Chapter4 emergency preparedness


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Chapter4 emergency preparedness

  2. 2. WHAT IS AN EMERGENCY• Accident – unexpected event which cause damage@harm. Happens by chance.• Emergency – an unforeseen combination ofcircumstances @ the resulting state that calls for immediateaction.• Disaster – a sudden calamitous event bringing greatdamage , loss @ destruction 2
  3. 3. WHY PREPARE FOR AN EMERGENCY • There are unaccounted , unplanned & unexpected event • Accidents happen at any time and emergency situation is chaotic. • Emergency often escalates to crisis. • Regulatory and industry requirement – eg CIMAH Regulations, 1996. • Responsible care OHSAS 18000, ISSO 14000 , etc • Communitiess are affected by emergencies. 3
  4. 4. LEVEL OF EMERGENCY• Depends on severity of the incident and capability of theorganisation.Level 1If within the capabilities of the organisation.Level 2If external assistance is required: Mutual aid, district or otheragencies. MKN Arahan 20 may apply.Level 3State of National Disaster. MKN 20 take over. 4
  5. 5. GOALS OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE• Control, reduce or sstop the cause.• Control situation and limit secondary damage.• Continue operation and recover quickly. 5
  6. 6. OBJECTIVES OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE• Save lifePrioritise rescue and first aid.Rescuers must no be put to risk.• Save property, asset and reputation• Save community and the environment 6
  7. 7. BASIC ELEMENTS OF EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE MANAGEMENT i. Organise emergency management team. ii. Identify the accident scenarios and emergency consequences. iii. Identify resources, equipment and facilities. iv. Develop plans and procedures v. Train , drill and exercise. vi. Review system 7
  8. 8. EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT ORGANISATIONS Emergency Management commitment Emergency Emergency Management Coordinator Committe Incident commandTo coordinate planning To plan for: organisation -Mitigation -Take control during - Preparedness incident - Response -Function : -Recovery -Command -Operation -Planning -Logistic -Admin/ finance 8
  9. 9. Emergency Management Coordinator And Task• Administer and keep current the emergencymanagement programme• Work with Emergency Management Committe 9
  10. 10. Emergency Management Committe• Ensure preparation, implementation and evaluation ofEPR.• Work with coordinatorMembership – technical & Non technical 10
  11. 11. Incident command organisation ( Based on Incident Command System ) INCIDENT COMMANDER Operation Planning Logistic-Damage control - Situation - Communication Administrator(e.g fire fighting) analysis - HR - Legal - Rescue - Records -ECC - Procurement - Evacuation -Documents - First aid -Recovery -Traffic control - Strategy -Transport - IT 11
  12. 12. TASK OF THE INCIDENT ORGANISATION• Identify level of emergency response• Coordinates response action, evacuation, continuity andrecovery activities.• Ensure outside assistance are notified or called upon.• work with external agencies.• Complies with appliance statutes or regulations. 12
  13. 13. INCIDENT COMMAND OPERATIONS TEAMS• Depends on the organisation, activities and products. Forexample: Most organisations will need a team of : - Fire fighter - Evacuation rescuers - First aiders Hazardous chemical plant - Chemical or oil spill team Process plant - Shut down team - Rescue team 13
  14. 14. EMERGENCY PLANNING• Thread and Hazard identification Use imagination, think of the unexpected• Assessssment of emergency scenario Also impacts beyond control such as:-Regional communication loss and national poweroutage.- Transportation disruption ( floods, broken bridges )• Plan for Emergency Mitigation, preparedness,response and recovery. 14
  15. 15. TYPES OF POTENTIAL HAZARD• Natural events Storms, earthquakes, flood, etc• Technology events-Mechanical problems ( e.g ruptured pipes, metal fatigue ) Chemicalspills, aircraft crash, fire ,explosion• Human events-Wrong valve open, miscommunication about what to do- Sabotage, terrorisme 15
  16. 16. HAZARD CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS – For Emegency And Recovery Plans• what hazard are most likely to occur• What functions or ervices are affected• in what way the functions could not be perform following adisaster.• What are the critical functions.• What actions will protect them.• What functions has to be restored quickly. 16
  17. 17. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF HAZARD• Health , safety and environment-Person in affected area.- Personnel responding to the incident-Pollution to the environment• Legal-Regulatory and contractual obligations• Business-Continuity of operations and delivery of services.- Property, facilities, and infrastructure loss- Reputaion of the organisation.-Economic and financial condition. 17
  18. 18. EMERGENCY PLAN STRATEGY• Emergency plan should be capable of dealing with the worst casecredible scenario.• However, detailed planning should concentrate on the more likelyevents.• Plans should also be sufficiently flexible to ensure that anemergency response can be verified according to the severity of theincident. 18
  19. 19. RECOVERING STRATEGY• Objectives : Restor functions as early as possible.• Redundancy or alternatives arranged for identified critical functions.-Alternative site, supplier arrangement• Roles and responsibilities for restoration identified- e.g recovery manager andteam, communications, utilities, purchasing, Hr and site security. 19
  20. 20. MITIGATION MEASURE• Interim andlong term- to eliminate or reduce impact of hazard thatcannot be eliminated.-Access, escape routes and shelters- Early warning – Establishment of hazard warning andcommunication procedures.- Materials – removal , reduction, modification, segregation, orelimination.- Heat, fluids. Etc protective system, redundancy, control, of rate ofrelease.- Structures- building construction standards 20
  21. 21. RESOURCE PLANNING• Based on identified threats and hazards.-Fire, flood, explosion, spills, collapse• Existing external and internal resources.• Identify resource shortfalls and alternate sources.• Consideration for mutual aid agreements.• Arrangements with vendors and suppliers. 21
  22. 22. IDENTIFY FOR EACH THREAT OR HAZARD.• Resource and Logistic - Personal training, expert knowledge, materials.-Available in timely manner and have the capability to do its intendedfunction.- Quantity, response time, operability.• Equipment and facilities-Fire fighting , heavy equipment, medical supplies• Miscellaneous- Food, clothing and shelter for evacuees, religious personel, volunteerand social / political groups. 22
  23. 23. EMERGENCY TO BE MADE AVAILABLE• command post-Identified, equipped, tested and maintained- Operations manual• Personnel protective equipment list• Where needed toxic, explosive gas detectors, wind indicators.• Resources from external sources. 23
  24. 24. REGULAR TESTOF EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES• Check and document alarm system frequently.• Frequent tests of fire fighting equipment 24
  25. 25. IMMEDIATE STRATEGIC PLANS• Identification of vital personnel ( core team ) systems, operationsand equipments.• Priorities for restoration and mitigation.• Acceptable downtime before restoration to a minimum level.• Minimum resources needed to accomplish the restoration. 25
  26. 26. PLANS• Written plans-Strategic- Operationss- Mitigation- Recovery plans• Roles and responsibilities-Incident commander, recovery manager, communication and publicrelations.• Lines of authority 26
  27. 27. EMERGENCY OPERATING MANUALS• For refer during an emergency.• Who does what, information and data.• Balance between overview and detailed response.• Need to know, nice to know.• Sound understanding enables flexibility.• simple language 27
  28. 28. INCIDENT PROCEDURES• Control of access to the area.• Identification of personnel at the incident• Accounting for personnel in incident activities.• Accounting for person affected, displaced, or injured by theemergency.• Mobilisation and demobilisation of resources. 28
  29. 29. TRAINING• Familiarisation-Manual familiarisation, specific courses ( chemicalfire, rescue, decontamination, media etc )• Personnel readliness-Know the fundamental role-Know your way around the manual.- Have your personal aid ready-Know the early action well.-Ensure alternate is ready. 29
  30. 30. EXERCISE AND DRILLS• Types and subjects-Types : Simulated, “ Real “- Subjects : Operational, security, Commercial.• Preparation for exercise-Scenarios, timing of events, roles ( including media ) and resources.- Secret but forewarn other parties as necessary. 30
  31. 31. EVALUATION• Plan should be reviewed anually and updated asnecessary.• Be re- evaluated when :-There are changes ( Regulatory, new hazard, existinghazard changes )- resources or organizational structure change.• After test, drills or exercise• After disaster responses• Infrastructure changes. 31