my first training project


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In my 6th semester vacation my college MACET allowed me for a 1 month vocational training...during that i made this project..

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my first training project

  1. 1. A Project Report OnGeneral Overview of Mechanical Engineering Department In Submitted in Partial Fulfillments of the Requirements for the Award of the Degree ofB.TECH IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Prepared by Momin Mohd. Azhruddin A. Presidency College of Engineering Project Duration: 14/07/2011 to 11/08/2011 1
  3. 3. WHAT DOES THE NEW LOGO OF GACL SAY? Taking into the Considerations the aspects of the global warming and the need to address to the cleaner and greener environment,The logo of the company Gujarat Alkalies andChemicals Limited, Vadodara has beenconceived to represent a responsiblecorporate. Keeping the Importance of the risingissue of the pertinent to the environment,GACL have designed a logo that would reflectthe companys mission to keep earth green.The “Green Attitude” of company addressingthe aspects of global warming.The colours Blue and Yellow reflect the risingtemperatures can adversely affect someregions with excessive rainfall while someothers with heat waves and drought. 3
  4. 4. INDEX1 History2 Company Profile3 Board of Directors4 Awards Received by G.A.C.L.5 Corporate profile6 Organization Structure7 Products of G.A.C.L.8 Milestone of G.A.C.L.9 Manpower Strength10Policies11Overview of CLM Plant12Pump13Compressor 4
  5. 5. 14Vales15Blowers16Boilers17Cooling towers 5
  6. 6. HISTORY OF GACL Gujarat Alkalies and Chemicals Limited (GACL) was incorporated on 29th March, 1973 in theState of Gujarat by Gujarat Industrial Investment Corporation Limited (GIIC), a wholly ownedcompany of Govt. of Gujarat, as a Core Promoter. GACL has two units located at Vadodara and Dahej, both in the State of Gujarat. It has integrated manufacturing facilities for Caustic Soda, Chlorine, Hydrogen Gas, Hydrochloric Acid, Chloromethane, Hydrogen Peroxide, Phosphoric Acid, Potassium Hydroxide, Potassium Carbonate, Sodium Cyanide, Sodium Ferro cyanide. The Dahej unit also has 90 MW Captive Power Plant (CPP) for regular and economical power supply. The Company commenced its operations in 1976 with 37,425 Metric Tons Per Annum (MTPA) Caustic Soda Plant based on the then, state-of-the-art Mercury Cell process at its Plant which is situated 16 km North of Vadodara near Village Ranoli on the main Railway track route between Ahmadabad and Mumbai. Right from the inception, GACL has been following the strategy of continuous capacity expansion in core areas. The first stage expansion of the Caustic Soda Plant raising the capacity to 70,425 MTPA was undertaken in October, 1981 followed by a diversification program to produce 2000 MTPA of Sodium Cyanide in December, 1982. 6
  7. 7. In 1984, the second stage expansion toincrease the capacity of Caustic Soda Plant to 103,425 MTPA was undertaken. Simultaneously, the Company undertook the diversification project for manufacture of 10,560 MTPA of Chloromethane usingChlorine, a co-product of the Company and in 1991, the capacity of Chloromethane production was doubled.As power is the major input for production ofCaustic Soda and constitutes about 65% - 70%of the cost of production, the Company along with other Corporations like, M/s. GSFC, Petrochemicals Co-operative Ltd. and GujaratElectricity Board promoted a gas based power unit in Vadodara under the name of GujaratIndustrial Power Company Ltd. (GIPCL) during the year 1985. As a promoter of GIPCL, the Company gets low cost power, as the plant is gas based and is depreciated. Since production of Caustic Soda is highlypower intensive, in order to reduce power cost and to eliminate mercury pollution, theCompany during the year 1989 converted one of its Cell Houses producing Caustic Sodafrom Mercury Cell Technology to environment friendly Membrane Cell Technology, thereby eliminating the use of mercury. The Capacityof Caustic Soda was also increased to 132000 MTA. The conversion of second Mercury Cell toMembrane Cell was carried out during March, 1994, thereby eliminating the total use ofmercury from the Complex for production of Caustic Soda and increasing the capacity of 7
  8. 8. plant along with this conversion to 170000 MTA including Potassium Hydroxide facility. As part of this Membrane Cell Conversion Project, a new facility for manufacture of16500 MTA of Potassium Hydroxide Lye based on Membrane Cell was also set up. The Company has further set up facility forconverting part of this Caustic Potash Lye intoPotassium Carbonate with a capacity of 13200 MTA. In order to add further value to its products, the company had set up manufacturing facility for production of 11000 MTA Hydrogen Peroxide (100%) at Vadodara Complex during the year 1996 to utilize Hydrogen gas, which is a co-product from Caustic Soda Process. In 1995, as a part of diversification program and to meet the growing demand of its products in the State of Gujarat and nearby areas, the Company had set up a plant for manufacture of Technical Grade Phosphoric Acid with capacity of 26400 MTA (85% Phosphoric Acid) at a new location at Dahej, District Bharuch. The Company also set up Membrane Cell based grass root Caustic-Chlorine Unit with a capacity of 100000 MTAat Dahej. Along with this, a captive 90 MW co- generation Power Plant was set up so as toensure uninterrupted and low cost power for its captive operations. 8
  9. 9. COMPANY PROFILE Name of the Company GUJARAT ALKALIES AND CHEMICALS LIMITED (GACL) Registered Office / Vadodara Complex P.O. Petrochemicals-391 346 Dist. Vadodara, Gujarat, India. Phone-+91-265-2232681-2 Fax-+91-265-2232130 Dahej Complex P.O. Dahej-392 130 Taluka- Vagra, Dist. Bharuch, Gujarat, India. Phone-+91-2641-256315-6-7 Fax-+91-2641-256220 URL Size of the Organization Large Organization Solicitors Messer’s Amarchand & Mangaldas & Suresh A. Shroff & Co. Mumbai. Cost Auditors Messer’s Diwanji & Associate Cost Accountants Vadodara. 9
  10. 10. BOARDS OF DIRECTORS: Shri. A.K.JOTI (I.A.S)…………… Chairman Shri. G.C.Murmu (I.A.S) Shri. M.M.Srivastava (I.A.S) Shri. D J Pandian (I.A.S) Shri. G.M.Yadwadkar Dr. Sukh DevShri. J N GodboleShri. Guruprasad Mohapatra(I.A.S.)……………. Managing Director 10
  11. 11. AWARDS & RECOGNITION The Company is a proud recipient of the following recognitions and awards:Sr. Name of the Award Purpose of the Award Name of the Date of receivingNo. Organization the Award Year 2009-101) Excellent achiever Award. For valuable contribution in Gujarat Chemicals February, 2010 chemical industry Association, Ahmadabad2) Award for Excellence – 2009. Certificate of Merit Federation of Gujarat May, 2010. in the field of Export Promotion Industries, Vadodara3) NSCI safety Award -2009. Appreciation letter by National National Safety Council October, 2010. Safety Council established by Ministry of Labour & Rehabilitation, Government of India4) Excellence Certificate for ‘Securing Participation Position in Baroda Productivity For the year 2009- Good House Keeping Contest Council, Vadodara 10. 2009-10’.5) CHEMEXCIL Award For Outstanding Export Export Promotion For the year 2008- Performance Council, Government 09 & 2009-10. of India Year 20081) Amity Corporate Excellence For one of the best and the most Amity International 20th February, 2008 Award, 2008 admired business organizations Business School for its unparallel performance. Year 2007 rd1) 3 National Award for Excellence For efficient management in cost Institute of Cost & 2nd July, 2007. in Cost Management - 2006 for the works of the manufacturing unit. Works Accountants of manufacturing unit in the Public India (ICWAI). sector.2) National Energy Conservation For consistent performance on Bureau of Energy 14 December 2007 Award - 2007 : Second Prize in the energy conservation. Efficiency (BEE),Min. Chlor-Alkali Sector of Power, Govt. of India 11
  12. 12. Year 20062.) AIOE Industrial Relations Award Corporate initiative in the field of All India Organization 05 January 2007 2005-2006 industrial relations, social security of Employers and promoting Bi-partism3.) Safety Innovation Award -2006 In the field of Safety Excellence Institute of Engineers, 06 September 2006 New Delhi4.) Indian Society for Training & For Innovative Training Practices: Indian Society for 01 July 2006 Development (ISTD) Certificate of 2005-06 National Level Training & merit 2005-06 Development (ISTD), New Delhi5.) SCOPE Meritorious Award 2004-05 In the field of Good Corporate Standing Conference 26 June 2006 Governance of Public Enterprises (SCOPE), Delhi6.) TERIs Certificate of Appreciation For case study of Recovery of TERI - The Energy & 26 June 2006 for Environmental Excellence Calcium Chloride project at Dahej Resources Institute, award – 2005 which uses the waste effluent to New Delhi make useful product reducing pollution in sea. 127.) Greentech Safety Silver Award Safety Excellence at Dahej Greentech. 08 April 2006 2006 Complex Foundation, New Delhi
  13. 13. 8.) Greentech Safety Gold Award 2006 Safety Excellence at Vadodara Greentech. 08 April 2006 Complex Foundation, New Delhi9.) FGI (Federation of Gujarat) award For Environment Preservation & FGI (Federation of 03 April 2006 for Excellence in Environment – Pollution Control at Dahej Gujarat), Vadodara 2005 (Dahej) Complex10.) IMC Ramakrishna Bajaj National For Quality Management Systems Indian Merchants 06 March 2006 Quality Certificate of Merit 2005 adopted at GACL (as per quality Chamber, Mumbai Award in Manufacturing Category criteria of management systems of at National level Malcolm Bald ridge, (USA)11.) Appreciation Prize for the case For "Economics of Quality" for the Quality Council of 03 March 2006 study on "Economics of Quality" systems at GACL India, Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Govt. of India12.) Jamnalal Bajaj Uchit Vyavahar For Fair & Ethical Business Council for Fair 24 February 2006 Puraskar 2005 Practices Business Practices (CFBP), Mumbai13.) Recognition by ICSI (Institute of For National Excellence in Institute of Company 13 January 2006 Company Secretaries of India) compliance of law, ethics and best Secretaries of India considering GACL in the list of Top management practices in the field (ICSI), New Delhi 25 Companies for the year 2005 of Corporate Governance Year 200514.) First Prize Winner In Category - C House Keeping Baroda Productivity 28 December 2005 for Chemical Process Industries for Council, Vadodara " House Keeping "15.) Certificates of Appreciation & Safety Performance Gujarat Safety Council 16 December 2005 Honor for Safety Performance & Factory (Vadodara) & Certificate of Honor Inspectorate, Govt. of (Dahej) Gujarat16.) National Energy Conservation Energy Conservation at Vadodara Bureau of Energy 14 December 2005 Award 2005: National Level (Chlor- Complex Efficiency (BEE),Min. by His Excellency Alkali Sector) 1st prize (Vadodara of Power, Govt. of the President of Complex) & Merit Certificate India India. (Dahej Complex)17.) IMEA-2005 Award India Excellence in Housekeeping & Frost & Sullivan, 09 December 2005 Manufacturing Excellence Award Effective Deployment of QMS Mumbai,(USA based for Housekeeping & Effective organization) Deployment of QMS18.) Green Tech Environment Environment Excellence at Greentech Foundation, 22 October 2005 13 Excellence Award - 2004-05 (Silver) Vadodara Complex New Delhi19.) Green Tech Environment Environment Excellence at Dahej Greentech Foundation, 22 October 2005
  14. 14. Excellence Award - 2004-05 (Gold) Complex New Delhi20.) AMA-Metro chem. Outstanding Outstanding Manager of the Year AMA (Ahmadabad 17 July 2005 Manager of the Year Award 2005 Management) (Declared for MD, GACL) Association)- Metro chem., Ahmadabad21.) Greentech Safety Excellence Safety Excellence at Dahej Greentech Foundation, 12 May 2005 (Silver) Complex New Delhi22.) Greentech Safety Excellence Safety Excellence at Vadodara Greentech Foundation, 12 May 2005 (Gold) Complex New Delhi23.) Merit Award for ICWAI (Vadodara) National Merit Award for Institute of Cost & 12 March 2005 Excellence in Cost Management - Works Accountants of 2004 India (ICWAI)24.) Certificate of Appreciation for Safety Performance at Vadodara Gujarat Safety Council 18 January 2005 Safety Performance Complex & Factory Inspectorate, Govt. of Gujarat25.) Certificate of Honor for Safety Safety Performance at Dahej Gujarat Safety Council 18 January 2005 Performance Complex & Factory Inspectorate, Govt. of Gujarat Year 200426.) National Energy Conservation Energy Conservation at Dahej Bureau of Energy 14 December 2004 Award 2004 1st prize (Chlor-Alkali Complex Efficiency (BEE),Min. awarded by Sector) of Power, Govt. of Honble Prime India Minister of India 14
  15. 15. 27.) Greentech Environment Excellence Environment Excellence at Greentech Foundation, 04 November 2004 (Silver) Vadodara Complex New Delhi28.) Greentech Environment Excellence Environment Excellence at Dahej Greentech Foundation, 04 November 2004 (Gold) Complex New Delhi29.) Greentech Safety Excellence Safety Excellence at Dahej Greentech Foundation, 21 June 2004 Award (Silver) Complex New Delhi30.) Dr. H.C. Srivastava Memorial Developing Eco-Friendly cold ATIRA: Ahmadabad 26 February 2004 at Award 2003 bleaching process using Hydrogen National Peroxide of GACL for Hand Conference of Processing Sector of Textile Textile Research industry Association, Mumbai 15
  16. 16. CORPORATE PROFILEGACL is a forward-looking company, set up in the year 1973.30 years is a long time. Long enough to test the character ofany organization. Be it recession, inflation, increasedcompetition or changing governments, weve lived it all. Andfor sure, all the turbulences have made GACL a stronger and aprogressive company. Our stern resolve to manufacturequality chemicals and trek customer satisfaction to a newheight has yielded unbelievable results. From an initial capacity of 37,425 TPA Caustic Soda, GACL have grown to be the largest producer in India, with a capacity of 3, 58,760 TPA. Spread over 2 complexes at Vadodara and Dahej. Knowing that the time ahead may prop-up newer hurdles, GACL has already started to diversify and expand its existing infrastructure to consolidate its supremacy in Chlor-Alkali and other integrated downstream products. World Class Technology: Technology moulds generations. GACL’s endeavor to continually upgrade technology has allowed GACL to optimize resources, thus bringing down the cost of production and increasing revenues. Acquired through the best and prestigious collaborations means that they meet international specifications for our products. Besides, GACL’s manufacturing plants are eco-friendly, which ensure that the environment is well looked after. The location of both the plants Vadodara and Dahej has 16
  17. 17. dual advantage of proximity to the raw material suppliersand the end users.While the capacity utilization is about 70% in the CausticSoda Industry, GACLs plants are working at almost 100%capacity.... thereby utilizing the assets to the fullest extent. Self-Reliance:  Various factors that influence the success of any corporation, the self-sufficiency ranks the foremost. We at GACL understand this all too well. Power, being a major input to the electrolytic Caustic Soda process, we promoted a joint captive power plant, Gujarat Industries Power Company Limited to meet our energy requirements for Vadodara Complex. Our complex at Dahej is also integrated with a captive co-generation plant of capacity of 90 MW.  Cost effective natural gas was substituted as fuel in place of Naphtha for Captive Power Plant. The plant load factor has increased and surplus power is supplied to State grid. This has helped achieve economies of operations. Green all the way: Nature bestows human race with umpteen benefits. Clean air, Lush green trees, GACLs commitment towards the environment is undying. Safe and 17
  18. 18. unadulterated nature is high on our list of priorities; we are an organization with Green Attitude.A dedicated senior executive heads a Safety andEnvironment Department to maintain high standards ofsafety and a harmonious relationship betweenenvironment and technology. The company has plantedmore than 1, 00,000 plants and it keeps maintaining thesame. With tree plantation being a regular feature, itplants 1000 sapling every year.As a matter of strategy, the company has placed sensorsat strategic locations in and around the complex tomonitor ambient air quality.For disposal of solid waste, GACL has secured dedicatedlandfill site conforming to the hazardous WasteManagement Act. Being a member of Effluent ChannelProject, it releases its liquid effluent in this channel andadheres to the necessary parameters of the GujaratPollution Control Board before discharging it into thechannel. People: Our Valued Assets:World-class technology and self-reliance are baselesswithout brains that work ardently to produce highquality chemicals. People are our real assets, whom wenurture and harness to get the very best out of them.Our conviction is: People make the organization. A sense of belonging is a must for dedication andloyalty. Employees give their best when the company cares for 18
  19. 19. them.Excellent labour relationship helped the company inachieving very high manpower production turnover peremployee per annum. This is also a result of a thin andlean workforce, which is lead by the professionalmanagement. Spreading Our Wings:The unshakeable desire to deliver quality products to ourcustomers means that our products are well accepted,both in India and the world over. Domestic customersare assured of prompt delivery of quality products attheir doorsteps through our well-established network ofdealers and consignment stockiest. Overseas customersare serviced directly or through agents.Caustic-Chlorine being its prime product, the companyhas diversified into value added products like SodiumCyanide, Chloromethane, Hydrogen Peroxide, PotassiumCarbonate, Phosphoric Acid, etc. These value addedproducts provide dual benefit to the organization byhedging against cyclical fluctuations in the Chlor-AlkaliIndustry. GACL sells 26 products today, maintaining itsleadership in Caustic-Chlorine industry with 18% marketshare and has emerged as a major player in the segmentof value added products. 19
  20. 20. VISION, MISSION & GROWTH STRATEGY VISIONTo continue to be identified & recognized as dynamic, modem& ecofriendly chemicals company with enduring ethics &values. MISSION To manage our business responsibility & sensitivity inorder to address the needs of our customers & stakeholders. To strive for continuous improvement performance,measuring results precisely & ensuring GACLs growth &profitability through innovations. To demand from ourselves & others the highest ethicalstandards and to ensure products & processes to be of thehighest quality. GROWTH STRATEGY To remain the largest producer. To maintain highest quality & be the first choice of customer. To have downstream value added products & product mix for better margins. To ultimate good to remain leader in the Chlor alkalis. 20
  21. 21. DEPARTMENTS AT GACL1) Technical Department: Development Department Production Department Engineering Department Quality Control Department Safety & Environmental Department2) Non- Technical Department: Marketing Department Purchase Department Export Department Dispatch Department Finance Department HR Department Personnel Department Security Department Administration Department Time Keeping Department Secretary Department MS Department (Management System) 21
  22. 22. ORGANISATION STRUCTURE MD MmSr. ED GM CS&GM GM CFO Sr. ED(Tech.) (HR&A) (Legal) (MM)&CIO (Commercial) ED ED ED DGM CM (MM) (MS) CGM &CMO(Dahej) (Ranoli) (CPP) CM GM GM CM GM Addnl. GM(Engg. (Operati (Engg. (Security & (Operations) (Mktg.)Service) ons) Service) Vigilance) 22
  23. 23. PRODUCTS OF GACLAs per the classification and the differentiation of theproducts, the products are classified in to SEVEN (7)different Groups.The Groups are Listed and described as below.1) Caustic Soda Group Caustic Soda Flakes (NaOH) Caustic Soda Lye Caustic Soda Pills Sodium hypo chloride (NaOCl) Liquid Chlorine (Cl2) Compressed hydrogen Gas (H2) Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)2) Caustic Potash Group Caustic Potash Flakes (KOH) Caustic Potash Lye Potassium Carbonate3) Chloromethane Group Methyl Chloride (CH3Cl) Methylene Chloride (CH2Cl2) Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl3) Chloroform (CHCl3) 23
  24. 24. 4) Sodium Group Sodium Cyanide (NaCN) Sodium Ferro cyanide [Na4Fe(CN)6 :10H2O]5) Phosphoric Acid Group Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4) Calcium Chloride Flakes (CaCl2) Calcium Chloride Powder6) Hydrogen Peroxide Group Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Bleach win7) Other products Dilute Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4) Scale win (Water treatment chemical) Aluminum Chloride Anhydrous (AlCl3) Poly Aluminum Chloride (The New Product) 24
  25. 25. MILESTONES OF GACL Government of Gujarat promoted GACL in 1973. Its first Caustic Soda, Liquid Chlorine and Hydrochloric Acid Plants went on stream in 1976.Year Achievements1982 Commissioned Sodium Cyanide plant with a capacity of 2000 TPA. GACL went in for a diversification project to manufacture1986 Chloromethane.1987 Commissioned Caustic Soda Flaking unit with a capacity of 26400 TPA First revamp to energy efficient and environment friendly Membrane Cell1989 technology. Commissioned Sodium Ferro cyanide plant (100 TPA) based on in-house1992 Research & Development. Converted balance manufacturing facilities to Membrane Cell & expanded its Caustic Soda capacity to 153500 TPA. Expanded caustic flaking unit to 53000 TPA.1994 Commissioned caustic potash plant with a capacity of 16500 TPA. First certification IS/ISO 9002:1994.1995 Phosphoric Acid Plant started production at Dahej. Hydrogen Peroxide plant commissioned.1996 Commissioning of 300 TPD of Caustic Soda & 90 MW power plants at1998 Dahej. Commissioning of Caustic Potash/Flakes, Vadodara.2000 Increase in H2O2 Capacity to 12540 MTA. 252001
  26. 26. Up gradation of ISO Certificate from 9002:1994 to 9001:2000.2003 ISO 14001:1996 Certificate for Vadodara Complex and Dahej Complex.2004 Commissioning of Calcium Chloride plant at Dahej.2005 ISO 18001:2000 Certificate for Vadodara Complex and Dahej Complex.2006 Commissioning of Poly Aluminum Chloride Plant at Dahej Complex Commissioning of Poly Aluminum Chloride at Vadodra with same capacity. Commissioning of Hydrogen Peroxide at Dahej with capacity of 125402007 TPA. Commissioning of Anhydrous Aluminum chloride with capacity of 16500 TPA. Commissioning of wind power project at Moti Sindhodi, Kutch with 23.752008 MW (1.25MW*19Nos.) rs 122.02 crores. Commissioning of second phase wind mill project of 39 MW at Gandhidham started on 12.01.2009. In the month of February 2009 all WTG have been commissioned. RA-10 commissioned in the month of October in MC-2 20092009 Dr. M filter commissioned on 20.11.2009. G-5B electrolysers(E-1,2,8 and partly 7) are commissioned on 15.12.2009 One more electrolysers commissioned for 50 TPD production of CSL stated at Dahej CSL plant.2010 21 MW wind mill project commissioned on 22.03.2010. 25 TPD CaCL2 plant at sodium Cyanide complex of Baroda has been2011 commissioned on 20.01.2011. 25 TPD stable Bleaching powder plant at Dahej is commissioned on 2nd2011 march 2011. 42 TPD Hydrogen Peroxide plant (phase-2) is commissioned.2011 At Dahej on 27.06.2011 26
  27. 27. MANPOWER STRENGTH Manpower is the real strength of any organization & that is so in GACL also. The total manpower strength at GACL includes both management & Non- Management Category. As on 31/5/2011 details Ranoli Dahej Total Management 424 218 831 Non Management 366 465 831 Trainee Management 7 2 9 Trainee Non Management 21 10 31 Contractual Management 6 2 8Contractual Non Management 44 34 78 Apprentice Management 10 11 21Apprentice Non Management 56 41 97 Total 934 783 1717 Thus, the total manpower strength at GACL has 1717 employees 27
  28. 28. POLICIES AT GACL 28
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  35. 35. OVERVIEW OF CLM PLANT SECTION 100 (THERMAL CHLORINATION) Thermal chlorination of methane is carried out in four cylindrical reactors simultaneously.Gases like methane, chlorine, nitrogen, recycle gases are passed in these cylinders. There are basic four reactions involved in production of chloromethane by thermal chlorination of methane gas. CH4+CL2 = CH3CL+HCL CH3CL+CL2=CH2CL2+HCL CH2CL2+CL2=CHCL3+HCL CHCL3+CL2=CCL4+HCL 35
  36. 36. SECTION 300-400 (HCL ABSORPTION AND DEHUMIDIFICATION) The product mixture coming from section 100 contains HCL alongwith product which must be removed as it is highly corrosive in nature, so if there is HCL along with product it would be difficult to handle the process fluid. This product mixture enters in to six columns & where in HCL is removed by the process of absorption, there after another processes are carried out in these columns like de-acidification,neutralization, dehumidification & drying is carried out. Dehumidification & Drying columns are provided to get moisture level in the product gas mixture below 50 ppm. SECTION 500 (COMPRESSION AND LIQUIFICATION) The process gas from last column is taken to section 500 where the gas is being compressed & cooled so that the product will liquefy under these conditions. 36
  37. 37. SECTION 800 (DISTILLATION) In this section the liquefied & pressurized mixture is taken for distillation to get pure product. There are total ten columnsprovided to separate four products from impurities. First two areprovided for Cl separation, then two for C2, three for C3 & last three for C4 separation from low boilers & other impurities. Cl-Methyl Chloride C2 - Methylene Chloride C3 - Chloroform C4 - Carbon Tetra Chloride SECTION 200 (PHOTOCHLORINATION) This section is provided to raise the higher derivatives ofmethane as a product keeping market demand in mind, feed for photo chlorination can be adjusted in such a way that either production of C29 C3 & C4 can be optimized as per market requirement. 37
  38. 38. SECTION 700 (CRUDE PRODUCTION HANDLING) Crude product from almost each section is dumped inTK-701 tank plus HCL formed in liquid phase is also dumped inthis tank. Product after purification in this section is taken to 800 sections for distillation. SECTION 900 (PRODUCT HANDLING AND STORAGE) Product handling & storage is the last section of CLM plant. As all four products have their properties differing from each other so their storage conditions are also different. 38
  39. 39. CLASSIFICATION OF PUMPS Pumps are classified o n the basis of the principle by which the energy is added to the fluid and their design feature. PUMPS(1) Dynamic Pressure (2) Positive Displacement Pumps Pumpsa) Centrifugal pump (a) Reciprocating pumpb) Turbine pump (b) Rotary pumpc) Propeller pump CENTRIFUGAL PUMP (PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION) The centrifugal pump works on the principle of forced vortex flow which means the certain mass of liquid rotated by an external torque. The rise in pressure head of the rotating liquid takes place. 39
  40. 40. MAIN COMPONENTS OF C.P.The main components of C.P. are shown in figure,The main components are....(1) Casing(2) Impeller(3) Wear-Ring(4) Shaft(5) Shaft-sleeve(6) Bearing(7) Bearing Frame(8) Breather(9) Cir-Clip(10) Seals etc.... 40
  41. 41. Wear Rings Pump Case Shaft Sealing Shaft Bearing Bracket Front and back renewable The pump case is of rigid design SCP pumps can be fitted with The heavy duty console with wear rings arc furnished in with a generous wall thickness, most scaling arrangements; incorporated assure silent and order to achieve the best giving good protection against - Soft packing reliable operationpump performance and ease erosion and corrosion the maintenance Front and back renewable fully Ample dimensioned single and The shaft is protected by a endorsed. Single-piece casting double row ball bearings improve replaceable shaft sleeve gives reliability, long trouble- the stiffness and infinite shaft stainless sled free operation and high deflection efficiency For high temperature applications (90-160 STCP C) an arrangement foot hot water is pro- vided. This modification includes a cooling chamber for introduction of the cooling medium ■ Vertical arrangement is mainly used VSCP in systems for water-supply, miming, civil engineering, waste water applications, irrigation systems etc. CENTRIFUGAL PUMP PARTS 41
  42. 42. (1)CASING The basic function of casing is to provide support to thecomponents. The casing has to contain the impeller attached tothe shaft and allow them to rotate smoothly inside thus activatingthe process. The casing is usually made of C.I. because it hasexcellent cast ability coupled with machine ability and low cost.The following three types of casing are used for generalpurpose:- Volute casing Vortex casing, Casing with guide blades. (2)IMPELLER The impeller is rotating device in the pump that drawsand delivers out the fluid in a specified direction under pressure. There are two types of impellers. Linear Axial Impeller Francis Impeller 42
  43. 43. (3)WEAR RINGS Wear rings are attachment given to soft areas to prevent erosion and wear. These are made of hard and wear resistant materials. Wear rings provide an easy and economically replaceable leakage proof Joint between impeller and casing. (4)SHAFT The basic function of shaft is to transmit the torque or power. (5)THE SHAFT SLEEVE The shaft sleeve covers the shaft tightly and protects itfrom corrosion erosion and wear, it must have a close tolerance in order to have a close running fit. It should have the same thermal expansion similar to the shaft material have. A sleeve material used in G.A.C.L. is S 43
  44. 44. SFA LS AND STUFFING B The seal blocks the fluid that is being circulated through casing from escaping to rear Part of the pump through thecontact between shaft and casing. There are two types of seal:- Mechanical Type Seal. Packing Type Seal. BEARINGS The main function of the bearing is to support therotating assembly by taking load and guide the shaft in order toavoid the vibrations. The most common bearing is ball bearing. Bearings are usually made of A1SI -52100 STEEL. BEARING FRAME The bearing frame is usually made of steel. For absolute corrosion resistance and good appearance stainless steel housing or frame can be used. 44
  45. 45. CIR CLIP & STAR LOCK WASHERCir clip & Star lock Washer is provided for locking the Bearing. PREATHER To provide inlet & outlet of air for bearing frame. VARIOUS TERMS DEFINITIONS USED FOR C.P. SUCTION HEAD It is the vertical height of the centerline of the c.p. above theliquid surface in the tank of pump from which the liquid is to be lifted. 45
  46. 46. The vertical distance between the centre line of the pump andthe liquid surface of the tank to which liquid is to be delivered is known is delivery head. STATIC HEAD It is the sum of suction head and delivery head MANOMATRIC HEAD The manomatric head is defined against which a C.P. has to work. PRIMING Priming of a c.p. is defined as the operation in which thesuction pipe casing of the pump and a portion of delivery pipe 46
  47. 47. up to delivery valve is completely filled up from out-side sourcewith the liquid to be raised by the pump before starting a pump. By this way the air from those parts of pump will be removed and these parts are filled with the liquid to be pumped. CAVITATIONCavitation is defined as the phenomena of formation of vapourbubbles of flowing liquid in a region where the pressure of liquidfalls below its vapour pressure and sudden collapsing of these vapour bubbles in a region of higher pressure. The metallic surface above which these vapour bubbles collapse is subjected to the high pressure which cause pitting thus cavities is formed on the metallic surface and also considerable noise and vibration is produced due to the cavitation, the efficiency of C.P. is decreased. 47
  48. 48. PREAUTIONS FOR CAVITATIONThe following precautions should be taken against cavitation…. The pressure of the flowing liquid in any part of the hydraulic system should not allow falling below its vapour pressure. The special materials or coatings such as Aluminum-bronze and stainless steel which are cavitation resistant should be used CAVITATION IN C.P. In C.P. the cavitation may occur at the inlet of the Impeller ofthe Pump or at the suction of the Pump where the pressure is considerably reduced. The cavitation in a pump can be noted by a sudden drop of efficiency and head. 48
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  50. 50. NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD The term NPSH is very commonly used in the pumpIndustry. Actually the minimum suction conditions are more frequently specified in terms of NPSH. NPSH means the total head required to make the liquid flow through the suction pipe to the pump impeller.USES OF THIS TYPE OF PUMPS IN GACLFor handling alkaline fluids,For anti corrosive application,For handling HCL RECIPROCATING PUMP In reciprocating pump liquid is drawn through anInlet check valve into the cylinder by the withdrawal of piston & forced out of discharge check valve onthe return stroke. They are also called piston pumps, 50
  51. 51. plunger pumps & diaphragm pump. MAIN PARTSPistonPiston rodBearing frameMechanical sealGrand inletCouplingOutlet valveConnecting rodCrankshaft 51
  52. 52. -Most of piston pumps are double acting. Two or more cylinders areused in parallel with common Suction & discharge headers adjusted to minimize the fluctuation in discharge rate. It is independent of the speed with normal operating limits & decreases slightly with increase in discharge pressure because of added friction & leakage. 52
  53. 53. USES OF THIS TYPE OF PUMPFor brine separation,For chemical dosing in boiler feed pump. COMPRESSORS RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR SCREW COMPRESSOR RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR There are 14 reciprocating compressorsof different kinds in C.L.M plant of G.A.C.L.There are 8 RG compressors, 4 Instrument aircompressors and 2 Nitrogen compressors wefind in C.L.M plant. 53
  54. 54. Main parts used in reciprocatingcompressor are piston, piston rod, cross head,crank shaft, connecting rod, cylinders, flywheel,Intercooler, after cooler, pulley, motor, suctionvalve, discharge valve, etc. In reciprocating air compressor, air iscompressed by the movement of the piston in thecylinder. Piston is reciprocated by flywheel and crankshaft. The rotary motion of flywheel and crank shaftis transferred to reciprocating motion of piston bycrosshead. Piston rod moves the piston in thecylinder and compresses the air in the cylinder. 54
  55. 55. In G.A.CL the reciprocating compressors are two stage compressors. In two stage compressors two cylinders are used. L.P. cylinders are larger in volume than H.P. Cylinders. In two stage compressors the gases first compressed into L.P. Cylinder and after that it is cooled in intercooler. Intercooler cools the gases to the temperaturewhich is equivalent to the temperature desired at thesuction side of the H.P. cylinder. If the gases are notcooled than in the second stage the temperature of the gases will so high that it can damage thecompressor. After the gases cooled in intercooler, it is entered in H.P. cylinder and it compressed to desired pressure. Reciprocating Compressors are also of two types: Lubricating and Non-lubricating compressors. In non-lubricating compressors the parts are lubricated accept piston and piston ring. In non-lubricating compressor the Non lubricating parts are made of Carbon Filled Teflon (CFT). NonLubricating parts are used to avoid contamination of lubricating oil with Process Gas. 55
  56. 56. V-TYPE COMPRESSORV-type compressor is special type of reciprocatingcompressor. Its L.P. and H.P. cylinders which formV shape. In v- type compressor the compression of nature gas take place, it is a two stage double acting and non lubricating compressor. In v type compressor at the suction side of L.P. cylinder natural gas enters and compressed and itstemperature and pressure increases, after that thecompressed natural gas enters intercooler and its temperature is reduced. Then low temperature compressed natural gasenters into the H.P. cylinder and is compressed todesired pressure. Then highly compressed naturalgas enters into the after cooler and cools down and fed to the process. 56
  57. 57. CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR In centrifugal compressor, centrifugal force is exerted over the fluid. Here energy is transferred by dynamic means from the rotating impeller. When the impeller rotates at high speed, suction is created at the impeller eye and air is drawn from the accelerating nozzle. Due to this the velocity of air is increased and the pressure, temperature is decreased. Housing Air out Air Thrown at rim of impeller Air entersImpeller in a center CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR 57
  58. 58. The diffuser is provided with impeller. Diffuser converts velocity of air into pressure and the air is compressed, Impeller is used to increase the energy of the fluid by whirling it outwards and increasing the angular momentum of the fluid. In G.A.C.L. these compressors are used at Hydrogen Peroxide unit. In H202 plant, two stageCentrifugal compressors are used to compress theair. In this inter cooling is done by the cooling water which surrounds the tubes through which compressed air is passed. SCREW COMPRESSORScrew compressor is positive displacement typecompressor. In screw compressor the compressionis accomplished by the enmeshing two matinshelical grooved rotors which are housed in acylinder. 58
  59. 59. FIG: SCREW COMPRESSOR The male rotor is usually a drivingelement with series of grooves along the length ofthe rotor. Male rotor grooves mesh with similarlyformed helical flutes on the female rotor which is usually driven element. The entrapped gas is compressed as itpasses through the two rotors. Here a narrowing 59
  60. 60. Passage is formed as the gas will pass through thegap of two rotors. The gas is passed due to rotatingmotion of the two rotors. The gases will be passed due to rotating motion of rotors and will bedischarged at outlet. Gas will come from the bottomof the screw compressor and it will get compressed between the two rotors.  VALVES At G.A.C.L various plants contain thousands of valves of different size and shapes with variety of designs. Basically all valves serve a commonpurpose to slow down or to stop the flow of the fluid. Other types of valves are designed to throttle or to reduce the pressure and the flow rate of the fluid. They will permit flow In One direction only undercertain condition of temperature and pressure. Thisis done by placing an obstruction that can be moved along inside with little or no leakage of the fluid. 60
  61. 61. Various types of valves used in G.A.C.L are.... Sate valve Ball valve Butterfly valve Globe valve Check valve N.R.V valve Gate valve Needle valve 61
  62. 62.  BLOWERSVarious types of blowers used in GACL are Centrifugal blower Lobe blower.  BOILERS In G.A.C.L. mainly gas fired boilers are used for the purpose of steam production. This steam is used in various plants of G.A.C.L. in CLM plant it is used in distillation tower.  COOLING TOWERS In G.A.C.L. there are 5 cooling towers, all are induced draft cross flow and having different cooling capacities. There are baffles provided for better contact between cold air & hot water. Cold water is collected in tank at the base of tower & from there it is sent to cooling systems through pump. 62
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