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  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. History of Highway ConstructionHistory of road construction can be dividedinto three agesa) Ancient Timesb) Age of Ancient Romanc) The period after the Roman 2
  3. 3. Ancient times•Starts 5000 years ago since the beginningcustom of wheels for horse and cattle.•They are found inmesopotamia,china, persia, egypt, india andgreece.• A short road with only a hard surface towithstand the load of vehicles, miles and mortarused in egypt and india.•Road bricks and asfalt pavement have beenfound in babylon, mesopotamia. 3
  4. 4. Ancient Roman eraMore systematic way of roadconstruction.Base for road construction.The path is higher than groundstructure of road consists threeclasses of surface.i) Flattened surfaceii) Gravelled surfacediii) Paving (Paved).Road width does not exceed 4:25 metersMain purpose of road - military. 4
  5. 5. After Roman eraAfter falling back of Roman era, the construction of roads alsohave decline.Roman road however still remains and used as the trade routes.No new development on road construction until the 18 road construction at the time was1. Telford Road2. Macadam road 5
  6. 6. History of Road in Malaysiamodern road system in this country begin during theBritish colonial at the end of the 18th century.Trading needs and to centralize the colonialadministration had accelerate construction of roads inPeninsular Malaysia in order to connect the administrativecenter, commercial, industrial areas, farming areas andthe port.Before independence, all the roads in this country wasbuilt by British. 6
  7. 7. In 1986 there were 4 million vehicles over 24 000 km length ofroads and this number will increase with the rapid rate at eachyear.Road construction have been given priority in an allocationAbout 6 billion dollars for the construction of the North SouthHighway Authority.Other - other road projects is Ringroad Malacca, Temerloh -Mentakab Bypass and road to Highway Timur branches - theWest. 7
  8. 8. Most Famous person in road construtionRobert Philips: Apprentice in roaddesign.Suggested (1736): gravel layer willlay into the rod surface and will becompacted by traffic to becomehardened layer. 8
  9. 9. TREASAGUET ( 1716 )•Active in 1746 to 1775•Introduced more economical method by placed all the structure indrain to level with environment.•Drainage’s problem were solved by built the water proof surface,cambered the subgrade and construct deeper side drain. 9
  10. 10. John Metcalf ( 1717 )•Also known as Blind Jack Of Knaresborough•Blind : 6 years old•Musician, army, horse trader.•Become an road engineer in age of 40.•Construct 290 km of road in Yorkshire includingbridge, culvert, retaining wall.•Focused on drainage and sub base•Road were curved for drainage purposes. 10
  11. 11. Thomas Telford ( 1757 )•Designed 1600 km of road, drain, bridge an almost of civil works inBritain and North Europe.• Road was designed with horizontal formation, sub base, camber andothers coarse with uniform thickness. 11
  12. 12. Telford RoadFormation level is horizontal. Then thecamber is provided withchanging the layer thickness of 3 “ or 4"side is divided to 7 "or 8" in the middle.a. Surface layer is 1.5 " gravelmoistened and compressed by thetraffic.b. 2 "thick stone that is being squeezedby the traffic burstc. 4 "thick stone that is being squeezedby the traffic burstd.base constructed by arranging thestones sized 3 "- 8" by hand.Empty space between them filled withstone chips (fine chipping). 12
  13. 13. John Macadam ( 1756 )• 1’st engineering expertise• Come back from America in 1783- not active until 1816• 1816 : Surveyor• Advisor in road construction (1826 )• Road were design with a camber by used broken stone as amaterial to reduce a cost. 13
  14. 14. Macadam RoadMacadam roadformation levelprior to theslope camber 1:60 to 1: 80.Three layers ofstone and thenspread on theformation level. 14
  15. 15. Types of road in Malaysia Earth Road/ Unpaved road• Used soil as road materials.• Compacted as a surface.• Rural area• Laterite Gravel Road • Gravel were lay into earth road and compacted. 15
  16. 16. Bituminous Road• Paved road• To take higher traffic loadingi) Surface dressing : aggregate Road base Sub base Subgrade 16
  17. 17. ii) Flexible pavement/ asphaltic concrete• Many in Malaysia• Carried more loading compare with surface dressing. Wearing coarse Premix ( ACW 14) Binder coarse Premix ( ACB 28) Road base Sub base Subgrade 17
  18. 18. iii) Porous asphalt• Same as a asphaltic concrete• Porous at wearing coarse – purpose: allowed surface water siltthrough into wearing coarse.• Advantages :-High friction resistance- Avoid flood- Avoid water splash- Reduced unpleasant light at night- Durable: coarse aggregate- Silent• Disadvantages??? 18
  19. 19. iii) Concrete pavement( Rigid pavement )• Same as a asphaltic concrete• Surface used reinforce concrete• Advantages : Reinforce concrete-Quite strong- Extended life span Road base- Low maintanence Sub base• Disadvantages??? Subgrade 19
  20. 20. Interlocking Paving Block• Used at intersection• Corner• Bus terminal or jetty• Advantages :-Quite strong Road base- Extended life span Sub base- Low maintanence Subgrade• Disadvantages??? 20
  21. 21. Malaysia Road Systemi. Toll highwayii. Federal highwayiii. State roadiv. Urban road/ municipal roadv. Rural road 21
  22. 22. Federal Highway, or LebuhrayaPersekutuan in Malay (or sometimescalled it "Federal", "HighwayPersekutuan" or "Highway Federal" byKlang Valley citizens) is a Malaysianhighway connecting the capital city ofKuala Lumpur, and Klang, Selangor.The highway starts from Seputeh inKuala Lumpur to Klang, Selangor. It isthe busiest highway in Klang Valleyduring rush hour from/to Kuala Lumpur.The Federal Highway is coded asFederal Route . 22
  23. 23. Malaysian state roads (Malay: SistemLaluan Negeri Malaysia) are the secondaryroads in Malaysia. The construction of stateroads in Malaysia are funded by MalaysianPublic Works Department (JKR) of eachstates. The standard of state roads aresimilar with the federal roads except for thecoding system, where the codes for stateroads begin with state codes followed byroute number, for example Johor StateRoute J32 is labeled as J32 . 23
  24. 24. State Road• Construction and maintainence to improve connection in state.• Construct and maintain by JKR State.• Allocation : by state or federalUrban road/Municipal Road• In Municipal area or district including road by developer.• Allocation by municipal and/or subsidized by federalRural Road• Construct and maintain by district office with state allocation.• Too low standard – traffic volume low 24
  25. 25. Organizations & Agencies in road system Organizations & Agencies Functions UPE & BPJ Planning and controlling of projects. Also allocation JKR & LLM Design, construction, maintainance ( road/highway ) JPJ LPKP Road license Police & JPJ Enforcement and controllingMajlis Keselamatan Jalanraya Keselamatan Jalanraya Jab.Alam Sekitar Environment controlling JPBD Perancangan Bandar dan Desa PBKT Traffic facilities 25