Chapter2

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Chapter2

  1. 1. PRE-CONSTRUCTION OFHIGHWAY 1
  2. 2. CONSIDERATION FACTORSi) Topography- Affects of road capacity- Purpose of road- Cost 2
  3. 3. Soil Characteristic-Effect cost of earthwork- Need to stabilizeEnvironment-Road construction will affects to the environment.- EIA needed to prevent ecosystem problem.Economy/ socio economy-Cost- benefit analysis- Socio economy should be to consider.PoliticHistory- The selected route not interference to the old buildings or historicsites 3
  4. 4. ACTIVITIES IN HIGHWAY PLANNING AND PRE- CONSTRUCTION WORKSa. Site inspection and carriage way determinationb. Surveying work and stackingc. Site clearing and cutting of top soild. Ground work/Earthwork 4
  5. 5. OBJECTIVES OF SITE INVESTIGATIONSuitability: Are the site and surroundings suitable for thehighway?Design: Obtain all the design parameters necessary for theworks.Construction: Are there any potential ground or ground waterconditions that would affect the construction?Materials: Are there any materials available on site, what quantityand quality?Effect of changes: How will the design affect adjacent propertiesand the ground water?Identify Alternatives: Is this the best location? 5
  6. 6. THE IMPORTANCE OF SI•To study the general suitability of the site for anengineering project.• To enable a safe, practical and economic design to beprepared.• To determine the possible difficulties that may beencountered by a specific construction method for anyparticular civil project.• To study the suitability of construction material (soil orrock). 6
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  9. 9. PRELIMINARY WORKS DURING GROUND WORKPreliminary StepsThe area should be cleared of bushes, vegetation, grass,branches, trees and saplings.The roots of trees and saplings should be removed up to thedepth of 60 cm below ground level. Existing structures and services such as power cables, drainagepipes etc. within or adjacent to the area if required to be diverted/removed, should be diverted or dismantled as perrequirement.Archeological monuments should be fenced in the area wherethe work is to be started. 9
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  11. 11. CLEARANCE OF ANTIQUITIESAt time of working when any archeologicalarticle such as relics of antiquity, coins, fossils,or other valuable articles should be deliveredto the Government department whereas theother useful material if found should be stackedseparately and this material is the property ofthe Government. 11
  12. 12. FILLING UP THE GROUNDThe earth used for filling should be free from allroots, grass, bushes, branches, trees, saplings andwastes.Filling up with excavated earth should be done inregular parallel layers. All lumps and clods exceeding 8 cm in anydirection should be broken. Each layer should be watered and consolidatedwith iron rammer.The top and sides of the filling should be neatlydressed. 12

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