3 stages of development
There are three stages in the development of
The 1st stage occurred in 1930s. The term “Pragmatics”
was used at a the 1st time. It was the branch of
Semiology/semiotics= the study of signs.
In 1938, Carnap said that pragmatics should focus on
relationship between users, words and reference
In 1940, Charles Morris divided semiology into 3 parts:
syntactics/syntax, semantics and pragmatics.
Then, the 2nd stage: From 1950 to 1960: 3 philosophers:
Austin, Searle and Paul Grice established their theory
of Speech act and implicature theory.
The 3rd Stage: in 1977, Jacob L. Mey published the 1st
Journal of Pragmatics in Holland.
In 1983, Levinson wrote his book “Pragmatics” whereas
Geoffrey Leech wrote his “Principle of pragmatics”.
In 1988,the set up of International Pragmatics
Association (IPrA). This was a year which noted as a
year when pragmatics turned into an independent
Schools of Pragmatics
There are two schools of pragmatics: Br. And
Am.school and European School.
British and American school had a focus on sentence
structure and grammar: deictic
implicature, presupposition, speech and conversational
structure. It was called : Micro-pragmatics.
The European school had a wider focus. It focused on
macro-pragmatics scope like conversational
analysis, cultural anthropology, social linguistics and
psycholinguistics in the process of communication.