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ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AWARENESS .pptx

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azad82d@gmail.com
azad.haleem@uod.ac
Dr.Azad A Haleem AL.Mezori
MRCPCH,DCH, FIBMS
Assistant Professor
University Of Duhok
College of Medicine
Pediatrics Department
ANTIMICROBIAL
RESISTANCE AWARENESS
Scan
For
Contact
ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AWARENESS .pptx
ANTIBIOTICS
• Antibiotics can be defined as substances
capable of killing & inhibiting the growth of
micro organisms.
• The term antibiotics literally means “against
life”; in this case, against microbes.
• There are many types of antibiotics—
antibacterials, antivirals, antifungals, and
antiparasitics.
• Antibiotics have transformed the practice of
medicine, making once lethal infections
readily treatable and making other medical
advances, like cancer chemotherapy and
organ transplants, possible.
ANTIBIOTICS
ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AWARENESS .pptx
Classifications of Antibiotics
Classifications of Antibiotics
Spectrum of
activity
Broad
spectrum
Narrow
spectrum
Site of action
Mode of
action
Bacteriostatic Bactericidal

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ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AWARENESS .pptx

  • 1. azad82d@gmail.com azad.haleem@uod.ac Dr.Azad A Haleem AL.Mezori MRCPCH,DCH, FIBMS Assistant Professor University Of Duhok College of Medicine Pediatrics Department ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AWARENESS Scan For Contact
  • 3. ANTIBIOTICS • Antibiotics can be defined as substances capable of killing & inhibiting the growth of micro organisms. • The term antibiotics literally means “against life”; in this case, against microbes. • There are many types of antibiotics— antibacterials, antivirals, antifungals, and antiparasitics.
  • 4. • Antibiotics have transformed the practice of medicine, making once lethal infections readily treatable and making other medical advances, like cancer chemotherapy and organ transplants, possible. ANTIBIOTICS
  • 6. Classifications of Antibiotics Classifications of Antibiotics Spectrum of activity Broad spectrum Narrow spectrum Site of action Mode of action Bacteriostatic Bactericidal
  • 7. 1. Site of action
  • 8. 2. Mode of action
  • 9. 3. Spectrum of activity o Narrow spectrum • only against a single or a limited group of microorganisms, e.g. INH is active only against mycobacteria. o Broad spectrum • affect a wide variety of microbial species. • Alter the normal bacterial flora ???? • precipitate a superinfection of an organism, e.g., candida.
  • 11. What is Misuse of Antibiotics?: • When antibiotics are prescribed unnecessarily; • When antibiotic administration is delayed in critically ill patients; • When antibiotic treatment is not given according to microbiological culture data results. • When the dose is lower or higher than appropriate for the specific patient; and • When the route of administrations [IV vs. oral] not appropriate • When the duration of treatment is too short or too long;
  • 12. Drug resistance level & classification • Growth of bacteria is not halted (terminated) by the maximal level of that antibiotic that can be tolerated by the host.  Primary  Some organisms are inherently resistant to an antibiotic  e.g., gram-negative organisms are inherently resistant to vancomycin.  Secondary  spontaneous mutation or acquired resistance and selection.  Cross-resistance  resistant to more than one antibiotic.
  • 13. Factors that may lead to Drug resistance • Factors that may contribute to the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance o ► Inadequate infection control o ► High antimicrobial usage per geographic area per unit time o ► Increased use of antimicrobial prophylaxis o ► Increased empiric polymicrobial antimicrobial therapy.
  • 14. o ► Greater severity of illness of hospitalized patients o ► More severely immunocompromised patients o ► Newer devices and procedures in use o ► Agricultural use of antimicrobials o ► Social factors o ► International travel o ► Evolution of pathogens Factors that may lead to Drug resistance
  • 18. AMR’s impact on World GDP in trillions of USD
  • 19. HEALTHCARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS ARE A CONCERN IN ALL COUNTRIES
  • 23. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE HAS REACHED CRISIS LEVELS AND IS CLOSELY LINKED TO ANTIBIOTIC OVER USE
  • 24. Spectrum of Education of antibiotics resistant Programs • Healthcare Professionals: This online training course offers participants over 10 hours of free continuing education (CE). It is accessible in multiple modules that can be taken in any order.(http://bit.ly/2Jt3yFD ) • Hospital based program: To Prescribe or Not To Prescribe? Antibiotics and Outpatient Infections. • The Primary Care Office Visit. • Pharmacists. • Educating medical student About Antibiotic Usage. • Educating Nurses About Antibiotic Usage. • Educating Patients About Antibiotic Usage.