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1 historical perspective revised


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1 historical perspective revised

  1. 1. Historical PerspectiveSafety And Health Officer Certificate Course Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 1
  2. 2. Learning Objectives• To describe the historical development of OSH management over the centuries• To recall the background to the development of OSHA 1994 and its underlying philosophy• To recall the development of occupational safety and health management system Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 2
  3. 3. Scope• OSH before and during the industrial revolution• Development in OSH management between the 1930’s and 1970’s• Development of self-regulation legislation• Modern OSH management Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 3
  4. 4. Early Recognition Of Occupational Diseases• In 1473 a German physician, Ellenborg, published the first known pamphlets on occupational disease from gold miners.• In 1556 the German scholar, Agricola, described the diseases of miners. Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 4
  5. 5. Early Recognition Of Occupational Diseases• In 1713 Ramazzini, who is regarded as the father of occupational medicine, suggested that in diagnosis doctors should ask patients about their occupations. Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 5
  6. 6. Emergence Of Industrial Accident• Industrial accidents arose out of the Factory System during the Industrial Revolution in Britain in 18th Century (1700s).• Women and children worked as heavy labourers under unsafe and unhealthy workplaces. Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 6
  7. 7. Emergence Of Industrial Safety Legislation• In 1833 English Factory Act was the first effective industrial safety law.• It provide compensation for accidents rather than to control their causes. Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 7
  8. 8. Emergence Of Industrial Safety Legislation• Insurance companies inspected work places and suggested prevention methods• Problem: Safety became injury and insurance oriented Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 8
  9. 9. Emergence Of Safety Management• Role of Herbert W. Heinrich (1930’s), – Developed Domino Theory and promoted control of workers behaviour.• Problem: • Focused on worker behaviour and not management • Caused people to think that safety is about policing worker Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 9
  10. 10. Emergence Of Safety Management• Frank Bird (1970) developed Loss Control Theory.• Suggested that underlying cause of accidents are lack of management controls and poor management decisions.• Problem: – Not so popular: blames management (responsibility and control). Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 10
  11. 11. Emergence Of Safety Management• In 1980’s, Behavioural Based Safety (BBS) was introduced;• Based on Heinrich’s findings.• Work by recognizing safe work habits and offering rewards and punishment.• Problem: – Focuses on workers and not on hazard or management – Reward and punishment system have flaws Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 11
  12. 12. Emergence Of Safety Management System• Current development of Occupational Safety And Health management system was driven by two parallel forces: A. Self-regulatory legislation in the United Kingdom (1974), B. Quality management movement Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 12
  13. 13. A Self-Regulation Legislation• Lord Robens, Chairman of a Royal Safety Commission Report noted that: – there was too many OSH legislation, – was fragmented, – limited in coverage (specific hazards & workplace), – out of date and difficult to update, – inflexible (prescriptive), – people thought that safety was what government inspectors enforced. Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 13
  14. 14. A Self-Regulation Legislation• Lord Robens recommended – Self regulation• Report resulted in the Health and Safety of Workers At Work Act in the UK in 1974 Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 14
  15. 15. A Self-Regulation Legislation• Similar legislation was enacted in Australia in 1984• Enacted in Malaysia in 1994 after the 1992 Bright Sparkler accident in Sungai Buloh Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 15
  16. 16. A Self-Regulation Legislation• Features of “Robens style” legislation: – General duties of care by: • Employer, employee, manufacturer, designer, supplier • Duty of employer to make the workplace safe – Consultation with employees through Safety and Health Committees – Safety and Health Officer as advisor and coordinator – Improvement and prohibition notices Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 16
  17. 17. A Self-Regulation LegislationLegislation follow major accidents andreinforce need for management systemACCIDENT REGULATION/PROGRAMMEFlixborough (1974) CIMAH regulations 1996Bhopal (1984) “Responsible Care” / Process safetyPiper Alpha (1988) Risk Assessment / Management system Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 17
  18. 18. Quality Management Approach to Occupational Safety and Health Management• There are similar issues in safety management as in quality management• Example: – Productivity – Worker involvement – Proactive approach – Scientific approach – Customer and human rights Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 18
  19. 19. Quality Management Approach to Occupational Safety and Health Management• Management system standards: – ISO 9000 QMS was proven successful and ISO 14000 EMS was introduced in 1996 – UK published BS 8800 and Australia AS8401 OSH management systems in 1996 Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 19
  20. 20. Quality Management Approach to Occupational Safety and Health Management– International and auditable OHSAS 18001 OSH Management System published in 1999– ILO approved an OSH management system for governments to adopt during 2000 Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 20
  21. 21. Summary– The industrial revolution cause of industrial accidents.– Laws were enacted to compensate and protect workers in 1833.– Safety management guidelines began with Heinrich and followed by Frank Bird and others. Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 21
  22. 22. Summary– Lord Robens in 1972 recommended self- regulatory legislation. Adopted by Malaysia in 1994.– Outcome of accidents in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in OSH management system today. Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 22
  23. 23. Summary- Health problems due to occupation has been known from ancient times- Industrial accidents became rampant after the industrial revolution- Accidents in the 70’s & 80’s resulted in OSH-MS today Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 23