongoing process,distracting attention from task relevantbehavior.7.0 APPLICATION OF REWARDS IN EDUCATION(1) Is delivered contingently.Pairing a piece of candy (tangible reward) or verbal praise (intangible reward) withcompleting a class assignment may enhance performance of the class assignment andcause participants to feel competent because they completed the assignment.(2) Specifies the particulars of the accomplishments.That is, to be told “You‟re a good test taker.” (the personal attribute is test taking) versus“You did a good job on this test.” (the performance is a “good job” on the test) can bedetrimental to personality functioning and can decrease interest and performance.(3) Shows spontaneity, variety, and other signs of credibility; suggests clear attention tothe students accomplishment.- “you earned the honor of being class leader next week for accomplishing level 2 of therubric, your best work yet.”
  8. 8. KPP6044 Motivation & Self Efficacy[8](4) Rewards attainment of specified performance criteria.An intangible reward needs to be linked with performance, and not personal attributes.The positive effect were not found when children were rewarded only for taskparticipation or task completion.(5) Provide information to the students about their competence or the value of theiraccomplishment.By linking rewards to highest performance on a specific task or job, participants viewedthe job as more interesting because performing well was highly valued.(6) Orients students towards better appreciation of their own task –related behaviour andthinking about problem solving.Rewards may increase achievement for simple learning tasks (i.e. spelling tests) versusachievement of more advanced tasks (i.e. intelligence tests). When rewards are givenonly for students participation, the importance of progress or improvement is notemphasized.(7) Use students „ own prior accomplishment as the context for describing presentaccomplishment.Individuals will stop performing if they perceive themselves as being undercompensatedwith relation to their efforts (input). However, if they feel unjustly overcompensated,(higher compensation to input ratio), they will continue to perform.(8) Is given in recognition of noteworthy effort or success at difficult task.Research has also shown that expected rewards given for engagement in a novel activitycan decrease intrinsic motivation when compared to an unexpected reward given for thesame novel task (Lepper & Greene, 1975). Expected rewards can also decrease taskinterest for individuals already showing high interest in the task and can undermine taskperformance (Loveland)
  9. 9. KPP6044 Motivation & Self Efficacy[9](9) Attributes success to effort and ability, implying that similar successes can beexpected in the future.Rewards may enhance feelings of competence and when linked to high performance (i.e.obtaining 4/5 correct answers versus obtaining 2/5 correct answers), they makeindividuals feel good about their performance. Furthermore, expected rewards may alsoenhance task interest for low interest tasks because the reward calls attention to the taskand may make the task more desirable to individuals who were not previously interestedor motivated to complete it .(10) Foster endogenous attributions (students that they expand effort on the task becausethey enjoy the task and /or want to develop task relevant skills)In school systems, grading procedures could be viewed as falling under the inequitycategory. If the grading is normative (comparing one individual‟s scores to their peers),only a small amount of students will receive the highest grades and not everyone willreceive high marks due to individual differences. Both intrinsically motivated low andhigh performers strive for good grades and subsequently alter their behavior to obtainthese marks (i.e. study more). Although low performers may not always achieve the samemarks as their high performing peers, they still have a chance to get high scores and maybe intrinsically motivated to obtain these. Thus, inequity in grading procedures may notbe detrimental to intrinsic motivation because it causes everyone to strive for highperformance(11) Focuses students „ attention on their own task relevant behavior.Reward have also been found to increase the amount of time spent on more difficult tasksversus easier tasks (Gear, 2008).(12) Foster appreciation of and desirable attributions about task relevant behavior afterthe process is completed.Performance-contingent rewards are given for a specific level of performance. Rewardsare given for meeting or exceeding some set standard (Ryan et al., 1983). Intrinsic
  10. 10. KPP6044 Motivation & Self Efficacy[10]motivation can flourish when a reward is presented in such as manner as to convey thetask‟s importance or relevance, or fulfills an individual‟s needs, wants, or desires.Students were showing greater achievement on the math tasks when given a reward forcompletion of the math task (McGinnis et al., 1999).8.0 GUIDELINES FOR EXTRINSIC REWARDS1) Sufficient RewardsAvoid “scarcity of rewards” where only a few students get all of the reward includinglow achievers. For example: “students of the month”2) Rewards for improvement .When giving rewards, keep the focus on improvement rather than on ability. Forexample: rather than always giving awards only to those who make the highest grade,establish a reward system whereby students are routinely recognize for a ”personal best”or individual improvement.3) Getting startedExtrinsic rewards can be used to get children started in an activity where there may not bemuch initial interest. If extrinsic rewards can be used to start children reading or playingan instrument, they may begin to experience new sources of motivation and enjoymentfrom the activity itself.4) Fade out extrinsic rewardsWhen extrinsic rewards are used, gradually diminish them, shifting the focus to a moreintrinsic one when possible. This often happens when students gain competence in anarea, and this increase ability becomes more satisfying than the rewards.5) Public rewards
  11. 11. KPP6044 Motivation & Self Efficacy[11]For example, use of charts reporting students accomplishment. All students who meet thedesired criteria , such as passing a state-required proficiency test, could be givenrecognition6) Combine rewards with other motivational strategies.Rewards have been combined with other motivational strategies such as goal setting. Thecombination of rewards and goal setting provided maximum success for the students9.0 IMPLICATION OF REWARDS1) Rewards have a negative impact on intrinsic motivation when they are givensimply for engaging in a task or in an attempt to control the behavior off the personwithout consideration of any standard of performance.2) When the reward received is greater than initially expected, a person is more likely toview him or herself as performing for the reward3) When students attribute the task outcome to their improving competency, a reward ismore likely to enhance intrinsic motivation rather than undermine it.4) When high intrinsic motivation is already present, be cautious about introducingextrinsic rewards because they may damped the intrinsic motivation
  12. 12. KPP6044 Motivation & Self Efficacy[12]10.0 TYPES OF PUNISHMENTThere are two types of punishment in operant conditioning:(i) positive punishment which is an experimenter punishes a response by presenting anaversive stimulus into the animals surroundings (a brief electric shock, for example).(ii) negative punishment which is a valued, appetitive stimulus is removed (as in theremoval of a feeding dish). As with reinforcement, it is not usually necessary to speakof positive and negative in regard to punishment.
  13. 13. KPP6044 Motivation & Self Efficacy[13]Punishment is not a mirror effect of reinforcement. In experiments with laboratory animalsand studies with children, punishment decreases the likelihood of a previously reinforcedresponse only temporarily, and it can produce other "emotional" behavior (wing-flapping inpigeons, for example) and physiological changes (increased heart rate, for example) that haveno clear equivalents in reinforcement. Punishment is considered by some behavioralpsychologists to be a "primary process" – a completely independent phenomenon of learning,distinct from reinforcement. Others see it as a category of negative reinforcement, creating asituation in which any punishment-avoiding behavior (even standing still) is reinforced.11.0 USING PUNISHMENTS IN SCHOOLSGregory S.(2012) through his research on four Chinese schools in the Philippines foundthat the most frequently used penalties are giving offenses (major and minor offenses –equivalent to deduction in the conduct grades), giving consequences or punishments(constructive punishments such as copying or reciting poems, etc.), detentions (stayingafter class), debits (grade deduction), and oral warning.A research by Andy Miller, Eamon Fergusson and Rachel Simpson(1998) among 49pupils, 6 teachers and 64 parents in UK found that the effective punishment perceivedby the parents are:(i) parents informed by their naughty behavior(ii) being sent to see the head teacher(iii)teacher explaining what is wrong with their behavior in private.They also indicated that the effective punishment perceived by the students are:(i) being stopped from going to the school trip(ii) parents informed by their naughty behavior(iii) teacher explaining what is wrong with their behavior in front of the class.The interview‟s data found that the respondent stated that he was indeed usingpunishment in the classroom. He also stated that frequency of using the punishment
  14. 14. KPP6044 Motivation & Self Efficacy[14]depends on the situation in the classroom. He mentioned that the use of punishment in theclassroom will be charged if his students began to cause problems. About the types ofpunishment used by respondent in classroom, he preferred to use reprimands, warningand a error‟s correction of a test / examination.From respondent‟s interview, punishment in an academic form was the most betterpunishment in motivating students in learning." If you want to make sure the punishment can motivate students, I think the punishmentshould be in academic‟s form e.g. if a student fails the test, we fine the student to write acorrection for example 10 times."Respondent also stated that the punishment more applicable to students in schools thatproblematic than a good school.12.0 IS PUNISHMENT EFFECTIVE?Currently, schools have different penalty policy in placed, but almost all of them haveone common goal which is to motivate students to learn. An effective rewards andpenalty system promotes positive behavior and regular attendance. It is the essentialfoundation for a creative learning and teaching environment.Punishment is most effective when it is presented immediately after a response, it cannotbe escaped, it is as intense as necessary and an alternative and desirable response isavailable to the student.( Gage, N.L. & David C. Berliner,1992). John W. Maag in hisarticle “Rewarded by Punishment: Reflection on the Disuse of Positive Reinforcement inSchools” found that punishment is an acceptable approach for managing student‟sbehavior because positive reinforcement was ignored and misunderstood because of astrong cultural ethos that encourages punishment.Educators nowadays are aware that giving penalties are counterproductive. Punishmenttends to generate anger, defiance, and a desire for revenge. Moreover, it also givesexample to the use of authority rather than reason and encouragement, thus this would
  15. 15. KPP6044 Motivation & Self Efficacy[15]tend to rupture the important relationship between adult and child (Kohn, 1994). Kohnalso indicate that punishment is the way of manipulating behavior that destroy thepotential for real learning because:(i) Is a way of trying to alter that child‟s behavior.(ii) It leads children to feel worse about themselves.(iii)Spoils the relationship between child and adultsDr. Amir Hassan Darwi(2009), lists out that punishment like scold in front of otherstudents can be done if the purpose of that punishment is to give warning to otherstudents not to repeat the same mistake.According Gage, N.L. & David C. Berliner,(1992), punishment is a weapon that can beas risky for the teachers as it is distasteful to the student. The frequent use of punishmentis a symptom of something wrong in teacher‟s approaches and methods in the total schoolsituation. It is a challenge for teacher to discover and correct the problem and to reducethe need for punishment.Baldwin & Baldwin in their book ”Behavior principles in everyday life” stated thatpunishment is an ineffective motivational strategy. Punishment generates a number ofworrisome and unintentional “side effects” including negative emotionality(crying,screaming, feeling afraid).Skinner(1953) noted that the use of punishment in school can lead to undesirable sideeffect such anxiety, anger and negative feelings towards the teacher. The negativefeeling may generalize towards the teacher and subsequently surface during otheractivities.The data from the interview found that respondent stated that the students in hisclassroom gives a good response when he punish them which is they will respond inaccordance to the instructions given to them. Respondents also disagreed thatpunishments bring a negative impact on student because he feels punishment is need tomake students easily controlled.
  16. 16. KPP6044 Motivation & Self Efficacy[16]" I don‟t think so because we have to look at the reality of our students. Studentnowadays are very different to the student in the past. Students are now more exposed tothings that are not good. So if the teacher is not firm and does not impose punishment, Ifear that these students will be difficult to control and this will give a lot of problems tothe teachers itself.. "Respondents also disagreed with the statement that the punishments can manipulatestudent‟s behavior. Respondent stated that the punishment given by the teacher is notintended to manipulate student‟s behavior but to create awareness among them about theoffense committed." Students are aware that the punishment meted out to them is the fault of their own ".13.0 CORPORAL PUNISHMENT(SPANKING)Ching, Hugo, A. B. (2010), mentioned that legal punishment involves the imposition ofsomething that is intended to be burdensome or painful, on a supposed offender for asupposed crime, by a person or body who claims the authority to do so. Punishmentinvolves the intentional infliction of pain or of something unpleasant on someone whohas committed a breach of rules by someone who is in authority, who has a right to act inthis way. Otherwise, it would be impossible to distinguish punishment from revenge.According to Dr. Amir Hassan Dawi(2009), physical punishment can be done if onlyother punishments like advice, scold and warning are fail. This physical punishmentshould be the last punishment to be considered. Dr. Amir Hassan Darwi also discussabout the rules on execute the physical punishment to students which are :(i) Teacher cannot be in emotional „s feeling when to punish student psychically.Punishing students in anger may results teacher did something worse.(ii) Physical punishment cannot be done in front of other‟s student because it willdecrease student‟s dignity.
  17. 17. KPP6044 Motivation & Self Efficacy[17](iii)Physical punishment should meet the requirements. Example the spank cannot bedone three times at once. Physical punishments that exceed the requirement can bedone if parents gave their permission.(iv)The good physical punishment is when it gave the student to feel pain and consciousbut not harm and have effect on student.14.0 THE ADVANTAGE OF PUNISHMENT TO STUDENTSFrom the interview, respondent agreed with questions which is the need for teachers toimpose punishment in the classroom? Among the purposes of punishment in theclassroom, disciplining students as indicated by the respondents . According torespondent , teacher cannot be too lenient with students because students will always usethe opportunities to do offense. The second purpose of punishment identified from therespondents is the control of a class. Respondent gave his opinion that the if there nopunishment imposed in the classroom ,teacher cannot afford to control the class whichwill bring to imperfections in learning and teaching‟s process." If the class is so noisy or students do not want to do exercises or homework, so there isno use for teacher to teach in the classroom.”According to respondent, the teacher must always be firm in the classroom so thatteaching‟s process will be smoothly without interruption.Between reward and punishment, respondent stated that both are equally important,especially in facing the students of this new era. Reward be given for enhance themotivation while punishment imposed for disciplining students.
  18. 18. KPP6044 Motivation & Self Efficacy[18]15.0 CONCLUSIONIn conclusion, rewards that are informational appear to produce the best outcome forenhancing intrinsic motivation and performance. Rewards that are expected can alsoenhance intrinsic motivation for low interest tasks or high performance. The effects ofrewards on intrinsic motivation can vary greatly depending upon the method ofpresentation and delivery.Punishment can take various forms in classroom discipline programs. Sometimes anevent is presented whenever the student shows an undesired behavior. A teacher mayreprimand a student, for example, each time that the student leaves her seat withoutpermission. In another form of punishment, the student may temporarily be removed to aless-reinforcing setting (e.g., by being sent to a time-out room for a 10 minute period ofseclusion) whenever she displays a negative behavior. In a type of punishment known asresponse-cost, a student has rewards, tokens, privileges, or other positive reinforces takenaway whenever he or she engages in a problem behavior. An example of response cost isa student who earns stickers for good classroom conduct having one sticker removedfrom her sticker chart for each episode of misbehavior. Teachers sometimes findpunishment to be effective as a classroom behavior management tool, especially in theshort term. Because punishment tends to rapidly stop problem behaviors, the teacher inturn is positively reinforced for using it.
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  20. 20. KPP6044 Motivation & Self Efficacy[20]Hugo, Adam Bedau (February 19, 2010). "Punishment, Crime and the State". StanfordEncyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved April 1, 2013.Kelly, S. (2008). What Types of Students‟ Effort Are Rewarded with High Marks? Sociology ofEducation, 81(1), 32–52. doi:10.1177/003804070808100102Kohn, A. (1994). The risk of rewards. Retrieved April 1, 2013, from, J.W.(2001). Rewarded By Punishment: Reflections On The Disuse Of PositiveReinforcement In Schools. Exceptional Children; Winter 2001; 67, 2; ProQuest ResearchLibrary pg. 173Matera.D.B. (2012). The Effects Of Rewards and Punishment on Motivation of The ElementarySchool Student. Walden UniversityMiller, A.,Ferguson, Eamonn,S. , Rachel(1998). The Perceived Effectiveness Of Rewards AndSanctions In Primary. Educational Psychology; March 1998; 18, 1; ProQuest ResearchLibrary pg. 55Peters, Richard Stanley (1966). Ethics and Education. pp. 267–268. JSTOR 3120772Radhakrishnan, P., Lam, D., & Ho, G. (2007). Giving University Students Incentives to doHomework Improves their Performance.Skinner, B. F. (1938) The behavior of organisms. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.