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NISO Annotation Meeting (San Francisco)

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NISO Annotation Meeting (San Francisco)

  1. 1. Open Annotation: Social Bookmarking and Annotation of eBooks Robert Sanderson rsanderson@lanl.gov Los Alamos National Laboratory Todd Carpenter National Information Standards Organization Peter Brantley Internet Archive http://www.openannotation.org/ This research is funded in part by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Open Annotation Overview 1 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  2. 2. Overview •  Introduction •  Open Annotation Model •  Basics •  Segments •  Publish/Subscribe Model •  Appendix: FAQ Open Annotation Overview 2 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  3. 3. Open Annotation Collaboration •  Focus on interoperable sharing of annotations: •  Web-centric and open, not application specific silos •  Create, consume and interact in different environments •  Build from a simple model for simple cases, to more detailed for complex requirements •  Need for standards across platforms: •  Many people will want to share annotations and highlights •  Even if a reader doesn’t share her annotations with others, she will want to access them from different reading apps Open Annotation Overview 3 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  4. 4. Basic Model The basic model has three resources: •  Annotation (an RDF document) •  Body (the ‘comment’ of the annotation) •  Target (the resource the Body is ‘about’) Open Annotation Overview 4 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  5. 5. Basic Model Example Open Annotation Overview 5 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  6. 6. Segments of Resources Most annotations are about part of a resource Different segments for different media types: •  Text: paragraph, arbitrary span of words •  Image: rectangular or arbitrary shaped area •  Audio: start and end time points, track name/number •  Video: area and time points •  Other: slice of a data set, volume in a 3d object, … Open Annotation Overview 6 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  7. 7. Segments of Resources Web Architecture Segmentation: •  A URI with a Fragment identifies part of the resource: •  IETF Mime-type fragment identifiers; eg xpointer •  W3C Media Fragments URI specification for simple segments of media: image, audio, video OAC introduces a method of constraining resources: •  Introduce an approach for arbitrarily complex segments •  Can be applied to Body or Target resource Open Annotation Overview 7 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  8. 8. Complex Constraints Fragments are often not possible: •  Introduce a Constraint that describes the segment of interest •  And a ConstrainedTarget that identifies the segment of interest •  Constraints are resources, so can be expressive and detailed Open Annotation Overview 8 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  9. 9. Constraint Example Open Annotation Overview 9 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  10. 10. Annotation Protocols Unlike previous systems, Open Annotation does not mandate a protocol. No reliance on a client/server combination gives the client autonomy to use different services as appropriate. Instead we promote a publish/ subscribe methodology, where annotations may be stored and consumed from anywhere. Protocol: publish, subscribe, consume tied together Open Annotation Overview 10 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  11. 11. Publish/Subscribe Method We don’t specify how this transfer should occur publish Open Annotation Overview 11 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  12. 12. Publish/Subscribe Method Nor this. publish subscribe Open Annotation Overview 12 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  13. 13. Publish/Subscribe Method Nor this. publish subscribe consume Open Annotation Overview 13 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  14. 14. Publish/Subscribe Advantages •  Client can use most appropriate method for transferring annotation to storage service •  May already be mandated in different domains •  Can use existing services without requiring them to change •  Annotations are web resources in their own right •  Can be protected for restricted access using existing technology •  Have their own URIs for identity •  Promotes a market-place of services, such as: •  Archiving Annotations and resources for preservation •  Enriching with additional metadata and information •  Spam detection and filtering to provide trusted annotation feeds Open Annotation Overview 14 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  15. 15. OAC for eBooks: Open Questions •  Need to have robust mechanism for determining the segment of interest: •  Could be part of an image •  Could be part of stable layout text •  Could be part of reflowable text •  Distrust of quoting passages: enough annotations and entire text is unprotected •  Distrust of offsets: change in the text and Constraint will describe the wrong segment •  Motivating public, rather than private, annotations is important •  … As is filtering spam! Open Annotation Overview 15 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  16. 16. http://www.openannotation.org/ Open Annotation Overview 16 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  17. 17. FAQ •  Surely there's more to the model? •  What about creator, modification time and so on? •  I want to comment on an Annotation? •  I want to annotate multiple parts at once? •  How can the comment be part of the Annotation? •  You mentioned URI Fragments? •  How can my comment be part of another resource? •  I want to use quoted passages, but not still protect the quotes? •  I want to use character offsets, but know if the segment has changed? •  What about highlighting with no comment? •  What about different colors and styles of highlight? •  What about just marking a location, like a bookmark? Open Annotation Overview 17 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  18. 18. What about Creator, Modification Time? Any of the resources can have additional information attached, such as creator, date of creation, title, etc. Open Annotation Overview 18 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  19. 19. Additional Properties Example Open Annotation Overview 19 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  20. 20. I Want to Comment on an Annotation? There can be further typing of the Annotation to clarify purpose. Example: Replies are Annotations on Annotations. Open Annotation Overview 20 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  21. 21. Annotation Types Example Open Annotation Overview 21 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  22. 22. I Want to Annotate Multiple Parts at Once? Many use cases for multiple targets for a single Annotation: •  Comparison of two or more resources •  Making a statement that applies to all of the resources •  Making a statement about multiple parts of a resource Enabled by allowing more than one hasTarget relationship. Open Annotation Overview 22 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  23. 23. Multiple Targets Example Open Annotation Overview 23 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  24. 24. How can the Comment be part of the Annotation? Content may be contained within the Annotation document: •  Important for client autonomy •  Clients may be unable to mint new URIs for every resource •  Clients may wish to transmit only a single document •  Third parties can generate new URIs if the client does not The W3C has a Content in RDF specification: •  http://www.w3.org/TR/Content-in-RDF10/ Open Annotation Overview 24 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  25. 25. Inline Body •  Introduce a resource identified by a non resolvable URI (such as a UUID URN) as the Body. •  Embed the data within the Annotation document using 'chars’ from Content in RDF. Open Annotation Overview 25 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  26. 26. Inline Body Example Open Annotation Overview 26 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  27. 27. You Mentioned URI Fragments? URI Fragments are a syntax for creating subsidiary URIs that identify part of the main resource The syntax is defined per media type: •  X/HTML: The named anchor or identified element •  XML: An XPointer to the element(s) •  PDF: Many options, especially page and viewrect •  Plain Text: Either by character position or line position Open Annotation Overview 27 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  28. 28. Segments of Resources: W3C Media Fragments Media Fragments allow anyone to create URIs that identify part of an image, audio or video resource. The most common case is for rectangular areas of images: •  http://www.example.org/image.jpg#xywh=50,100,640,480 Link to the full resource as well, for all Fragment URIs Open Annotation Overview 28 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  29. 29. Media Fragments Example Open Annotation Overview 29 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  30. 30. How can my Comment be Part of another Resource? The Body may also be constrained in the same way as Targets. (the most complicated OAC data model diagram) Open Annotation Overview 30 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  31. 31. Constrained Body Example Open Annotation Overview 31 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  32. 32. I Want to use Quoted Passages, but Protect the Text? Open Annotation Overview 32 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  33. 33. I Want to use Offsets, but Know if the Text has Changed? Open Annotation Overview 33 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  34. 34. What about Highlighting with No Comment? Open Annotation Overview 34 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  35. 35. What about Highlighting with different Colors? Open Annotation Overview 35 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  36. 36. What about just Bookmarking a Location? Open Annotation Overview 36 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011

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