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Collocation in use

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Collocation in use

  1. 1. Vocabulary by: Retno Dumilah 14320099 Ferry Sandriya 14320020 Ahmad Zakki Maulana 14320079 Collocation
  2. 2. Definition Why? Types Collocation Differential Exercise Short Text
  3. 3. What is a collocation? Collocation is a pair of or group of words that are often used together (word partner). These combinations sound natural to native speakers, but students of English have to make a special effort to learn them because they are often difficult to guess. Some combinations just sound wrong to native speaker of English. For example the adjective fast collocates with food, but not with a meal. Definition
  4. 4. Sometimes, a pair of words may not be obviously wrong, and people will understand what is meant, but it may not be the natural, normal collocation. If someone says I did a few mistakes they will be understood, but fluent English would probably say I made a few mistakes. If you want to use a word naturally, you need to learn the other words often go with in it. It can be different from language to language. For example, in English we say: I missed the bus. (NOT I lost the bus) She committed suicide. (NOT she undertook or did suicide) Definition
  5. 5. Here are examples of collocation: Natural English Unnatural English The fast train Fast food The quick train Quick food A quick shower A quick meal A fast shower A fast meal A heavy smoker Not a strong smoker Or a big smoker A serious illness Not a strong or big illness Miss the bus Not lost the bus Made a mistake Not did a mistake Definition
  6. 6. Your language will be more natural and more easily understood. Smoking is strictly forbidden is more natural than smoking is strongly forbidden. It is easier for our brains to remember and use language in chunks or blocks rather than as single words. You will have alternative and richer ways of expressing yourself. Instead of saying it was very cold and very dark; we can say it was bitterly cold and pitch dark. Improve your style in writing. We may not need or want to use these in informal conversations, but in writing they can give our text more variety and make it read better. Why should we learn it?
  7. 7. Lexical and Grammatical Collocations Lexical Collocation is a type of construction where a verb, noun, adjective or adverb forms a predictable connection with another word, as in:  Adverb + Adjective : completely satisfied (NOT downright satisfied)  Adjective + Noun : excruciating pain (NOT excruciating joy)  Noun + Verb : lions roar (NOT lions shout)  Verb + Noun : commit suicide (NOT undertake suicide) Types of collocation
  8. 8. Grammatical Collocation is a type of construction where for example a verb or adjective must be followed by a particular preposition, or a noun must be followed by a particular form of the verb, as in:  Verb + Preposition : depend on (NOT depend of)  Adjective + Preposition : afraid of (NOT afraid at)  Noun + Particular form of verb: strength to lift it (not strength lifting it) Types of collocation
  9. 9. e.g. : fully aware, happily married, etc.Adverb + Adjective • I am fully aware that it is impossible to finish the task in a week. That sweet couple are happily married. e.g. : major problem, brief chat, etc.Adjective + Noun • Unemployment is a major problem for the government at the moment. The lecturers had a brief chat about the students‘ field work at the administration office. e.g. :a sense of pride, a pang of nostalgia, etc.Noun + Noun • If people have a sense of pride in their town, they are more likely to behave well there. Older people feel a pang of nostalgia as they think back on their schooldays. Types of collocation
  10. 10. Types of collocation e.g. : launch the product, pose a problem, etc. Verb + Noun • The increase in oil prices certainly poses a problem for us. We are going to launch a new automatic motor in June 2012. e.g. : smiled happily, whispered softly, etc. Verb + Adverb • Nadia smiled happily as she watched the children playing in the garden. My mother whispered softly in my ear that she would always love me.
  11. 11. e.g. : lions roar, economy booms, etc. Noun + Verb • The lion roars in the zoo. The economy boomed in 1990s. e.g. : burst into tears, swelling with pride, etc. Verb + Expression With Preposition • When he saw his exam results, Rooney burst into tears. Swelling with pride, Stanley watched his daughter pick up her violin and play. Types of collocation
  12. 12. How collocations differ from Compound words and Idiom? Collocations should not be confused with idioms although both are similar in that there is a degree of meaning present in the collocation or idiom that is not entirely compositional. With idioms, the meaning is completely non-compositional whereas collocations are mostly compositional. It is also not always easy to separate collocation and compounds and where they are useful for learners or an important part of the vocabulary of a topic. Differential
  13. 13. How collocations differ from Compound words and Idiom? Compounds are units of meaning formed with two or more words. Sometimes the words are written separately, sometimes they have a hyphen and sometimes they are written as one word. Usually the meaning of the compound can be guessed by knowing the meaning of the individual words. Some examples of compounds are bookstore, post office, narrow-minded, etc. Compound Differential
  14. 14. Idioms are group of words in a fixed order that have a meaning that cannot be guessed by knowing meaning of the individual words. For example, pass the buck is an idiom meaning to pass responsibility for a problem to another person to avoid dealing with it oneself. Idiom Differential
  15. 15. Put the following expressions into the correct category in the table below. Ensure safety - heavy rain - teapot - break a leg - pitch dark – passport - by the way – hat trick Exercise Collocation Idiom Compound Ensure safety heavy rain teapotbreak a leg pitch dark passportby the way hat trick
  16. 16. Sort Text You can train yourselves to notice them whenever you read or listen to anything in English. Loot at the collocations that are worth learning from this short text in English.

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