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CHAPTER 4
SOUND
2
What is SOUND?
• Sound comprises the spoken word, voices, music and even noise.
• It is a complex relationship involving:
– a vibrating object (sound source)
– a transmission medium (usually air)
– a receiver (ear) and;
– a preceptor (brain).
3
4.1 The Power of Sound
• Sound pressure is measured in  dB (decibel)
• Sound waves are known as waveforms.
Something vibrates
in the air
Waves of pressure Ear drums will translate
these changes in wave
Forms as sound
4
Decibel Table
5
Example of Waveforms
PianoPiano
Pan flutePan flute
Snare drumSnare drum
6
Sound
• A pleasant sound has a regular wave pattern. The pattern is
repeated over and over.
 But the waves of noise are irregular. They do not have
a repeated pattern.
7
Characteristic of Sound Waves
• Sound is described in terms of two characteristics:
– Frequency (or pitch)
– Amplitude (or loudness)
8
Frequency
• Frequency is a measure of how many vibrations occur in one second.
This is measured in Hertz (abbreviation Hz) and directly corresponds to
the pitch of a sound.
– The more frequent vibration occurs the higher the pitch of the sound.
 Optimally, people can hear from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz (20 kHz)
 Sounds below 20 Hz are infrasonic
 sounds above 20 kHz are ultrasonic.
Low pitch High pitch
9
Amplitude
• Amplitude is the maximum displacement of a wave from an
equilibrium position.
– The louder a sound, the more energy it has. This means loud sounds have a
large amplitude.
 The amplitude relates to how loud a sound is.
Low amplitude High Amplitude
Quiet Loud
10
Characteristic of Sound Waves
distance
along wave
Cycle
Time for one cycle
Amplitude wavelength
11
4.2 The Power of Sound
• Audio in Macintosh and Windows
– Both Macintosh and Windows PC platform, have the
default system sounds
– MACINTOSH  Chu Toy, Glass, indigo, Laugh, Simple Beep
– WINDOWS PC  ding.wav, chimes.wav,
logoff.wav,start.wav
• Basic Recording Software
– Both MACINTOSH and WINDOWS have basic recording
software
12
Audio Recording Software
• Sound Recorders for Windows
– Both Macintosh and Windows PC platform have the default sound.
– This basic application could:
• Record our own sounds
• Edit & mix *.wav files
• Simple Splicing and assembly
• Increase volume & speed of *.wav files
• Reverse the sound.
• Add Echo effects
• Some XP Version also provide wav to mp3 conversion.
MACINTOSH WINDOWS
13
14
Basic Sound Recorder
Sound conversion
Basic Effects
15
Analogue to Digital Audio
Analogue audio
• The name for an electronic signal that carries its information of sound as
continuous fluctuating voltage value.
• non digital tape or audio tape recording of sound.
Digitizing
• the process of converting an analog signal to a digital one.
• A sound is recorded by making a measurement of the amplitude of the sound
at regular intervals which are defined by the "sample rate".
• The act of taking the measurement is often called "sampling" and each
measurement is called a "sample point".
16
Capture & Playback of Digital Audio
Air pressure
variations
Captured via
microphone
Air pressure
variations
ADC
Signal is
converted into
binary
(discrete form)
0101001101
0110101111
Analogue
to Digital
Converter
DAC
Convert
s back
into
voltage
Digital to
Analogue
Converter
17
Recording Audio Files
Recording Audio Files on the pc
Uses either:
i. Microphone
• connect microphone to the microphone port and record using sound
recorder
18
Recording Audio Files
ii. CD-ROM Drive
– Move music files from CD to hard drive or;
– Play the cd and then record using the sound recorder.
iii. Line-in
– pressing play on the audio source, which is connected to the
computer’s audio line-in socket. Record using the sound recorder.
Audio cable
Line in port
on the pc
19
4.3 Digital Audio
• Digital audio data is the representation of sound, stored in the form of
samples point.
• Quality of digital recording depends on the sampling rate, that is, the
number of samples point taken per second (Hz).
High Sampling Rate
Low Sampling Rate
Samples stored in digital
form
waveform
20
Digital Sampling
21
Digital Sampling
22
4.4 Digital Audio
• The three sampling frequencies most often used in multimedia are 44.1
kHz, 22.05 kHz and 11.025 kHz.
– The higher the sampling rate, the more the measurements are taken (better
quality).
– The lower the sampling rate, the lesser the measurements are taken (low
quality).
Low Sampling RateHigh Sampling Rate
23
4.4 Digital Audio
• Quality factors for digital audio file :
1. Sampling Rate
2. Sample Size (resolution)
• the number of bits used to record the value of a sample in a
digitized signal.
Sampling Rate Sample size
24
4.4 Digital Audio
• Other than that, it also depends on:
– The quality of original audio source.
– The quality of capture device & supporting
hardware.
– The characteristics used for capture.
– The capability of the playback environment.
25
4.4 Digital Audio
• More advanced Digital audio editing software:
– One of the most powerful and professional PC-based packages is a
tool called Sound Forge
http://www.sonicfoundry.com/
 Others audio editing software:
 COOL Edit Pro
 Gold Wave
 PROSONIQ SonicWORX
 Samplitude Studio
26
4.5 Midi Audio
• Musical Instrument Digital Interface
– Before there was a wide use of mp3 and high bandwidth network,
MIDI format audio is popular when an audio is required to be put on a
website.
– Provides a standardized and efficient means of conveying musical
performance information as electronic data.
– Is a easiest and quickest way to compose our own score.
• (provided we have knowledge of musical instrument and
composing)
– It is in the form of music score and not samples or recording.
27
Midi Audio: Requirements
• To make MIDI score, we need:
1. Midi keyboard / Midi keyboard software
2. Sequencer software
3. Sound synthesizer (built-in in to sound card)
28
Midi Keyboard
• MIDI keyboard is used to simplify the creation of music
scores (MIDI information)
– MIDI information is transmitted in "MIDI messages",
which can be thought of as instructions which tell a music
synthesizer how to play a piece of music.
– The synthesizer receiving the MIDI data must generate the
actual sounds.
29
Midi Sequencer
• A MIDI sequencer software lets us to record and edit MIDI data like a
word processor
– Cut and paste
– Insert / delete
30
Midi Audio Facts
• Since they are small, MIDI files embedded in web pages load and play.
• Length of a MIDI file can be changed without affecting the pitch of the
music or degrading audio quality.
• Working with MIDI requires knowledge of music theory.
31
Recording MIDI Files
Recording MIDI Files
• MIDI files can be generated:
– by recording the MIDI data from a MIDI
instrument (electronic keyboard) as it is played.
– by using a MIDI sequencer software application.
32
Audio File Formats
• MIDI
– *.MID, *.KAR, *.MIDI, *.SMF
• AUDIO DIGITAL
– WINDOWS  *.WAV
– MACINTOSH  *.AIFF
– UNIX  *.AU
– REALAUDIO  *.RA
– MPEG3  *.MP3
33
MIDI versus Digital Audio
• Advantages of MIDI over digital audio:
– MIDI files smaller that digital audio files.
– Because small file, MIDI files embedded in web
pages load and play more quickly.
– If MIDI sound source are high quality – sound
better.
– Can change the length of MIDI files without
changing the pitch of the music or degrading the
audio quality.
34
MIDI versus Digital Audio
• Disadvantages of MIDI over digital audio:
– Because MIDI data does not represent the sound
but musical instruments, playback will be accurate
only if the MIDI playback (instrument) is identical
to the device used in the production.
– Higher cost and requires skill to edit.
– Cannot emulate voice, other effects.
35
4.6 Factors considered before adding Sound to
MM Project
1. File formats compatible with multimedia authoring
software being used along with delivery mediums, must
be determined.
2. Sound playback capabilities offered by end user’s system
must be studied.
3. The type of sound, whether background music, special
sound effects, or spoken dialog, must be decided.
4. Digital audio or MIDI data should be selected on the
basis of the location and time of use.
36
Function of Audio
1. Content/ information
2. Background music
3. Ambience
37
Advantages & Disadvantages of Using
Audio
• Sound adds life to any multimedia application and
plays important role in effective marketing
presentations.
• Advantages
– Ensure important information is noticed.
– Add interest.
– Can communicate more directly than other
media.
38
Advantages & Disadvantages of Using
Audio
• Disadvantages
– Easily overused.
– Requires special equipment for quality
production.
– Not as memorable as visual media.
39
Summary
• There are two main types of digital audio
– Sampled audio
• Captured by sampling an analogue waveform at
a set rate
– MIDI data
• Instructions on how to perform some musical
composition
• Sampled audio requires more storage space than
MIDI information

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Understanding Sound Waves and Digital Audio Formats

  • 2. 2 What is SOUND? • Sound comprises the spoken word, voices, music and even noise. • It is a complex relationship involving: – a vibrating object (sound source) – a transmission medium (usually air) – a receiver (ear) and; – a preceptor (brain).
  • 3. 3 4.1 The Power of Sound • Sound pressure is measured in  dB (decibel) • Sound waves are known as waveforms. Something vibrates in the air Waves of pressure Ear drums will translate these changes in wave Forms as sound
  • 5. 5 Example of Waveforms PianoPiano Pan flutePan flute Snare drumSnare drum
  • 6. 6 Sound • A pleasant sound has a regular wave pattern. The pattern is repeated over and over.  But the waves of noise are irregular. They do not have a repeated pattern.
  • 7. 7 Characteristic of Sound Waves • Sound is described in terms of two characteristics: – Frequency (or pitch) – Amplitude (or loudness)
  • 8. 8 Frequency • Frequency is a measure of how many vibrations occur in one second. This is measured in Hertz (abbreviation Hz) and directly corresponds to the pitch of a sound. – The more frequent vibration occurs the higher the pitch of the sound.  Optimally, people can hear from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz (20 kHz)  Sounds below 20 Hz are infrasonic  sounds above 20 kHz are ultrasonic. Low pitch High pitch
  • 9. 9 Amplitude • Amplitude is the maximum displacement of a wave from an equilibrium position. – The louder a sound, the more energy it has. This means loud sounds have a large amplitude.  The amplitude relates to how loud a sound is. Low amplitude High Amplitude Quiet Loud
  • 10. 10 Characteristic of Sound Waves distance along wave Cycle Time for one cycle Amplitude wavelength
  • 11. 11 4.2 The Power of Sound • Audio in Macintosh and Windows – Both Macintosh and Windows PC platform, have the default system sounds – MACINTOSH  Chu Toy, Glass, indigo, Laugh, Simple Beep – WINDOWS PC  ding.wav, chimes.wav, logoff.wav,start.wav • Basic Recording Software – Both MACINTOSH and WINDOWS have basic recording software
  • 12. 12 Audio Recording Software • Sound Recorders for Windows – Both Macintosh and Windows PC platform have the default sound. – This basic application could: • Record our own sounds • Edit & mix *.wav files • Simple Splicing and assembly • Increase volume & speed of *.wav files • Reverse the sound. • Add Echo effects • Some XP Version also provide wav to mp3 conversion. MACINTOSH WINDOWS
  • 13. 13
  • 14. 14 Basic Sound Recorder Sound conversion Basic Effects
  • 15. 15 Analogue to Digital Audio Analogue audio • The name for an electronic signal that carries its information of sound as continuous fluctuating voltage value. • non digital tape or audio tape recording of sound. Digitizing • the process of converting an analog signal to a digital one. • A sound is recorded by making a measurement of the amplitude of the sound at regular intervals which are defined by the "sample rate". • The act of taking the measurement is often called "sampling" and each measurement is called a "sample point".
  • 16. 16 Capture & Playback of Digital Audio Air pressure variations Captured via microphone Air pressure variations ADC Signal is converted into binary (discrete form) 0101001101 0110101111 Analogue to Digital Converter DAC Convert s back into voltage Digital to Analogue Converter
  • 17. 17 Recording Audio Files Recording Audio Files on the pc Uses either: i. Microphone • connect microphone to the microphone port and record using sound recorder
  • 18. 18 Recording Audio Files ii. CD-ROM Drive – Move music files from CD to hard drive or; – Play the cd and then record using the sound recorder. iii. Line-in – pressing play on the audio source, which is connected to the computer’s audio line-in socket. Record using the sound recorder. Audio cable Line in port on the pc
  • 19. 19 4.3 Digital Audio • Digital audio data is the representation of sound, stored in the form of samples point. • Quality of digital recording depends on the sampling rate, that is, the number of samples point taken per second (Hz). High Sampling Rate Low Sampling Rate Samples stored in digital form waveform
  • 22. 22 4.4 Digital Audio • The three sampling frequencies most often used in multimedia are 44.1 kHz, 22.05 kHz and 11.025 kHz. – The higher the sampling rate, the more the measurements are taken (better quality). – The lower the sampling rate, the lesser the measurements are taken (low quality). Low Sampling RateHigh Sampling Rate
  • 23. 23 4.4 Digital Audio • Quality factors for digital audio file : 1. Sampling Rate 2. Sample Size (resolution) • the number of bits used to record the value of a sample in a digitized signal. Sampling Rate Sample size
  • 24. 24 4.4 Digital Audio • Other than that, it also depends on: – The quality of original audio source. – The quality of capture device & supporting hardware. – The characteristics used for capture. – The capability of the playback environment.
  • 25. 25 4.4 Digital Audio • More advanced Digital audio editing software: – One of the most powerful and professional PC-based packages is a tool called Sound Forge http://www.sonicfoundry.com/  Others audio editing software:  COOL Edit Pro  Gold Wave  PROSONIQ SonicWORX  Samplitude Studio
  • 26. 26 4.5 Midi Audio • Musical Instrument Digital Interface – Before there was a wide use of mp3 and high bandwidth network, MIDI format audio is popular when an audio is required to be put on a website. – Provides a standardized and efficient means of conveying musical performance information as electronic data. – Is a easiest and quickest way to compose our own score. • (provided we have knowledge of musical instrument and composing) – It is in the form of music score and not samples or recording.
  • 27. 27 Midi Audio: Requirements • To make MIDI score, we need: 1. Midi keyboard / Midi keyboard software 2. Sequencer software 3. Sound synthesizer (built-in in to sound card)
  • 28. 28 Midi Keyboard • MIDI keyboard is used to simplify the creation of music scores (MIDI information) – MIDI information is transmitted in "MIDI messages", which can be thought of as instructions which tell a music synthesizer how to play a piece of music. – The synthesizer receiving the MIDI data must generate the actual sounds.
  • 29. 29 Midi Sequencer • A MIDI sequencer software lets us to record and edit MIDI data like a word processor – Cut and paste – Insert / delete
  • 30. 30 Midi Audio Facts • Since they are small, MIDI files embedded in web pages load and play. • Length of a MIDI file can be changed without affecting the pitch of the music or degrading audio quality. • Working with MIDI requires knowledge of music theory.
  • 31. 31 Recording MIDI Files Recording MIDI Files • MIDI files can be generated: – by recording the MIDI data from a MIDI instrument (electronic keyboard) as it is played. – by using a MIDI sequencer software application.
  • 32. 32 Audio File Formats • MIDI – *.MID, *.KAR, *.MIDI, *.SMF • AUDIO DIGITAL – WINDOWS  *.WAV – MACINTOSH  *.AIFF – UNIX  *.AU – REALAUDIO  *.RA – MPEG3  *.MP3
  • 33. 33 MIDI versus Digital Audio • Advantages of MIDI over digital audio: – MIDI files smaller that digital audio files. – Because small file, MIDI files embedded in web pages load and play more quickly. – If MIDI sound source are high quality – sound better. – Can change the length of MIDI files without changing the pitch of the music or degrading the audio quality.
  • 34. 34 MIDI versus Digital Audio • Disadvantages of MIDI over digital audio: – Because MIDI data does not represent the sound but musical instruments, playback will be accurate only if the MIDI playback (instrument) is identical to the device used in the production. – Higher cost and requires skill to edit. – Cannot emulate voice, other effects.
  • 35. 35 4.6 Factors considered before adding Sound to MM Project 1. File formats compatible with multimedia authoring software being used along with delivery mediums, must be determined. 2. Sound playback capabilities offered by end user’s system must be studied. 3. The type of sound, whether background music, special sound effects, or spoken dialog, must be decided. 4. Digital audio or MIDI data should be selected on the basis of the location and time of use.
  • 36. 36 Function of Audio 1. Content/ information 2. Background music 3. Ambience
  • 37. 37 Advantages & Disadvantages of Using Audio • Sound adds life to any multimedia application and plays important role in effective marketing presentations. • Advantages – Ensure important information is noticed. – Add interest. – Can communicate more directly than other media.
  • 38. 38 Advantages & Disadvantages of Using Audio • Disadvantages – Easily overused. – Requires special equipment for quality production. – Not as memorable as visual media.
  • 39. 39 Summary • There are two main types of digital audio – Sampled audio • Captured by sampling an analogue waveform at a set rate – MIDI data • Instructions on how to perform some musical composition • Sampled audio requires more storage space than MIDI information