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Immigration Facts: What Every Citizen Needs To Know - 2013

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AZEIR's popular "Immigration Facts" presentation updated for the Arizona Federal Immigration Reform Debates. All slides are source-cited and clearly viewable. Feel free to use at public meetings or presentations where a proven source of heavily researched information would be helpful.

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Immigration Facts: What Every Citizen Needs To Know - 2013

  1. 1. Immigration Facts What Every Citizen Needs to Know © 2008-2013 Arizona Employers for Immigration Reform, All Rights Reserved 1
  2. 2. “A salient characteristic of the current debate on U.S. immigration policy is the high ratio of hot air to data.” Dr. Douglas Massey Co-director, Mexican Migration Project Princeton University Source: “Crossing The Border, What We Learned From The Mexican Migration Project,” Durand, Jorge and Douglas S. Massey, p. 1. 3
  3. 3. Immigration Quiz: True or False? Increase amount of crime Take jobs from Americans Don’t pay any taxes Strain health care & education systems Increase terrorism threat 4
  4. 4. Immigration Quiz: True or False? Won’t enter legally Don’t assimilate, learn English, respect culture No Constitutional Rights Come here to vote illegally Threaten our sovereignty 5
  5. 5. What people believe 6
  6. 6. 67% Believe they won’t assimilate or learn English Source: Zogby American Poll, April 2006 7
  7. 7. 52% Believe they strain health care, education and social services Source: Pew Hispanic Center, The State of American Public Opinion on Immigration in Spring 2006 8
  8. 8. 49% Believe they don’t pay taxes Source: Benson Strategy Group, Immigration Opinions Poll, May 9-12, 2009 9
  9. 9. 48% Believe they threaten our sovereignty Source: Pew Hispanic Center 2006 Immigration Survey, February 8-March 7, 2006 10
  10. 10. 39% Believe they increase the crime rate Source: FOX News/Opinion Dynamics Poll, 6 April 06 11
  11. 11. 35% Believe they take jobs from Americans Source: Time Magazine Poll, March, 29-30, 2006 12
  12. 12. 31% Believe they increase the threat of terrorism Source: Opinion Dynamics Fox News Poll, April 25-26, 2006 13
  13. 13. 20% Believe they won’t enter the country legally Source: Benson Strategy Group, Immigration Opinions Poll, May 9-12, 2009 14
  14. 14. 66% Believe immigration is a “good” thing for the U.S. Source: Gallup Poll, June 7-10, 2012 15
  15. 15. 63% Believe illegal immigrants who have lived in the U.S. since they were children should be eligible for legal citizenship Source: Fox News Poll, Oct. 23-25, 2011 16
  16. 16. 62% Believe the 14th Amendment should not be revised or reinterpreted Source: Time Poll, June 20-21, 2011 17
  17. 17. “A lie gets halfway around the world before the truth gets its boots on.” Charles Haddon Spurgeon 19th Century Minister 20
  18. 18. Checking The Facts 21
  19. 19. PolitiFact Immigration Checks Pants On Fire FALSE Mostly False Half True Mostly True TRUE 19 56 33 41 31 23 9.4% 27.6% 16.3% 20.25 15.3% 11.3% Wrong 88.7% Source: PolitiFact.com immigration topic, updated 7/06/12. N = 203 11.3% 22
  20. 20. AZ FactCheck: Immigration FALSE Mostly False Somewhat False Somewhat True Mostly True TRUE 29 4 8 4 4 59.2% 8.2% 16.3% 8.2% 8.2% Wrong 91.8% 8.2% Source: Arizona Republic, AZ Fact Check immigration topic, updated 7/08/12. N = 49 23
  21. 21. Race 24
  22. 22. White U.S. Census Bureau racial classification for all Hispanics who are not clearly Black, American Indian or Asian Source: Census 2000 Brief, "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin." 25
  23. 23. Ethnicity What the term “Hispanic” really refers to in the U.S. Census Bureau classification system Source: Census 2000 Brief, "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin." 26
  24. 24. “The People” What the proper translation of the word “La Raza” means in context Source: The Translation of Our Name: National Council of La Raza 27
  25. 25. Legality 28
  26. 26. Civil The type of offense for entering the U.S. at an “improper time or place” Source: USC 18, Title 12, Subchapter 2, Part VIII, Section 1325 29
  27. 27. $50-$250 The penalty for entering the U.S. at an “improper time or place” Source: USC 18, Title 12, Subchapter 2, Part VIII, Section 1325 (b) 30
  28. 28. False Papers Point at which improper entry becomes a criminal offense Source: USC 18, Title 12, Subchapter 2, Part VIII, Section 1325 (a)(3) 31
  29. 29. AZ, GA, AL States in which being in the country without papers is a Felony 32
  30. 30. 1993 The year Mexican immigrants would have had to apply for entry visas in order to receive them in 2013 Source: Visa Bulletin No. 63, Vol. IX. U.S. Department of State, December 2013. 33
  31. 31. 85% Percentage of undocumented entries from Mexico offset by departures between 1965 and 1985 Source: Massey & Singer, New Estimates of Undocumented Mexican Migration and the Probability of Apprehension, 1995 34
  32. 32. 45% Percentage of undocumented immigrants who overstayed a legal visa in 2006 Source: Pew Hispanic Center, Modes of Entry for the Unauthorized Migrant Population, May 2006 35
  33. 33. 25% Percent of in-country overstay leads deemed credible and forwarded to ICE for investigation in 2008 Source: DHS, “Department of Homeland Security Annual Performance Report Fiscal Years 2008 - 2010,” p. 31. 36
  34. 34. 150,000 Average number of unauthorized immigrants from Mexico arriving annually March 2007 to March 2009 Source: Pew Hispanic Center, Unauthorized Immigrant Population: National and State Trends, 2010, p. 10. 37
  35. 35. 3% Percentage of total U.S. population estimated to be undocumented Source: Dept. of Homeland Security, Center for Immigration Statistics 38
  36. 36. 10 Years a naturalized citizen from Mexico may have to wait to bring their spouse into the U.S. Source: American Immigration Lawyers Association, AILA Backgrounder: Myths and Facts in the Immigration Debate 39
  37. 37. 38 Years the undocumented parents of a U.S. citizen will have to wait to legally become U.S. citizens Source: Calculations based on existing U.S. Law and historical immigration processing times. 40
  38. 38. Birthright Fallacy Penalty Penalty Source: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service 41 Wait Wait 38 years 53 years
  39. 39. Population Growth 19902012 9% 10.6% 11.2% 9.5% 10% 16.9% 15.8%16.3% 16.7% 14.8% 15% 15.4% 13% 14.1% 12.5% Source: U.S. Census Bureau, State & County QuickFacts, 2011 42
  40. 40. Crime 44
  41. 41. 4.4% Estimate of all Arizona crimes committed by undocumented immigrants Source: ASU Incarceration Study, 2006 45
  42. 42. 3.48% Percent of all undocumented immigrants DHS deported from Arizona with prior criminal records Source: DHS, Fact Sheet: Arizona Border Control Initiative – Phase II, March 30, 2005 46
  43. 43. 2.1% Percent of MCSO arrests of undocumented immigrants as percent of total arrests Source: MCSO web site and press releases 47
  44. 44. 10% Percent of all people booked into MCSO jails subject to an ICE “hold” Source: M. Kiefer, Arizona Republic, Feb. 25, 2008 48
  45. 45. 52.5% Percent drop in violent crime as undocumented population grew between 1994-2006 Source: U.S. DoJ, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Key Facts At A Glance, March 29, 2010 49
  46. 46. 48.6% Percent drop in property crime as undocumented population grew between 1994-2006 Source: U.S. DoJ, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Key Facts At A Glance, March 29, 2010 50
  47. 47. What is the truth? Although the undocumented population has grown by an estimated 1,400 people per day, the murder rate declined from 61 per day in 1996 to 47 per day in 2006. Total murders per day have declined while the number of undocumented aliens entering the country has increased. Source: Paul Stiles, Novice Bear, January 10, 2008 51
  48. 48. Arizona Adult Arrests 20022012 Source: Arizona Department of Public Safety, “Crime in Arizona” Reports, 2002-2012 52
  49. 49. 45% Percentage that first-generation immigrants are less likely to commit any crime Source: Sampson, Morenoff, et. al.: Public Health Matters, Vol. 95., No. 2, pp. 224232 53
  50. 50. 13% Incarceration rate of native-born males 18-39 in California with less than a high school diploma Source: Crime, Corrections and California, California Counts, PPIC, Vol. 9, No. 3, February, 2008, p. 13 54
  51. 51. 0.48% Incarceration rate of immigrant males 18-40 in California with less than a high school diploma Source: Crime, Corrections and California, California Counts, PPIC, Vol. 9, No. 3, February, 2008, p. 13 55
  52. 52. 8 Times U.S. born men 18-40 are more likely than non-citizen Mexicans to be in CA jail or state prison. Source: Crime, Corrections and California, California Counts, PPIC, Vol. 9, No. 3, February, 2008 56
  53. 53. 5 Number of times native citizens are more likely to be incarcerated than any immigrant Source: Debunking the Myth of Immigrant Criminality: Imprisonment Among First- and SecondGeneration Young Men, Rubén G. Rumbaut, Roberto G. Gonzales, Golnaz Komaie, and Charlie V. Morgan, 2006 57
  54. 54. 74.5% The percentage of the U.S. prison population who are U.S. citizens Source: U.S Bureau of Prisons, BOP Quick Facts, October 26, 2013 58
  55. 55. 17.9% Percentage of the U.S. prison population who are Mexican citizens Source: U.S Bureau of Prisons, BOP Quick Facts, October 26, 2013 59
  56. 56. 28.3% Hispanics as a percentage of all persons arrested in Arizona in 2012 Source: Arizona Department of Public Safety, “Crime in Arizona,” 2012, p 62. 60
  57. 57. 29.6% Hispanics as a percentage of all Arizona residents, 2010 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2010 Census Results 61
  58. 58. Hispanic Crime In Arizona Source: U.S. Census Bureau, “American Community Surveys,” 2004-2013, and ADPS “Crime in Arizona” reports 2004-2012 62
  59. 59. Crime Fallacies Unauthorized Claim Reality Difference % in Federal Prison 35% 17.5% +200% Prison Population 33% 13.8% +240% Violent Crime Drop 3X US Avg. 18.6% -15.2% +122% Hate Crime Increase ‘07-’09 Not a problem +26% +2,600% Identity Theft, Fraud & Forgery 100% 2.2% -97.8% 63
  60. 60. “Crime” Fallacy 253 inmate decrease equals 1.5% of total prisoners Source: Arizona Dept. Of Corrections CAGJul10.pdf - CAGMar12.pdf 65
  61. 61. Jobs 67
  62. 62. 59% Percent of undocumented Mexican immigrants who have not completed high-school Source: Pew Hispanic Center, Demographic Portrait of Mexican Origin Hispanics In The U.S., May 1, 2013, p. 36. 68
  63. 63. $501 Foreign-born Hispanic Median Weekly Earnings for 2012 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, FOREIGN-BORN WORKERS: LABOR FORCE Characteristics - 2012, Table 5 69
  64. 64. $641 Native-born Hispanic Median Weekly Earnings for 2012 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, FOREIGN-BORN WORKERS: LABOR FORCE Characteristics - 2012, Table 5 70
  65. 65. $7.80/hr Arizona minimum wage for 2013 Source: The Industrial Commission of Arizona, Minimum Wage Standard, 2013 . 71
  66. 66. $9.73/hr Arizona H-2A hourly Adverse Effect Wage Rate (AWER) for 2013 Source: USDA 75 FR 6884, February 12, 2010 72
  67. 67. $61,267 Median annual income for family of four in 2012 Source: Department of Justice, Median Income for 4-Person Families, by State, 2012 73
  68. 68. $71,000 Median salary of H1-B visa beneficiaries, 2013 Source: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, “Characteristics of H1B Specialty Workers, FY2012,” p. ii. 74
  69. 69. $36,000 Average family income of a migrant family of four Source: Pew Hispanic Center, “A Portrait of Unauthorized Immigrants in the United States, 2009,” p. 16 75
  70. 70. 14 million Number of new jobs created in U.S. between 1996 and 2000 Source: Bean, Frank D., and Gillian Stevens, 2003. America’s Newcomers and the Dynamics of Diversity. 76
  71. 71. 12 million Total U.S. population growth between 1996 and 2000 Source: Bean, Frank D., and Gillian Stevens, 2003. America’s Newcomers and the Dynamics of Diversity. 77
  72. 72. Undocumented Impact on AZ Wages Source: Peri, Giovanni, “Immigration, Labor Market and Wages: The Economists’ Perspective,” slide 15. 78
  73. 73. Foreign-Born Labor Force: 2007 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, The Foreign-Born Labor Force in the United States: 2007 & 2012 79
  74. 74. Occupation on First Trip (Mexican) 0 % 0.3 % 0.4 % 0.4 % 0 % Source: Mexican Migration Project, MMP128 - PERS File 80
  75. 75. Annual Immigration Limits: 1996, 2004-2013 Source: DHS, Office of Immigration Statistics, Visa Bulletiin: 1996, 2004-2013 81
  76. 76. A Comparison of U.S. Wage Rates 1986-2011 Source: USDA, National Agriculture Statistics Service, Farm Labor: Wage Rate by Type by Year, US 82
  77. 77. 72 Number of hours to fill quota of 65,000 H1-B visas for 2014 Source: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services 83
  78. 78. 60 Days needed to fill quota of 66,000 H-2B visas for 2014 Source: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services 84
  79. 79. 30,000 Number of field workers needed in Yuma to bring in a winter lettuce crop Source: Interview on Desert Politics, Dec. 8, 2007 85
  80. 80. 318 Number of new “Employment Preference” visas issued to Mexican citizens for all of 2012 Source: U.S. Department of State, Report of the Visa Office 2012, Table III 86
  81. 81. 1,316,118 Number of Mexicans still waiting for their green-card applications to be accepted or rejected in 2013 Source: http://www.travel.state.gov/pdf/WaitingListItem.pdf 87
  82. 82. 5,000 Number of green cards annually available worldwide for low-wage workers to immigrate permanently Source: Section 203(e) of the Nicaraguan Adjustment and Central American Relief Act, as amended by Section 1(e) of Pub. L. 105-139. 88
  83. 83. 11,000 Agricultural job demand following GA’s passing HB87 in June, 2011 Source: Atlanta Journal Constitution 89
  84. 84. 14 Number of probationers ordered by GA Governor Deal to harvest crops who actually showed up Source: Atlanta Journal Constitution 90
  85. 85. 2 Number of Georgia probationers who remained in the fields after one week on the job Source: Atlanta Journal Constitution 91
  86. 86. Taxes 94
  87. 87. $940M Undocumented immigrant’s net financial benefit to the Arizona economy Source: University of Arizona, Immigrants in Arizona, Gans, 2006 95
  88. 88. $78M Undocumented immigrant’s sales tax contributions to the Arizona economy Source: University of Arizona, Immigrants in Arizona, Gans, 2006 96
  89. 89. $993B Earnings Suspense File account balance from non-matching SSNs as of the end of TY 2009 Source: U.S. Social Security Administration, SSA’S FY 2012 Performance and Accountability Report 97
  90. 90. 60% Percent growth in SSA Earnings Suspense File account balance 2005-2009 Source: U.S. Social Security Administration, SSA’S FY 2009 Performance and Accountability Report 98
  91. 91. $0 Amount of Suspense Fund balance payable to undocumented immigrants Source: U.S. Social Security Administration, Auditor’s Report, 2007 99
  92. 92. $1B Loss in Arizona state revenues from the loss of 50,000 immigrants Source: APS Immigration Loss Impact Study 100
  93. 93. $48.8B Annual estimated economic impact on Arizona’s economy from loss of 450,000 immigrants Source: “Rising Tide or Shrinking Pie,” Dr. Raúl Hinojosa-Ojeda, Marshall Fitz, March 2011 101
  94. 94. Zero Number of jurisdictions realizing any economic or social benefit promised by proponents of anti-immigration legislation Source: “A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Analysis of the Impact of the Oklahoma Taxpayer and Citizen Protection Act of 2007,” Economic Impact Group, LLC, 2008 102
  95. 95. Assimilation & Integration 104
  96. 96. 1910 The year in which the percentage of foreign-born residents reached its peak of 14.7% Source: Pew Hispanic Center, 2007 and Gibbons and Lennon, 1999 105
  97. 97. 12.9% Percentage of foreign-born residents of the U.S. in 2010 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 American Community Survey, The Foreign-Born Population in the United States: 2010 106
  98. 98. 13 Annual rate of immigrants per 1,000 U.S. residents in 1910 Source: The New Americans, National Research Council 107
  99. 99. 3 Annual rate of immigrants per 1,000 U.S. residents in 2005 Source: The New Americans, National Research Council 108
  100. 100. 25% Percentage of the immigrant population that could not speak English at all in 1900 Source: George Rodriguez, “ From Newcomers to New Americans...,” p. 18 109
  101. 101. 8% Percentage of the immigrant population that could not speak English at all in 1990 Source: George Rodriguez, “ From Newcomers to New Americans...,” p. 18 110
  102. 102. 95% Percentage of Mexican-Americans who could speak English well in 1990 Source: R. Alba and V. Nee, “Remaking the American Mainstream: Assimilation and Contemporary Immigration” p. 227 111
  103. 103. 47 million Number of U.S. citizens who speak a non-English language at home 19802000 Source: Bean FD, Stevens G. 2003. America’s Newcomers and the Dynamics of Diversity. New York: Russell Sage. P. 149 112
  104. 104. 757,434 Total number of new naturalized citizens in 2011 Source: DHS, Office of Immigration Statistics, Naturalizations in the U.S., 2012 113
  105. 105. 2X The rate at which Mexican immigrants become legal U.S. citizens compared to other countries Source: DHS, Office of Immigration Statistics, Naturalizations in the U.S., 2009 114
  106. 106. 10 Number of years after arrival that 75% of immigrants speak English as well as natives Source: American Immigration Lawyers Association, Myths vs, Facts 115
  107. 107. Learning the language Source: Pew Hispanic Center, “English Usage Among Hispanics in the United States,” November 29, 2007, and Migration Policy Institute, “Bilingualism Persists, But English Still Dominates,” February, 2005. 116
  108. 108. 30 Number of years the unavailability of English language programs delays assimilation Source: Pew Hispanic Center 117
  109. 109. 21.5% Percent of the recipients of the Congressional Medal of Honor in U.S. wars who were immigrants Source: Congressional Medal of Honor Society, December, 2013 118
  110. 110. 51% Percentage of first-generation California immigrants (1970’s) who have purchased homes by 2000 Source: Russell Sage Foundation 119
  111. 111. 46% Percentage of California Hispanics who own their own homes, 2008 Source: Pew Hispanic Center, Demographic Profile of Hispanics in California, 2008 120
  112. 112. 53% Percentage of Arizona Hispanics who own their own homes, 2011 Source: Pew Hispanic Center, Demographic Profile of Hispanics in Arizona, 2011 121
  113. 113. 75% Percentage of all immigrants who have legal permanent resident status Source: Dept. of Homeland Security 122
  114. 114. 36% Percentage of eligible Mexicans who become U.S. citizens Source: Pew Hispanic Center, “The Path Not Taken,” February, 2013 123
  115. 115. Social & Health Services 124
  116. 116. 3% Percentage of any kind or any status of immigrant who receives food stamps Source: Federalist Society Seminar Immigration, Amnesty and the Rule of Law, Nov. 16, 2007 125
  117. 117. 10 Years legal permanent residents must pay into Social Security and Medicare before they get benefits Source: Congressional Research Service 126
  118. 118. 10% Percentage of California’s uncompensated health care in 2007 attributable to undocumented immigrant’s E.R. use Source: California Hospital Association 127
  119. 119. 13% National percentage of “Hispanic or Latino” total E.R. visits in 2006 Source: National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2006 Emergency Department Summary, Table 2: Number, percent distribution, and annual rate of emergency department visits with corresponding standard errors, by patient characteristics: United States, 2006 128
  120. 120. 61% “White non-Hispanic” percentage of total Arizona E.R. visits in 2008 Source: ADHS Table 4C-2 “Rates* of Emergency Room Visits by Race/Ethnicity and Gender, Arizona, 2008 129
  121. 121. 23% Percentage of total Arizona E.R. visits by Hispanics 2005 Source: ASU Center for Health Information & Research, Race/Ethnicity, Figure 4. 130
  122. 122. 50% Percent undocumented immigrants are less likely to use emergency rooms than native Latinos Source: Sampson, Morenoff, et. al.: Public Health Matters, Vol. 95., No. 2 131
  123. 123. 2.1 The number of fewer doctor visits of undocumented Latinos compared with their US-born counterparts Source: Alexander N. Ortega, PhD, et.al; Archives of Internal Medicine. 2007;167(21): 2354-2360 132
  124. 124. 1/2 - 2/3 Recent immigrants' per-person unadjusted medical expenditures compared to U.S. born, even when immigrants had full insurance Source: Alexander N. Ortega, PhD, et.al; Archives of Internal Medicine. 2007;167(21): 2354-2360 133
  125. 125. $11 Estimated taxes per-person spent annually on health care for undocumented immigrants aged 1864 Source: “Immigrants And The Cost Of Medical Care: Health Affairs, 25, no. 6 (2006): 1700-1711 134
  126. 126. “It ain’t what you don’t know that gets you into trouble. It’s what you know for sure that just ain’t so.” Mark Twain 135
  127. 127. Other Facts 136
  128. 128. 0 Number of undocumented immigrants who registered to vote in Maricopa County 1991-Present Source: Desert Politics Interview with Maricopa County Director of Elections, Karen Osborne, 11/3/07 137
  129. 129. Felony Level of crime for any non-citizen to attempt to register to vote Source: Desert Politics Interview with Maricopa County Director of Elections, Karen Osborne, 11/3/07 138
  130. 130. Zero A green-card holder’s chances of becoming a U.S. citizen after attempting to register to vote Source: Desert Politics Interview with Maricopa County Director of Elections, Karen Osborne, 11/3/07 139
  131. 131. 25 Number of states legislatures where SB 1070 copycat laws were introduced in 2011 Source: National Council of State Legislators, http://www.ncsl.org/default.aspx?tabid=19897 140
  132. 132. 4 Number of states where SB 1070 copycats passed into law in 2011 Source: National Council of State Legislators, http://www.ncsl.org/default.aspx?tabid=19897 141
  133. 133. 84% Failure rate of state SB 1070 copycat laws in 2011 Source: National Council of State Legislators, http://www.ncsl.org/default.aspx?tabid=19897 142
  134. 134. Economic Impact Fallacies Unauthorized Claim Reality Difference % of AZ Population 10% 7% +30% Education Costs $810M $379M +214% Health Costs $400M $24M +1,600% Tax Payments $257M $2.84B -1,100% 143
  135. 135. Economics of Population Loss Immigrant Pop. Decline Gross State Product Loss Income Loss Job Loss Tax Revenue Loss 15% $8.3B $5.3B 99,000 $636M 30% $14.4B $9.4B 172,000 $1.27B 50% $20B $15.7B 291,000 $2.11B 100% $48.8B $29.5B 581,000 $4.22B Source: "A Rising Tide or a Shrinking Pie," M. Fitz and R. Hinojosa, Immigration Policy Council, March, 2011. 144
  136. 136. Arizona Poll Results 147
  137. 137. 65% Disagree with classifying undocumented immigrants as “common criminals” Source: BRC Rocky Mountain Poll - RMP 2007-V-01 148
  138. 138. 66% Agree that politicians are turning immigration into an “ugly racial issue” Source: BRC Rocky Mountain Poll - RMP 2007-V-01 149
  139. 139. 78% Agree that a “guest worker” program should be implemented Source: BRC Rocky Mountain Poll - RMP 2007-V-01 150
  140. 140. 83% Agree that fair and humane treatment of foreign workers is as important as securing the border Source: BRC Rocky Mountain Poll - RMP 2007-V-01 151
  141. 141. “The greatest threat to democracy is having a public that thinks it is fully informed, but really isn’t very well informed at all.” Linda Foley 152

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