Political checkpoint


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Topic 1.3 Brunei's Traditional Political System (Administration)
Political checkpoint

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Political checkpoint

  1. 1. Political Checkpoint Objective: Explain the importance of political checkpoints in controlling the river population
  2. 2. Political Checkpoint • Definition: Political checkpoint are the centre of territorial administration Territorial administration: a geographical area where it is controlled by authority
  3. 3. At the beginning, political checkpoint were created at trading centres located at river mouth used by the Brunei’s Malays to control the Kedayan and Bisaya tribes
  4. 4. Kampung: A small area including small community / settlement along the rivers banks. Each of the community formed tiny political system. Daerah: Daerah made of several kampungs and spread along one or two rivers which flow into the mouth of a larger river Negeri: large administrative centres created at river mouth.
  5. 5. 1. To have better control of the human resources ►Control over the rivers meant control over natives ►The natives were important because they provided Brunei’s market with valuable forest product Why were the political checkpoint established?
  6. 6. 2. To collect taxes ►The natives provided the rulers with their main source of income ►The natives had to pay the Sultan and the Royal Family different types of taxes
  7. 7. Example of Political Checkpoint Pangkalan Balei (Kuala Balai) – controlled by Pengiran Pemancha
  8. 8. Example of Political Checkpoint Along the banks of Pangkalan Tarap – controlled by Pengiran Temenggong
  9. 9. Example of Political Checkpoint Southwest Borneo; Patusan (various representatives of the Sultan at Sekrang river live in the village)
  10. 10. Example of Political Checkpoint Kampung Kuching (A Bendahara, Pengiran Muda Hashim, resided there)
  11. 11. The Importance of Political Checkpoint Human Resourc es (natives) Provide forest product Pay revenue / taxes to the Sultan Source of income to the royal family To control
  12. 12. Brunei’s Malays river’s mouth (trading centre) Kedayan and Bisaya Located at to control