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  2. 2. TASK 7 Kajang has transformed itself from a small old town to a big modern town by designing and developing new township such as Bandar Baru Bangi and Bandar Seri Putra as well as extending its CBD (central business district) such as extension to Sungai Chua. However, its centre is inadequately transformed and most of its residences are working in Kuala Lumpur and other external areas. Write your vision and plan for Kajang to transform its town centre and to be a self reliance town. You may use sketches to enhance your vision and plan. SOLUTION INTRODUCTION Kajang is a town in the eastern part of Selangor, Malaysia. Kajang is the district capital of Hulu Langat. It is located 21 kilometers (13 mi) from Malaysia's capital, Kuala Lumpur. The current locational gravity of growth in Kajang would be Sungai Chua. The total population of Kajang has grown rapidly in the past few years, with estimated population growth of 9% per annum. The soon-to-be-realised Klang Valley MRT station in Bandar Kajang will boost the property value in Sungai Chua. As of 2004, a few townships have been developed in Kajang, such as Taman Prima Saujana (straight from Jalan Cheras), Sungai Chua, Taman Kajang Perdana (Kajang Highlands). Lately, many high-end developments have mushroomed in Kajang such as Twin Palms, Sri Banyan, Country Heights, Jade Hills and Prima Paramount. Areas surrounding these new townships are easily accessible via the SILK Expressway. Kajang is governed by the Majlis Perbandaran Kajang. Kajang's population of 342,657 is 60.4% Malay, 19.3% Chinese, 9.7% Indians, and 10.6% other ethnic groups. Kajang's main population centres are Sg. Kantan, Sg.Jelok, Sg.Ramal, Sungai Chua, Sg. Sekamat, Bandar Mahkota, Jalan Reko, Jalan Bukit, Bandar Sungai Long, Bandar Tun Hussein Onn, Cheras Perdana, Taman Prima Saujana, Taman Kantan Permai, Taman Kajang Perdana, Taman Sri Ramal, Taman Kajang Prima.
  3. 3. Urban Renewal Urban renewal is a program of land redevelopment in areas of moderate to high density urban land use. Renewal has had both successes and failures. Its modern incarnation began in the late 19th century in developed nations and experienced an intense phase in the late 1940s – under the rubric of reconstruction. The process has had a major impact on many urban landscapes, and has played an important role in the history and demographics of cities around the world. Urban renewal involves the relocation of businesses, the demolition of structures, the relocation of people, and the use of eminent domain (government purchase of property for public purpose) as a legal instrument to take private property for city-initiated development projects. This process is also carried out in rural areas, referred to as village renewal, though may not be exactly the same in practice. In some cases, renewal may result in urban sprawl and less congestion when areas of cities receive freeways and expressways. Urban renewal has been seen by proponents as an economic engine and a reform mechanism and by critics as a mechanism for control. It may enhance existing communities, and in some cases result in the demolition of neighborhoods. Many cities link the revitalization of the central business district and gentrification of residential neighborhoods to earlier urban renewal programs. Over time, urban renewal evolved into a policy based less on destruction and more on renovation and investment, and today is an integral part of many local governments, often combined with small and big business incentives. The main vision for this plan is to make Kajang as a town where the residences enjoying the benefits of a sustainable economic growth and dwells in a friendly livable environment. The mission is transforming Kajang town centre to become a self-reliance town. The principle objectives of the plan are:  All the new development not only adds to the range of facilities in the town centre, but also improves the quality of the environment.  To ensure that new development is well related to existing areas and does not give rise or lead to the potential for urban sprawl.
  4. 4.  To ensure that the alterations and extensions to existing buildings generally will improve the environment and reinforce the sense of place.  To create new buildings and houses this can enhance the special character of Kajang and meet the needs of residents and other users. Alterations and Extension to Existing Buildings The center of Kajang is the bustling Old Town, where all the roads meet. Most of the colonial- era buildings were constructed around the 1920s to 1930s. The architecture of these shop houses is a combination of traditional Chinese and European designs. The ground floor was used mostly for commercial activities and the upper floor as the family living quarter. Planning permission will be granted for alterations and extension to existing buildings which:  Choice of materials and positioning are compatible with the character of the existing building.  Will not result in an unreasonable loss of privacy or natural light to neighboring properties.  Will not be detrimental to the neighborhood amenities and the characters.  Will result in more conformability and convenience.  Alterations and extensions to existing buildings generally raise similar design issues to those of new development. Every change to a building, a street or a space has the potential to enrich or, if poorly designed, impoverish a part of the public realm.  The impact of a proposal on the appearance and character of the existing building and street scene generally must be satisfactory and there should be no unreasonable loss of amenity and privacy for immediate neighbors. Construction of Sustainable Building Planning permission will only be granted for development where it’s demonstrated that:  Energy needs have been minimized.  Through a combination of design for energy efficiency and the incorporation of a sustainable energy supply such as green energy generation or combined heat and power.
  5. 5.  New buildings should be designed and constructed to reduce their energy demands and minimize their adverse effects.  Other features will be incorporated to reduce or minimize environmental resource use and impact.  Ensure that the rate of surface water run-off from a site is not increased by the development proposed.  In new housing developments, facilities are provided, and an environment created, that encourages more sustainable lifestyles, for example, waste disposal facilities that support recycling initiatives.  The quality of Kajang’s built and natural environment should be respected and improved to a complementary mix of uses.  Mixed use development such as integrating housing with shops and employment opportunities, can make the most of the potential for higher densities and intensive activity at locations with good access to public transport. Naked Street and Masjid Centre One of Kajang's landmarks is Stadium Kajang which is situated in the heart of the town. It is near a popular hangout place among the locals named Haji Samuri, which is also home to the famous dish satay Kajang. People come from all over Malaysia to taste the satay here. The stadium can accommodate up to 5,000 people and is used throughout the year for the community soccer competitions. Another landmark is the Kajang Mosque or Masjid Kajang, which is easily recognizable by its bright yellow facade. The mosque was painted and decorated by a local wealthy man, Datuk Ujang bin Bagong, for the benefit of the local Muslims. The mosque is lively at night with Islamic activities. The naked streets approach is not a specific set of designs, but an underlying set of principles. Depending on the context, different responses will be appropriate. However it is essential that urban planners and transport engineers work together closely, to ensure that traffic management concerns never overwhelm the need for our streets and public spaces to be primarily places for people. A useful starting point is to establish where the location lies on a movement/placematrix.
  6. 6. Concept of naked street is remove all the things that were supposed to make it safe for the pedestrian for example traffic lights, railing, curbs and road marking. Its sound impossible to be done in Malaysia since mentality and attitude some of Malaysian still in third class. But, this can be taken as first step to change our mentality become a world class. What we can do to is giving drivers and pedestrians equal status. Road humps, chicanes and other physical measures designed to reduce the speed of vehicles would be removed and the question of who had priority would be left open deliberately, making drivers more cautious. Traffic lights have been uprooted and drivers must negotiate their way across junctions, forcing them to slow down and establish eye contact with pedestrians. One of Kajang landmark is Kajang mosque. So, masjid centred can be used to transform Kajang become a friendly livable environment. Kajang mosque already located at the town centre. What we need to do only emphasize the function and need of Kajang mosque so that it will become livelier with Islamic activities. Then, we can redesign the location or position of building for example shop houses and offices around the Kajang mosque. We need to give inadequate facilities and amenities to generate the development and sustainable economic growth around the mosque. Modern Public Transport Facilities Kajang is well connected with many major highway and expressway like Kajang Dispersal Link Expressway as a ring road of Kajang,Cheras-Kajang Expressway (CKE),North-South Expressway (NSE) (Malay: Lebuhraya Utara-Selatan) with Kajang exit and Kajang-Seremban Expressway (LEKAS)at the south of Kajang near Semenyih. Because the position of Kajang between three major city (Kuala Lumpur, Seremban and Putrajaya), this city is included in Klang Valley or Greater Kuala Lumpur. Public transport available in Kajang are bus, taxi, and train. Rangkaian Pengangkutan Integrasi Deras Sdn Bhd (RapidKL) is the one of the bus operators in the city. RapidKL serves the buses between Kuala Lumpur by trunk bus U40 : Terminal Jalan Sultan Mohamad - Pudu LRT - Maluri LRT- Terminal Bas Kajang via Jalan Cheras - Terminal Jalan Sultan Mohamad ,U41 : Terminal Jln Sultan Mohamad - Serdang KTM Komuter -Jusco Cheras Selatan -Bdr Mahkota Cheras- Jusco Mahkota Cheras- Bdr Sg Long - Terminal Jln Sultan Mohamad and region bus ,T430 : Pekan Kajang - Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) -
  7. 7. Pekan Kajang and T431 : Terminal Bas Kajang - MARA Polytech - Terminal Bas Kajang. Other bus operators such as Cityliner (bus between Kajang and Seremban)and Bas Mini.KTM Komuter is a commuter train service trough Kajang by Rawang-Seremban Route and stop at Kajang Komuter station. By 2010 under one of the National Key Economic Areas (NKEA) and under the Government Transformation Programme (GTP), the federal government have announced to improve the public transport system by building a Mass Rapid Transit ‘”(MRT)”’ system in the Klang Valley/Greater KL. Kajang is included in this system with nine stations within the Kajang Municipal Council (MPKj) area. Out of this nine, three would be at the Kajang town centre. It began construction in June 2011 and full operation is expected to commence in 2016. Planning permission will only be granted where development provides for integration and connection of development to enable access by all modes of transport. Development should connect into existing transport networks to ensure it is convenient for travel to the site to be achieved by all modes in order to provide genuine choice of travel. Priority must be given to the main shopping streets center in developing pedestrian priority measures, whether full pedestrian, footway widening or simply measures to enhance the attractiveness and safety of the pedestrian environment. If necessary re-allocation of space to pedestrians can be adopted, encouraging shoppers and visitors to enjoy the amenities of the city center. Building at Kajang city centre already centralized which located close to each other. But, there is no pedestrian walkway. They need walk along building perimeter which is busy. So, good walking passages have to provide to ensure the safety and comfort for pedestrians. This is to encourage them to walk to their desire place. Existing main road main road that connecting from other places to Kajang are Kajang Dispersal Link Expressway, Cheras-Kajang Expressway and Kajang-Seremban expressway. While the public transport that connect the Kajang town and other city are commuter, bus rapidKL and taxi. The increasing reliance on private transportation, in particular private cars, has created considerable pressure on the roads network which caused the traffic congestion even not during peak hour. Implementation of fully integrated transportation system to improve to the bus
  8. 8. networks are being facilitated by MPKj providing exclusive bus and taxi lanes in the City centre and comfortable stop. Tramlined system which travel internally and around a Kajang perimeter can be proposed to improve the public transportation facilities. In order to make it greener, this tramline system is utilizing the electric energy as power of movement. This electricity power produced by municipal waste. The interchange would be at existing KTM kajang. People will take a tram to go into a city centre which has several stations around city centre (stadium, KPJ Kajang Specialist Hospital, Hospital Kajang, School, Metro Kajang). Tourism Development In some ways it is easier for government to stimulate diversification in towns and cities because the strength of municipal organization can be used.  Organise municipal events and entertainment, giving a platform to local musicians and talent.  Facilitate ‘township tours’ or other tours to poorer parts of the city and to projects. This involves attention to transport, parking and security issues.  License different kinds of transport and take them into account in urban planning.  Develop shopping venues, such markets, with the backing of municipal advertising. Shopping Development Kajang has a number of new and old shopping complexes. The Billion Shopping Center in Kajang town has been around for more than 20 years. It was originally located in the heart of Kajang town and now has a new and larger branch in Bandar Technologi Kajang. Other shopping centres located in Kajang are Metro Plaza Kajang, Metro Point, and Kompleks Kota Kajang. Metro Avenue is a new shopping district located opposite SMJK Yu Hua Kajang and Kajang High School. There has been a boom of hypermarkets in Kajang in the past 5 years, marked by the emergence of Giant stores, Tesco Kajang and Jusco Cheras Selatan. Planning permission for retail development in the city centre with the following considerations:
  9. 9.  Provide high quality, commercially attractive units to a high standard of design that will strengthen the role of this area as a regional shopping centre, safeguard historic character and improve the appearance of the city centre.  Reinforce the vitality of the shopping streets in the central area.  Paid special attention to upper floors which are not to be used for shopping purposes, and how these may be put to, or brought into beneficial uses which will enhance city centre character.  Help to create a safe and attractive pedestrian environment, safeguard historic character and improve the appearance of the city centre including the public realm Parks for Facilities and Amenities Development Public hospitals are found within and around Kajang town are Hospital Kajang, Hospital Serdang and Hospital Putrajaya. There are also private medical centers functioning 24 hours and other 24-hour clinics such as Klinik Mediviron Prima Saujana, Kajang Plaza Medical Centre (KPMC) and KPJ Kajang Specialist Hospital. Colombia Asia hospital has started operations since 2011 near Jusco Cheras Selatan. The Hulu Langat District Police Headquarters are located in the town center. Other services include the post office, government clinics, a stadium, food court and a wet market. Many federal government agencies are open their branch in Kajang including the National Registration Department, Immigration Department and Hulu Langat Education Office. Transportation Department offices have started the operation at Section 7, Bandar Baru Bangi in 2010. Parks can range in size from a few hundred square feet, a bench, some flowers, and a 20 by 20 plot of grass on a busy corner. They can serve many purposes as well, often at the same time. They are the lungs of a city; offering green space and fresh air to people who otherwise might seldom experience anything but concrete and exhaust fumes. They can protect open land, extraordinary landscapes, and historic sites, while also functioning as open-air classrooms and laboratories for school children and others. Some common types:  Urban parks can provide formal plantings, grassy lawns, benches, playgrounds, picnic areas, and/or sports fields or an experience of the landscape much as it was before the
  10. 10. city existed. Parks in large cities often have other community facilities located within them or on their margins and among other attractions. They can vary in size from pocket parks tucked into courtyards or the angles of buildings to the 4,100 connected acres of the main property.  Many small towns include a central park area , with benches, perhaps a bandstand, and a flagpole: a simple open space for town celebrations and gatherings that may include athletic fields as well.  Depending on the setting, these may be similar to urban parks, or may be more like state parks with outdoor activities and miles of road less land. They may contain particular attractions for example a view, a beach, a gorge or simply feature a pleasant landscape with little or no recent human intervention.  Most state parks highlight the natural environment. They may stress nature in and of itself as a wilderness area, for instance, or because of an outstanding feature, such as a waterfall or for its recreational value. Downtown Development and privatization of public spaces Development will be permitted where all external spaces, including streets, footpaths, civic spaces, other open spaces have been designed as an integral part of the scheme as a whole, and it has been demonstrated that:  The design and the materials to be used are appropriate for their intended purpose, to the use and character of the surrounding buildings and the area generally  Different elements of paving, landscape and street furniture are coordinated to avoid a sense of clutter.  Particular consideration can be given to the planting of trees to provide a setting for buildings, boundaries and road sides.  Public open spaces and pedestrian routes are connected with the pedestrian network where the opportunity exists. Proposals involving the loss of open space will not be permitted unless it is demonstrated that:  There will be no significant impact on the quality or character of the local environment
  11. 11.  The open space is a small part of a larger area or of limited amenity or leisure valueand there is a significant overprovision of open space serving the immediate area.  There will be a local benefit in allowing the development in terms of either alternative equivalent provision being made in the area or improvement to an existing public park or other open space.  The development is for a community purpose and the benefits to the local community outweigh the loss. River Front Our purpose then is to aid in healing of river front as a place of critical ecological importance, as well as a place for working and living. Where the river has been an excuse for dividing neighborhood and peoples, we desire a place where people can come together. We concur with the view that parks can create new value on adjacent lands, but also propose that a new ecology of parks is necessary that makes productive use of the rich riverfront lands and waters, as well as the people on its shores. Transformation of Kajang town center base on river-front development is one of the ways to transform Kajang from a small old town to a big modern town. The natural river adds to the variety of scenery within the urban area and the city’s biodiversity interest. River-front could be a potential development that will give uniqueness of the town to Kajang. Where possible, river-front should be accessible and used to develop the public footpath network. The nature river generally has a secluded and tranquil character. Adjoining development should positively address a water course, by enhancing security on footpaths through natural surveillance and providing links for people on foot, whilst also in most places preserving and enhancing their tranquil character. To make river-front accessible, integration of river-front access should be planned. These areas of riverfront access should be linked together to eventually provide large stretches of accessible riverfront. In addition to this general policy, the provision of publicly accessible river front is a requirement as part of the major development proposals. Development on sites on the river edge and development on sites adjoining a watercourse will only be permitted where the proposal:  Provides an attractive frontage to the water.  Maintains or provides public access to the river edge.
  12. 12.  Maintains and enhances the nature conservation.  If appropriate, provides a series of mixed use sustainable neighborhoods that connect to the waterfront, with each other and with nearby neighborhoods in the existing urban area. Long-term implications Urban renewal sometimes lives up to the hopes of its original proponents, it has been assessed by politicians, urban planners, civic leaders, and residents, and it has played an undeniably important role. Additionally, urban renewal can have many positive effects. Replenished housing stock might be an improvement in quality; it may increase density and reduce sprawl; it might have economic benefits and improve the global economic competitiveness of a city's centre. It may, in some instances, improve cultural and social amenity, and it may also improve opportunities for safety and surveillance. Urban renewal has been responsible for the rehabilitation of communities as well as displacement. Replacement housing particularly in the form of housing towers might be difficult to police, leading to an increase in crime, and such structures might in themselves be dehumanizing. Urban renewal is usually non-consultative. Urban renewal continues to evolve as successes and failures are examined and new models of development and redevelopment are tested and implemented.