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Open Annotation:
Social Bookmarking and Annotation of eBooks

                                       Robert Sanderson
                                                                   rsanderson@lanl.gov
                                                          Los Alamos National Laboratory


                                       Todd Carpenter
                                              National Information Standards Organization


                                       Peter Brantley
                                                                         Internet Archive



                                            http://www.openannotation.org/

                                       This research is funded in part by the Andrew
                                       W. Mellon Foundation



          Open Annotation Overview                                                   1
      San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
Overview


•  Introduction

•  Open Annotation Model
    •  Basics
    •  Segments

•  Publish/Subscribe Model

•  Appendix: FAQ




                  Open Annotation Overview          2
              San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
Open Annotation Collaboration


•  Focus on interoperable sharing of annotations:
     •  Web-centric and open, not application specific silos
    •  Create, consume and interact in different environments
    •  Build from a simple model for simple cases,
              to more detailed for complex requirements

•  Need for standards across platforms:
    •  Many people will want to share annotations and highlights
    •  Even if a reader doesn’t share her annotations with others,
                  she will want to access them from different reading apps




                     Open Annotation Overview                           3
                 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
Basic Model

The basic model has three resources:
   •  Annotation     (an RDF document)
   •  Body           (the ‘comment’ of the annotation)
   •  Target         (the resource the Body is ‘about’)




                  Open Annotation Overview                4
              San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
Basic Model Example




    Open Annotation Overview          5
San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
Segments of Resources


Most annotations are about part of a resource


Different segments for different media types:

   •  Text: paragraph, arbitrary span of words
   •  Image: rectangular or arbitrary shaped area
   •  Audio: start and end time points, track name/number
   •  Video: area and time points
   •  Other: slice of a data set, volume in a 3d object, …




                  Open Annotation Overview                   6
              San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
Segments of Resources


Web Architecture Segmentation:

•  A URI with a Fragment identifies part of the resource:
     •  IETF Mime-type fragment identifiers; eg xpointer
     •  W3C Media Fragments URI specification for simple
       segments of media: image, audio, video

OAC introduces a method of constraining resources:

    •  Introduce an approach for arbitrarily complex segments
    •  Can be applied to Body or Target resource




                    Open Annotation Overview                    7
                San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
Complex Constraints
Fragments are often not possible:
    •  Introduce a Constraint that describes the segment of interest
    •  And a ConstrainedTarget that identifies the segment of interest
    •  Constraints are resources, so can be expressive and detailed




                      Open Annotation Overview                           8
                  San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
Constraint Example




    Open Annotation Overview          9
San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
Annotation Protocols

Unlike previous systems, Open
Annotation does not mandate a
protocol.

No reliance on a client/server
combination gives the client
autonomy to use different services
as appropriate.

Instead we promote a publish/
subscribe methodology, where
annotations may be stored and
consumed from anywhere.


                                   Protocol: publish, subscribe, consume tied together

                     Open Annotation Overview                                     10
                 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
Publish/Subscribe Method




          We don’t specify how this transfer should occur




publish
                    Open Annotation Overview                11
                San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
Publish/Subscribe Method




                       Nor this.




publish               subscribe
              Open Annotation Overview          12
          San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
Publish/Subscribe Method




                                                Nor this.




publish               subscribe                 consume
              Open Annotation Overview                      13
          San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
Publish/Subscribe Advantages

•  Client can use most appropriate method for transferring annotation to
   storage service
    •  May already be mandated in different domains
    •  Can use existing services without requiring them to change

•  Annotations are web resources in their own right
    •  Can be protected for restricted access using existing technology
    •  Have their own URIs for identity

•  Promotes a market-place of services, such as:
    •  Archiving Annotations and resources for preservation
    •  Enriching with additional metadata and information
    •  Spam detection and filtering to provide trusted annotation feeds

                     Open Annotation Overview                             14
                 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
OAC for eBooks: Open Questions

•  Need to have robust mechanism for determining the segment of
   interest:
    •  Could be part of an image
    •  Could be part of stable layout text
    •  Could be part of reflowable text
    •  Distrust of quoting passages: enough annotations and entire text
        is unprotected
    •  Distrust of offsets: change in the text and Constraint will describe
        the wrong segment

•  Motivating public, rather than private, annotations is important
•  … As is filtering spam!



                     Open Annotation Overview                             15
                 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
http://www.openannotation.org/


    Open Annotation Overview          16
San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
FAQ

•  Surely there's more to the model?
    •  What about creator, modification time and so on?
    •  I want to comment on an Annotation?
    •  I want to annotate multiple parts at once?
    •  How can the comment be part of the Annotation?
    •  You mentioned URI Fragments?
    •  How can my comment be part of another resource?

•    I want to use quoted passages, but not still protect the quotes?
•    I want to use character offsets, but know if the segment has changed?
•    What about highlighting with no comment?
•    What about different colors and styles of highlight?
•    What about just marking a location, like a bookmark?

                      Open Annotation Overview                          17
                  San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
What about Creator, Modification Time?

Any of the resources can have additional information attached,
such as creator, date of creation, title, etc.




                  Open Annotation Overview                       18
              San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
Additional Properties Example




    Open Annotation Overview          19
San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
I Want to Comment on an Annotation?

There can be further typing of the Annotation to clarify purpose.
Example: Replies are Annotations on Annotations.




                  Open Annotation Overview                          20
              San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
Annotation Types Example




    Open Annotation Overview          21
San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
I Want to Annotate Multiple Parts at Once?

Many use cases for multiple targets for a single Annotation:
   •  Comparison of two or more resources
   •  Making a statement that applies to all of the resources
   •  Making a statement about multiple parts of a resource

Enabled by allowing more than one hasTarget relationship.




                  Open Annotation Overview                      22
              San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
Multiple Targets Example




    Open Annotation Overview          23
San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
How can the Comment be part of the Annotation?


Content may be contained within the Annotation document:

   •  Important for client autonomy
   •  Clients may be unable to mint new URIs for every resource
   •  Clients may wish to transmit only a single document
   •  Third parties can generate new URIs if the client does not



The W3C has a Content in RDF specification:
   •  http://www.w3.org/TR/Content-in-RDF10/




                 Open Annotation Overview                          24
             San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
Inline Body

•  Introduce a resource identified by a non resolvable URI
    (such as a UUID URN) as the Body.
•  Embed the data within the Annotation document using 'chars’
    from Content in RDF.




                  Open Annotation Overview                       25
              San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
Inline Body Example




    Open Annotation Overview          26
San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
You Mentioned URI Fragments?


URI Fragments are a syntax for creating subsidiary URIs that
identify part of the main resource

The syntax is defined per media type:

    •  X/HTML:      The named anchor or identified element

    •  XML:          An XPointer to the element(s)

    •  PDF:          Many options, especially page and viewrect

    •  Plain Text: Either by character position or line position




                     Open Annotation Overview                      27
                 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
Segments of Resources: W3C Media Fragments

Media Fragments allow anyone to create URIs that identify part of
an image, audio or video resource.

The most common case is for rectangular areas of images:
    •  http://www.example.org/image.jpg#xywh=50,100,640,480

Link to the full resource as well, for all Fragment URIs




                   Open Annotation Overview                         28
               San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
Media Fragments Example




    Open Annotation Overview          29
San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
How can my Comment be Part of another Resource?

The Body may also be constrained in the same way as Targets.




            (the most complicated OAC data model diagram)


                 Open Annotation Overview                      30
             San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
Constrained Body Example




    Open Annotation Overview          31
San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
I Want to use Quoted Passages, but Protect the Text?




              Open Annotation Overview                 32
          San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
I Want to use Offsets, but Know if the Text has Changed?




                Open Annotation Overview                   33
            San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
What about Highlighting with No Comment?




         Open Annotation Overview          34
     San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
What about Highlighting with different Colors?




           Open Annotation Overview              35
       San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
What about just Bookmarking a Location?




        Open Annotation Overview          36
    San Francisco, 26th of October 2011

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NISO Annotation Meeting (San Francisco)

  • 1. Open Annotation: Social Bookmarking and Annotation of eBooks Robert Sanderson rsanderson@lanl.gov Los Alamos National Laboratory Todd Carpenter National Information Standards Organization Peter Brantley Internet Archive http://www.openannotation.org/ This research is funded in part by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Open Annotation Overview 1 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 2. Overview •  Introduction •  Open Annotation Model •  Basics •  Segments •  Publish/Subscribe Model •  Appendix: FAQ Open Annotation Overview 2 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 3. Open Annotation Collaboration •  Focus on interoperable sharing of annotations: •  Web-centric and open, not application specific silos •  Create, consume and interact in different environments •  Build from a simple model for simple cases, to more detailed for complex requirements •  Need for standards across platforms: •  Many people will want to share annotations and highlights •  Even if a reader doesn’t share her annotations with others, she will want to access them from different reading apps Open Annotation Overview 3 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 4. Basic Model The basic model has three resources: •  Annotation (an RDF document) •  Body (the ‘comment’ of the annotation) •  Target (the resource the Body is ‘about’) Open Annotation Overview 4 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 5. Basic Model Example Open Annotation Overview 5 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 6. Segments of Resources Most annotations are about part of a resource Different segments for different media types: •  Text: paragraph, arbitrary span of words •  Image: rectangular or arbitrary shaped area •  Audio: start and end time points, track name/number •  Video: area and time points •  Other: slice of a data set, volume in a 3d object, … Open Annotation Overview 6 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 7. Segments of Resources Web Architecture Segmentation: •  A URI with a Fragment identifies part of the resource: •  IETF Mime-type fragment identifiers; eg xpointer •  W3C Media Fragments URI specification for simple segments of media: image, audio, video OAC introduces a method of constraining resources: •  Introduce an approach for arbitrarily complex segments •  Can be applied to Body or Target resource Open Annotation Overview 7 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 8. Complex Constraints Fragments are often not possible: •  Introduce a Constraint that describes the segment of interest •  And a ConstrainedTarget that identifies the segment of interest •  Constraints are resources, so can be expressive and detailed Open Annotation Overview 8 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 9. Constraint Example Open Annotation Overview 9 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 10. Annotation Protocols Unlike previous systems, Open Annotation does not mandate a protocol. No reliance on a client/server combination gives the client autonomy to use different services as appropriate. Instead we promote a publish/ subscribe methodology, where annotations may be stored and consumed from anywhere. Protocol: publish, subscribe, consume tied together Open Annotation Overview 10 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 11. Publish/Subscribe Method We don’t specify how this transfer should occur publish Open Annotation Overview 11 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 12. Publish/Subscribe Method Nor this. publish subscribe Open Annotation Overview 12 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 13. Publish/Subscribe Method Nor this. publish subscribe consume Open Annotation Overview 13 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 14. Publish/Subscribe Advantages •  Client can use most appropriate method for transferring annotation to storage service •  May already be mandated in different domains •  Can use existing services without requiring them to change •  Annotations are web resources in their own right •  Can be protected for restricted access using existing technology •  Have their own URIs for identity •  Promotes a market-place of services, such as: •  Archiving Annotations and resources for preservation •  Enriching with additional metadata and information •  Spam detection and filtering to provide trusted annotation feeds Open Annotation Overview 14 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 15. OAC for eBooks: Open Questions •  Need to have robust mechanism for determining the segment of interest: •  Could be part of an image •  Could be part of stable layout text •  Could be part of reflowable text •  Distrust of quoting passages: enough annotations and entire text is unprotected •  Distrust of offsets: change in the text and Constraint will describe the wrong segment •  Motivating public, rather than private, annotations is important •  … As is filtering spam! Open Annotation Overview 15 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 16. http://www.openannotation.org/ Open Annotation Overview 16 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 17. FAQ •  Surely there's more to the model? •  What about creator, modification time and so on? •  I want to comment on an Annotation? •  I want to annotate multiple parts at once? •  How can the comment be part of the Annotation? •  You mentioned URI Fragments? •  How can my comment be part of another resource? •  I want to use quoted passages, but not still protect the quotes? •  I want to use character offsets, but know if the segment has changed? •  What about highlighting with no comment? •  What about different colors and styles of highlight? •  What about just marking a location, like a bookmark? Open Annotation Overview 17 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 18. What about Creator, Modification Time? Any of the resources can have additional information attached, such as creator, date of creation, title, etc. Open Annotation Overview 18 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 19. Additional Properties Example Open Annotation Overview 19 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 20. I Want to Comment on an Annotation? There can be further typing of the Annotation to clarify purpose. Example: Replies are Annotations on Annotations. Open Annotation Overview 20 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 21. Annotation Types Example Open Annotation Overview 21 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 22. I Want to Annotate Multiple Parts at Once? Many use cases for multiple targets for a single Annotation: •  Comparison of two or more resources •  Making a statement that applies to all of the resources •  Making a statement about multiple parts of a resource Enabled by allowing more than one hasTarget relationship. Open Annotation Overview 22 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 23. Multiple Targets Example Open Annotation Overview 23 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 24. How can the Comment be part of the Annotation? Content may be contained within the Annotation document: •  Important for client autonomy •  Clients may be unable to mint new URIs for every resource •  Clients may wish to transmit only a single document •  Third parties can generate new URIs if the client does not The W3C has a Content in RDF specification: •  http://www.w3.org/TR/Content-in-RDF10/ Open Annotation Overview 24 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 25. Inline Body •  Introduce a resource identified by a non resolvable URI (such as a UUID URN) as the Body. •  Embed the data within the Annotation document using 'chars’ from Content in RDF. Open Annotation Overview 25 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 26. Inline Body Example Open Annotation Overview 26 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 27. You Mentioned URI Fragments? URI Fragments are a syntax for creating subsidiary URIs that identify part of the main resource The syntax is defined per media type: •  X/HTML: The named anchor or identified element •  XML: An XPointer to the element(s) •  PDF: Many options, especially page and viewrect •  Plain Text: Either by character position or line position Open Annotation Overview 27 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 28. Segments of Resources: W3C Media Fragments Media Fragments allow anyone to create URIs that identify part of an image, audio or video resource. The most common case is for rectangular areas of images: •  http://www.example.org/image.jpg#xywh=50,100,640,480 Link to the full resource as well, for all Fragment URIs Open Annotation Overview 28 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 29. Media Fragments Example Open Annotation Overview 29 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 30. How can my Comment be Part of another Resource? The Body may also be constrained in the same way as Targets. (the most complicated OAC data model diagram) Open Annotation Overview 30 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 31. Constrained Body Example Open Annotation Overview 31 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 32. I Want to use Quoted Passages, but Protect the Text? Open Annotation Overview 32 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 33. I Want to use Offsets, but Know if the Text has Changed? Open Annotation Overview 33 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 34. What about Highlighting with No Comment? Open Annotation Overview 34 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 35. What about Highlighting with different Colors? Open Annotation Overview 35 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011
  • 36. What about just Bookmarking a Location? Open Annotation Overview 36 San Francisco, 26th of October 2011