Pace of urbanisation in india

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Pace of urbanisation in india

  1. 1. SUBMMITED BY:TANVI GUJARATHI.AKSHATA HASE.SWAPNIL KANSE.AZIZUR KHAN.NIKHIL MEHTA.
  2. 2.  “Urban” in India is defined as a human settlement with a minimum population of 5000 persons, with 75% of the male working population engaged in non-agricultural activities and a population density of at least 400 persons per sq. km. Further, all statutory towns having a Municipal Corporation, Municipal Council or Nagar Panchayat as well as a Cantonment Board are classified as “URBAN”
  3. 3.  99% of the housing shortage of 24.7 million at the end of the 10th Plan pertains to the Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) and Low Income Groups (LIG) sectors. National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) 61st Round reports that the number of urban poor has risen by 4.4 million persons, between 1993-94 to 2004-05. From 12 in 1981 with 26.8% share of the total urban population, the number of million plus cities has increased to 35 in 2001 with 37% share of the total urban population.
  4. 4.  It is important to highlight the fact that the informal sector in urban areas is growing exponentially. In the decade 1991-2001, workers classified as “marginal workers” registered an increase of 360% as compared to an increase of only 23% for workers classified as “main workers.” As a consequence, the ratio of marginal workers to total workers increased from 2.2% in 1991 to 7.9% in 2001 The proportion of female workers to total workers rose from 14.3% in 1991 to 16% in 2001
  5. 5.  Itis important to highlight the fact that the informal sector in urban areas is growing exponentially. In the decade 1991-2001, workers classified as “marginal workers” registered an increase of 360% as compared to an increase of only 23% for workers classified as “main workers.” As a consequence, the ratio of marginal workers to total workers increased from 2.2% in 1991 to 7.9% in 2001. The proportion of female workers to total workers rose from 14.3% in 1991 to 16% in 2001
  6. 6.  The way to bring about a symbiotic development between rural and urban areas is by adopting “a Regional Planning approach.” In view of the fact that 50% of India’s population is forecasted to be living in urban areas by 2041, it is necessary to develop new integrated townships. Development of sustainable habitat is closely related to the adoption of ‘the Regional Planning approach’ while preparing Master Plans of towns/ cities, District Plans and Regional/Sub-Regional Plans. The new Habitat Policy reaffirms the importance of small and medium urban agglomerates/towns which have potential for future urban growth.
  7. 7.  Affordable Housing for All Spotlight on EWS Housing for promoting social inclusion Special focus on SC,ST,BC, Minorities & empowerment of women within ambit of urban poor
  8. 8.  The Cooperative Sector The Labour Housing sector The Employee Welfare Housing Sector The Employer Housing Sector ,and The Private Sector
  9. 9.  The new policy considers the 74th Amendment Act in terms of preparation of District Plans by District Planning Committees (DPCs) as a vital determinant of systematic urban planning.
  10. 10.  Facilitating accessibility to serviced land and housing with focus on economically weaker sections and low income group categories. Suitable restructuring for enabling both institutions at the State and Centre levels as well as the private sector for increasing supply of land.
  11. 11.  Addressing the special needs of women headed households, single women, working women and women in difficult circumstances in relation to housing serviced by basic amenities.
  12. 12.  Forging strong partnerships between public, private and cooperative sectors for accelerated growth in the Housing Sector and sustainable development of habitat
  13. 13.  Developing cities/towns in a manner which promotes a healthy environment, encouraging use of renewable energy resources and ensuring effective solid waste management in collaboration with persons involved in recycling activities. Protecting our cultural heritage and architecture as well as promoting traditional skills with suitable adaptation to modern technologies.
  14. 14.  Develop Greenfield towns & integrated urban housing extensions of existing towns with complementary infrastructure or Special Economic Zones (SEZs) with both FDI and national investments in housing and infrastructure. Ensurethat such fully integrated housing projects are well connected by MRTS corridors.
  15. 15.  Undertake research to respond to different climatic conditions with a focus on transition from conventional to innovative, cost effective and environment friendly technologies Intensify efforts for transfer of innovative technologies and materials from lab to field
  16. 16.  The Central Government will encourage and support the States to prepare a State Urban Housing and Habitat Policy and also a State Urban Housing & Habitat Action Plan In order to augment sustainable and affordable housing stock along with related infrastructure like water, drainage, sanitation, sewerage, solid waste management, electricity and transportation, the Action Plans of States/UTs should focus on accelerated flow of funds for housing (including various cost-effective slum-related options) and infrastructure
  17. 17.  The Ministry is introducing a new scheme for providing interest subsidy of 5% on housing loans by banks/HFCs & MFIs for EWS/LIG segments of society for construction of houses It is aimed at providing 400,000 Dwelling Units during the 11th Five Year Plan. The total interest subsidy requirements for the construction of 400,000 houses for EWS/ LIG segments financed during the next 4 years (2008-12) is projected at Rs. 1100 crores.
  18. 18.  Total cost of a Low Cost Sanitation Unit with superstructure is pegged at Rs.10,000 in plains & Rs.12500 in hilly or difficult terrains. Subsidy by Central Govt. is 75%; Subsidy by State Govt. is 15%; & Beneficiary contribution is 10%. Strong involvement of NGOs. Adoption of a Citywide Approach. Innovative Sanitation Systems. Allocation of Rs.600 crores for urban areas during the 11th Plan Period.
  19. 19. Mandatory (ULB Level) Mandatory (State Level) Adoption of double entry  Implementation of decentralisation system of accounting measures as envisaged in Constitution 74th Amendment Act Introduction of e-Governance  Rationalisation of Stamp duty to bring it down to no more than 5% within next 7 years Reform of property tax with GIS-based Tax Mapping  Enactment of Community Participation Law to Internal earmarking for basic institutionalise citizen services to the urban poor participation & Area Sabha Provision of basic services to  Assigning or associating elected ULBs with “city planning function” urban poor – Accountability platforms for parastatals
  20. 20.  Revision of bye-laws to streamline the approval process for construction Simplification of legal and procedural frameworks Introduction of Property Title Certification System in ULBs. Earmarking at least 20-25% of developed land for EWS and LIG category Computerised process of registration of land and property Revision of bye-laws to make water conservation measures in all building Bye- laws for reuse of recycled water Administrative reforms Structural reforms Encouraging private-public partnership
  21. 21.  Launching little entrepreneurial boats SEAS : Small Enterprise Advisory Services Advantages of Localisation Advantages of Solidarity : scale of production Matching demand for employment with supply of skilled workers, supervisors and managers Skill Development Mission & Non profit company for promotion of Skill Development : Private Sector Employment.
  22. 22.  Model guidelines from the Central Government, States to pass legislation for setting up a State Urban Regulator, Regulator to mediate disputes between ULBs and Parastatals & Regulator to ensure Provision of land at institutional rates for “no profit no loss” housing.
  23. 23.  CityDevelopment Plan, Master Plan, Spatial Dimension of Financial Investments, Role of Central ,State and Local Governments & Domestic Investment & FDI
  24. 24. A Tale of Two Cities, The Antyodaya Approach, BSUP Fund of each city & Special Development Plan for the Urban Poor of each city

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