1.1 Prepare and implement a plan for the collection of primary and secondary information for a given business problem. 1.2 Describe and justify the survey methodology and frame used
COLLECTING DATAWhy do we need data? To keep records for administrative purposes To make decision on important issues To pass information on to others
Collecting DataWho needs information?i. Governmentinformation is used to develop, implementand monitor social and economic programsii. Businessesmake decisions about employing people,marketing their products and opening newoffices, warehouses and factories
Collecting DataWho needs information?iii. Community Grouppopulation distribution, attendance of theSporting Clubs members at games,number of young people in the local area.iv. Individuals
Collecting DataStatistics are often developed through aprocess commonly referred to as a survey.A statistical survey is developed by usingwell-defined concepts, methods andprocedures, and compiling theinformation.
Collecting DataThe information collected can be fromvarious units of a population (sample) orall units of a population (census). It can becollected either directly from the sampledpopulation or through the use ofadministrative data
COLLECTING DATA TECHNIQUES1. Observation2. Inspection/ Experiment3. Survey a. Personal Survey (face-to-face interview) b. Mail Survey c. Telephone Survey3. Abstracted from published book4. Internet
Collecting Data Techniques1. Observation• most commonly used• used by social scientists to learn about the customs and habits of people, communities, and animals’ kingdom.• Researcher may or may not have direct contact or communication with people whose behaviour is being recorded.
Collecting Data Techniques1. ObservationAdvantages: • Record actual behaviour – not what people said/did/believe. • Can check the validity – compared the statement and the actual recorded behaviour.
Collecting Data Techniques1. ObservationDisadvantages:• observer needs to be highly skilled and unbiased• not tell us about the respondents’ attitudes.• Not provide any insights into what people may be thinking/motivate.• takes a great deal of time, preparation and therefore money• Ethical issues – invasion of privacy or abusive.
Collecting Data Techniques2. Inspection/ Experiment• data required is about objects• may require tests which destroy the object• require standardized procedures based upon experience of the product under test.
Collecting Data Techniques3. Surveya. Personal Survey (face-to-face interview)• Construct questionnaires – ask questions – records the responsesAdvantages:• Many questions can be asked quickly• High response rate• interviewer to clarify terms• well-trained interviewer can detect if a respondent is giving false information.
Collecting Data Techniquesa. Personal Survey (face-to-face interview)Disadvantages:• Expensive - sufficient incentives• Introduce to systematic bias, e.g facial expressions and statements by interviewers• Errors in recording responses
Collecting Data Techniques3. Surveyb. Postal Survey• questionnaires are mailed to respondents and return by postAdvantages:• investigation is very fast• informants are spread over a wide geographical area.• Cheapest than personal interview
Collecting Data Techniques3. Surveyb. Postal SurveyAdvantages:• Cheapest than personal interview• No interview influence• Respondent has more time to think of proper response.
Collecting Data Techniques3. Surveyb. Postal SurveyDisadvantages:• quite low response• Biased• Misinterpret the questions• Questionnaire may be filled in as a team effort• More time needed
Collecting Data Techniques3. Surveyc. Telephone Survey• to personal interviewLimitation:• cannot be used to interview those people who don’t have telephone• telephone conversation cannot be very long
Collecting Data Techniques3. Surveyc. Telephone SurveyLimitation:• replies in telephone can be very erratic and unreliable• may not be convenient for respondents to answer too many questions.
Collecting Data Techniques3. Surveyc. Telephone SurveyAdvantages:• less expensive• Procedures can be monitoredOften the most satisfactory collectionstrategy uses a combination of methods
Other Collecting Data Techniques4. BrowsingGood place to browse include:• Newspaper, magazine, journals• Book shops• Published statistics• Companies’ annual reports and accounts• The records kept by organizations for internal purposes• Electronic database• The internet
Other Collecting Data Techniques4. BrowsingAbstracted form published book• more appropriate when the investigation we wish to conduct involves the analysis of past recordsAdvantages:• Very low cost
Other Collecting Data TechniquesAbstracted form published bookDisadvantages/limitation:• They may be out of dated• not always follow that the records we examine will contain the exact data we require• Not be as relevant as we think to today’s situations. For example, family income change over the years and alter the pattern of demand for many products
Other Collecting Data TechniquesInternetYahoo : www.yahoo.comGoogle : www.google.com• give an overwhelming response.Department of Statistics Malaysia: www.statistics.gov.my
Collecting Data TechniquesThe choice of method depends:• complexity and length of questionnaire• sensitivity of requested information• Geographical dispersion of survey population• Cost• time frame
Collecting Data Techniques1. When collecting data, why is it sometimes better to conduct a sample survey than a census?2. List some of the things you would need to consider when choosing a data collection method.
Collecting Data Techniques1. Given some of your answers to Question 2, decide as a class which method of data collection you would employ to gather data on the following topics: a) the music tastes of your class b) the average height of your class c) the time your parents spend each week doing housework d) the attitude of Malaysian students toward the environment