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Z4R: Intro to Storage and DFSMS for z/OS


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This session covers basic storage concepts for z/OS operating system with examples for Flash, Disk and Tape devices and how to use DFSMS policy-based management. Presented at IBM TechU in Johannesburg, South Africa September 2019

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Z4R: Intro to Storage and DFSMS for z/OS

  1. 1. Z4R: Intro to Storage and DFSMS for z/OS Tony Pearson IBM Master Inventor, Senior IT Management Consultant, Former Chief Architect of DFSMS, TechU Content Manager 2019 IBM Systems Technical University 10-12 Sep 2019 | Johannesburg, SA
  2. 2. Agenda z/OS Storage Fundamentals Storage Systems for the z/OS platform Data Facility Storage Management Subsystem (DFSMS) IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 2
  3. 3. Why do Mainframes need storage? — Computers in the early 1960s ran programs one at a time, one after the other. — A researcher would write a program, convert it into whatever form of input the computer accepted (punch cards, paper tape, or magnetic media for really fancy machines), and drop it off at the computer center. — A computer operator would queue up the program, run it, and then deliver the printed results and the original program to the researcher. — Thus, there was widespread interest in time sharing, which allowed multiple researchers to run programs on the mainframe at the same time, getting results immediately on their remote terminals. — With time sharing, the programs weren’t printed off on punch cards, they were written and stored on the mainframe. — In theory, researchers could write, edit, and run their programs on the fly and without leaving their offices. Source: Ars Technica IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 3
  4. 4. Large Systems Storage Hierarchy High Speed Bus and “Storage” is what other servers might call Processor Cache and RAM Coupling Facility acts as “shared memory” between multiple mainframes IBM coined the term DASD as a shorthand describing hard disk drives, magnetic drums, and data cells. Later, optical drives and flash storage are also classified as DASD. The opposite of “Direct Acess” is “Sequential Acxces” which continues today in the form of Tape. IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 4
  5. 5. What is an I/O ? Short for input/output (pronounced "eye-oh"). The term I/O refers to a single “read’ or “write” communication between a computer (laptop, desktop or server) and storage device (flash, disk or tape drive). • Inputs are the data received by the computer • outputs are the data sent from the computer In computer storage, an initiator is the starting point device that initiates a session to perform I/O operations, that is, sends a storage command like “read”, “write”, “format”. A target is the endpoint that waits for initiators' commands and provides required input/output data transfers. The target usually provides to the initiators one or more LUNs, because otherwise no I/O could be possible. A “LUN” (Logical Unit Number), aka Volume, is an addressable logical storage space where data is stored. IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 5
  6. 6. Performance Metrics I/O Operations per Second (IOPS) • Random, small-block data transfers o Typically 4K or 8K blocks o OLTP, databases, Exchange o Majority of enterprise applications • Key random performance enablers o Number of concurrent drives, RAID type, seek time, latency, command queuing Throughput (MB per second) • Sequential, large-block transfers o Typically 64K or larger blocks o Video servers, rich media, seismic processing, HPC • Key sequential performance enablers o Number of concurrent drives, RAID type, data transfer rate, maximum block size, pre-fetch algorithms, command queuing Latency • The time it takes to complete a single read or write I/O • Typically used for Flash, SSD and Disk o Flash 100-250 microseconds (0.1 to 0.25 msec) o SSD 1000 microseconds = 1 millisecond o Disk 5-15 milliseconds o Object Storage 10-100s of milliseconds Mean Time to First Byte • The time it takes to provide the first byte of information, subsequent information may be faster • Typically used for Tape, Optical and Blue-Ray DVD that require physically mounting the media into the drive • Measured in seconds or minutes o Includes time for robot to fetch media, load into drive, and position to first byte IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 6
  7. 7. What is this? IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 7 The first hard disk drive was the IBM Model 350 Disk File that came with the IBM 305 RAMAC computer in 1956. It had 50 24-inch discs with a total storage capacity of 5 million characters (just under 5 MB).
  8. 8. Solid State Drives – Flash pretending to be Spinning Disk Stepper Motor Spindle Motor Arm Read/Write Head SAS SATA FCP SAS SATA FCP Same Controller Protocols Same Length Same Width Same Height If the read/write head comes in contact with the surface of the platter at full speed, the result can be loss of data, damage to head, damage to surface, or all three. This is known as a “Head Crash” Chip fails on SSD This is treated the same as a “Head Crash” Same Failure codes IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 8
  9. 9. Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) Tolerate 1 drive failure Tolerate 2 drive failures RAID-1 / RAID-10 K pieces  2 x K slices RAID-5 K pieces  K + 1 slices 2.0X 1.2X 3.0X 1.5X Triplication K pieces  3 x K slices RAID-6 K pieces  K + 2 slices IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 9
  10. 10. CKD, ECKD and FBA recording formats — Count key data (CKD) is a direct-access storage device (DASD)[a] data recording format introduced in 1964 by IBM with its IBM System/360 and still being emulated on IBM mainframes. It is a self-defining format with each data record represented by a Count Area that identifies the record and provides the number of bytes in an optional Key Area and an optional Data Area. — Extended Cound Key Data (ECKD) introduce nonsynchronous operation, the transfer of data between the channel and the storage control is not synchronized with the transfer of data between the storage control and the device. A major advantage of ECKDs is far longer cables. — Fixed-block architecture (FBA) is an IBM term for the hard disk drive (HDD) layout in which each addressable block (more commonly, sector) on the disk has the same size, utilizing 4 byte block numbers and a new set of command codes.[1] FBA as a term was created and used by IBM for its 3310 and 3370 HDDs beginning in 1979 to distinguish such drives as IBM transitioned away from their variable record size format used on IBM's mainframe hard disk drives Souce: Wikipedia IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 10
  11. 11. Agenda z/OS Storage Fundamentals Storage Devices for the z/OS platform Data Facility Storage Management Subsystem (DFSMS) IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 11
  12. 12. The Shifting Roles of Storage Technology Flash and Solid-State Drives (SSD) Combined with slower Nearline (7200rpm) disk to reduce energy costs over faster drives “Flash & Stash” Disk replication and Virtual Tape Libraries Improved by low cost Nearline disk, compression, deduplication, Object protocols Physical tape, combined with automation Linear Tape File System (LTFS) Primary Data Backup Data Work Task Project Folder Long-term Data Retention IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 12
  13. 13. Why is Everyone Excited about Flash? Performance CostperGB Disk RAM ROM • Block-based Solid-State Storage • Non-volatile, persistent across power loss • No moving parts, uses less power & cooling • Consistent random access, no “seek” penalty • Driven by Consumer Market • Smart phones, Tablets • Digital cameras, MP3 players • USB thumb drives Disk-like capacity and cost Memory-like Performance Flash IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 13
  14. 14. IBM System Storage DS8000: Enterprise storage for your critical information requirements • Balanced performance • Bullet-proof reliability • Superior business continuity • Outstanding scalability • Tremendous flexibility • Synergy for z/OS, IBM i and high-end AIX systems • Full Disk Encryption (FDE) • And we keep enhancing it with more automated self-optimization! IBM Smarter Storage for IBM Smarter Computing IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 14
  15. 15. DS8880/F – Eighth Generation of DS800 series 2015 POWER8 • DS8880 • HPFE G1 POWER8 • DS8880/F • HPFE G2 2004 POWER5 • DS8100 • DS8300 POWER5+ • DS8300 Turbo 2009 POWER6 • DS8700 POWER6+ • DS8800 2012 POWER7 • DS8870 POWER7+ • DS8870 Replication and Microcode CompatibilityReplication and Microcode Compatibility IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 15
  16. 16. IBM Systems Storage Portfolio – DS8000 Family All-Flash and Hybrid for all primary storage workloads DS8884 Business class DS8886 Enterprise class DS8884F Business class DS8886F Enterprise class DS8888F Analytics class All-Flash Arrays (AFA) are based on the High Performance Flash Enclosure (HPFE) Hybrid Arrays support HPFE, Solid-State Drives, 15K, 10K and 7200 rpm spinning disk DeltaDelta 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 F2ab F3b F2bF3b DS8882F Flex Frame Rackless IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 16
  17. 17. DS8000 Architecture Overview CPU + Cache I/O Bays I/O Bays 14 10 2020 A frame B frame C frame C frame Volumes/LUNs • Full or Thin provisioned • Up to 16TB FBA • Up to 1,182,006 CKD cylinders Pools • Same extent type (FBA or CKD) • Mix RAID, drive speeds and sizes •Extents (Large and Small) • 1GB/16MB Fixed Block (FBA) • 1,113/21 Count-Key-Data cylinders RAID Array sites (8 drives each) • RAID-5, RAID-6, RAID-10 • 2 spare drives shared per type Disk Drawers and HPFE • Up to 1,536 drives / 768 flash cards 2 IBM POWER controllers CPU+Cache • Up to 48 cores POWER8 CEC • Up to 2TB of DRAM cache I/O bays • Up to 16 host adapters (128 ports) RAID-5 RAID-10 RAID-6 Pool 1 RAID-5 RAID-6 Pool 2 1GB 1GB 1GB 1GB 1GB 1GB CKD for IBM Z FB-520 IBM i FB-512 Linux, UNIX, Windows 21 cyl 21 cyl 21 cyl 21 cyl 21 cyl 21 cyl IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 17
  18. 18.  Drive media is rapidly increasing in capacity to 10TB and more. The greater density provides real cost advantages but requires changes in the types of RAID protection used  Traditionally RAID 5 has been used over RAID 6 for Enterprise and Flash media because:  Performs better than RAID 6  Provides more usable capacity  However as the drive capacity increases , RAID 5 exposes enterprises to increased risks, since higher capacity drives are more vulnerable to storage media errors during array rebuild  Data will be lost, if a second drive fails while the first failed drive is being rebuilt  Media errors experienced on a drive during rebuild result in a portion of the data being non- recoverable 1 2 3 4 5 6 P S RAID 5 1 2 3 4 5 Q P S RAID 6 RAID 5 uses one parity drive whereas RAID 6 uses two  RAID 6 will be the default in the GUI/CLI for all drive types  RAID 6/RAID 10 options available for media  RAID 5 option available for media less than 1TB via RPQ RAID 6 for mission-critical protection IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 18
  19. 19. IBM Easy Tier® IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 19 — Extent Pools can have mixed media 1. Solid-State Drives (SSD) 2. Enterprise HDD (15K and 10K RPM) 3. Nearline HDD (7200 RPM) — Easy Tier measures and manages activity • 24 hour learning period • Every five minutes: up to 8 extents moved o Hottest Extents moved up to Flash/SSD o Coldest Extents moved down to slowest spinning disk • New allocations placed initially on fastest HDD — A small amount of SSD (as little as 3%) can dramatically reduce response times and increase IOPS throughput — Storage Tier Advisory Tool can estimate benefits of adding SSD before purchase! Flash RAID Array(s) Enterprise HDD Nearline HDD
  20. 20. Workload skew from different client environments 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percentage of extents ComulativePercentageofActivity Mainframe1 - Small IOs Mainframe1 - MB Mainframe2 - Small IOs Mainframe2 - MB Mainframe 3 - Small IOs Mainframe3 - MB Open1 - Small IOs Open1 - MB Open2 - Small IOs Open2 - MB Open3 - Small IOs Open3 - MB Nearline Enterprise Flash IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 20
  21. 21. Is Tape storage still Relevant? Myth versus Reality 21 Myth: Tape is often viewed as an old-fashioned, outdated technology of the past Reality -- Tape is: • Lowest cost, Highly reliable • Fast throughput • Removable – move data offsite • Air Gapped – Protect against Ransomware • Energy Efficient IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation
  22. 22. 2010 TS7610 TS7680 2008 TS1130 (3592 G3) 1984 IBM 3480 1s cartridge drive 1964 IBM 2104 1959 IBM 729 1st read/write drive 1952 IBM 726 2003 3592 Gen1 1995 IBM 3590 1999 IBM 3590E 2005 TS1120 (3592 G2) 2004 LTO Gen3 2002 LTO Gen2LTO Gen1 2007 LTO Gen4 1962 IBM Tractor System 1992 IBM 3495 1997 VTS G1 2000 TS3500 1994 IBM 3494 1999 VTS G2 2001 VTS G3 2006 TS7740 (VTS Gen 4) 2005 TS7510 VTL 2007 TS7520 2007 TS3400 2005 TS3200 TS3300 2007 TS7530 2008 TS2900 TS3500 High Density 2008 TS7720 2008 TS7650G 2009 TS7650 Appliance TS1130 (3592 G3) 2003 TS1120 (3592 G2) 2000 In tape automation and virtualization 1992 IBM 3495 2000 TS3500 1994 IBM 3494 TS7510 VTL TS7520 2007 TS3400 2005 TS3200 TS3300 TS7530 2008 TS2900 TS3500 High Density 2008 TS7650G 1974 3850 MSS In tape drive technology 2010 LTO Gen5 2014TS1140 (3592 G4) 2011 TS3500 Connector and Shuttle 2011 TS7740 TS7720 TS1150 (3592 G5) 2011 2012 LTO Gen61stread/back drive 2015 LTO Gen71stmagnetic tape drive 2014 TS4500 Connector and Shuttle 2016 TS7760 2016 TS7770 Over 65 years of tape innovation IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 22
  23. 23. Clipper Group Study – long term storage costs IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 23 How to store a zettabyte on a budget •Aaron Ogus, Microsoft Azure 9x 15x 16x 17x How Google Backs up the Internet •Raymond Blum, Google Site Reliability
  24. 24. Why tape storage? —Tape is intrinsically “on demand” storage media that provides Total Cost Ownership (TCO) for data storing. —Tape is removable and portable. —Tape provides high volumetric efficiency. —Tape is a fast storage solution. —Tape media is reliable, longevity. —Tape is green, consumes less power. —Tape is ideally suited for: • Backup/restore • Information lifecycle management (ILM) • Business continuance / disaster recovery (BC/DR) • Archive / Long-term Retention • Compliance with Government and Industry regulations IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 24
  25. 25. • Deliver high-performance, high- capacity storage • Leverage IBM Spectrum Archive featuring LTFS technology to support for fast access to data • Help lower cost of ownership • Scales from midrange to enterprise needs BenefitsIBM TS1160 IBM TS1150 IBM TS1140 IBM Storage TS1100 tape drive family solutions IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 25
  26. 26. IBM TS3500 Tape Library IBM TS4500 Tape Library Tape automation (library) systems • Greater flexibility to meet customers demand • Reduce the complexity for stock • Reduce inventory costs • Improve inventory management Benefits IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 26
  27. 27. • Helps to reduce needed capacities • Large scalability and performance • Avoids downtimes due to replication • Deliver superior reliability Benefits IBM TS7720 / TS7740 Virtual Tape Solution IBM TS7760 Virtual Tape Solution Virtual Tape Systems IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 27
  28. 28. IBM Virtualization Engine TS7700 at a glance —Separates the functionality of the system into smaller components with well defined, open interfaces —Three different models: TS7740, TS7720/TS7720T and TS7760/TS7760T —Supports Grid interconnectivity for availability —Up to 8 way Grid configuration supported • fully integrated tiered storage hierarchy supports both disk and tape technologies —FC adapters for backend tape and cache support —Support for up to 4 million logical volumes and 6 GB logical volume size —z/OS support IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 28
  29. 29. Hybrid Intelligent Tape Integration 29 Prefer Remove (LRU Order) Drives/Library TS7760T/C LAN/WAN • The TS7760 and CP0 of TS7760T/C is designed to run at full capacity • Through policy management, data can be: • Pinned – Reside in TS7760 disk cache indefinitely • Retained – Pinned for a duration of time since last access, then Keep or Remove • Prefer Kept or Removed – Two groups using LRU algorithm • Data is removed from TS7760 cache after exists on a peer TS7700 • Automatic and nearly transparent integration of physical tape or Cloud • Aged or archive data naturally replicates to TS7700s with tape or cloud • Other workloads can be pinned or retained in cache for 100% cache hits on reads TS7760 Cluster TS7760T CP0 Drives/Library TS7760T/C Pinned Volumes Retained Volumes Prefer Keep (LRU Order) Cloud Cloud IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation
  30. 30. Agenda z/OS Storage Fundamentals Storage Systems for the z/OS platform Data Facility Storage Management Subsystem (DFSMS) IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 30
  31. 31. DFSMS: Providing System Managed Storage on z/OS® Storing, managing, protecting, and serving data on IBM Z DFSMS is the standard methodology worldwide for managing enterprise data and storage on the z/OS platform HSM ($) Policy driven backup disk space manager, recovery management DSS ($) Provides backup/ recovery and space management (local & remote) TVS ($) Enables batch updates concurrently with online processing SMS Manages data availability & performance policies, assigns policies to data ICKDSF Initializes disks Advanced Copy Functions SDM Provides advanced Function Copy Services like XRC, PPRC, Global Mirroring, CDP DFSORT ($) Sorts & merges records within files RMM ($) Manages tapes & libraries DFP •Provides logical & physical I/O to storage devices •Manages & catalogs data sets •Provides control & reporting interfaces to end users & system administrators DFSMS provides an automated, centralized, policy-based solution for storage management in the z/OS environment NFS Network files transfers OAM Manages object data Provides SMStape support EREP Reports & fixes disk errors $ = optional priced feature Data is becoming the world’s new oil, transforming industries and professions … DFSMS drives value as the data hub for z/OS: • Creates integrated solutions by exploiting new hardware features •Enable better utilization and management of Storage HW • Maintains leadership in policy based storage management •Improved storage administrator productivity and simplified management of the z/OS environment • Strengthens business resiliency by exploiting new opportunities and advancements in data protection solutions •Point-in-time copy, fast replication, and continuous data mirroring functions while preserving consistency • Supports growing businesses and mission critical workloads by providing continuous availability, scalability/performance and flexibility of storage and data •Increased data storage capacity and scalability to cope with explosive growth of data volumes and database sizes •High Availability with simpler, faster, and more reliable recovery operations •Ability to cope with increased security and compliance requirements • Enables cross platform data and storage •Data availability at all levels of the storage hierarchy IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 31
  32. 32. Lifecycle of a Data Set – Space Management My Data ABC 123 Read / Update When? When? Directly to tape? •Space Management • Minimize the cost of storing data • Ensure adequate free space to operate DFSMShsm DFSMSdfp IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 32
  33. 33. Storage Hierarchy – Space Management —The Classic DFSMS Storage Hierarchy (35 years old) $$ Migration Level 1 (ML1) High Performance & Function Low Cost Data in Primary Level is Managed by DFSMShsm Data in Migration Level is “Owned” by DFSMShsm $$$ Level 0 (L0) $ Migration Level 2 (ML2) IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 33
  34. 34. Final Thoughts IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 34 • The roles of different storage technology are shifting • IBM DS8880 and TS7760 are the market leading storage products for IBM Z • DFSMS for z/OS brings policy-based automation to manage large number of data sets and volumes
  35. 35. Thank you! IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 35 Tony Pearson +1-520-799-4309 Please complete the Session Evaluation!
  36. 36. Special Thanks I would like to thank the following colleagues who contributed charts, insights, and review comments for these presentation materials — Maurice McCullough — Glenn Wilcock — Barbara McDonald IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 36
  37. 37. About the Speaker Tony Pearson is a Master Inventor, Senior IT Management Consultant, and Content Manager for the IBM Systems Technical University events. Tony joined IBM Corporation in 1986 in Tucson, Arizona, USA, and has lived there ever since. Tony presents briefings on storage topics covering the entire IBM Storage product line, IBM Spectrum Storage software products, and topics related to Cloud Computing, Analytics and Cognitive Solutions. He interacts with clients, speaks at conferences and events, and leads client workshops to help clients with strategic planning for IBM’s integrated set of storage management software, hardware, and virtualization solutions. Tony writes the “Inside System Storage” blog, which is read by thousands of clients, IBM sales reps and IBM Business Partners every week. This blog was rated one of the top 10 blogs for the IT storage industry by “Networking World” magazine, and #1 most read IBM blog on IBM’s developerWorks. The blog has been published in series of books, Inside System Storage: Volume I through V. Over the past years, Tony has worked in development, marketing and consulting for various IBM Systems hardware and software products. Tony has a Bachelor of Science degree in Software Engineering, and a Master of Science degree in Electrical Engineering, both from the University of Arizona. Tony is an inventor or co-inventor of 19 patents in the field of IBM Systems and electronic data storage. 9000 S. Rita Road Bldg 9032 Floor 1 Tucson, AZ 85744 +1 520-799-4309 (Office) Tony Pearson Master Inventor Senior Management Consultant, IBM Systems La Services IBM Storage IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 37
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  39. 39. Notices and disclaimers — © 2019 International Business Machines Corporation. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form without written permission from IBM. — U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights — use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM. — Information in these presentations (including information relating to products that have not yet been announced by IBM) has been reviewed for accuracy as of the date of initial publication and could include unintentional technical or typographical errors. IBM shall have no responsibility to update this information. This document is distributed “as is” without any warranty, either express or implied. In no event, shall IBM be liable for any damage arising from the use of this information, including but not limited to, loss of data, business interruption, loss of profit or loss of opportunity. IBM products and services are warranted per the terms and conditions of the agreements under which they are provided. — IBM products are manufactured from new parts or new and used parts. In some cases, a product may not be new and may have been previously installed. Regardless, our warranty terms apply.” — Any statements regarding IBM's future direction, intent or product plans are subject to change or withdrawal without notice. — Performance data contained herein was generally obtained in a controlled, isolated environments. Customer examples are presented as illustrations of how those — customers have used IBM products and the results they may have achieved. Actual performance, cost, savings or other results in other operating environments may vary. — References in this document to IBM products, programs, or services does not imply that IBM intends to make such products, programs or services available in all countries in which IBM operates or does business. — Workshops, sessions and associated materials may have been prepared by independent session speakers, and do not necessarily reflect the views of IBM. All materials and discussions are provided for informational purposes only, and are neither intended to, nor shall constitute legal or other guidance or advice to any individual participant or their specific situation. — It is the customer’s responsibility to insure its own compliance with legal requirements and to obtain advice of competent legal counsel as to the identification and interpretation of any relevant laws and regulatory requirements that may affect the customer’s business and any actions the customer may need to take to comply with such laws. IBM does not provide legal advice or represent or warrant that its services or products will ensure that the customer follows any law. IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 39
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  41. 41. This presentation uses the IBM Plex™ font IBM Plex™ is our new typeface. It’s global, it’s versatile and it’s distinctly IBM. IBM Plex Sans The IBM company is freeing itself from the cold, modernist cliché and replacing Helvetica with a new corporate typeface. Also replaces Arial, Calibri, Lucida Grande, Trebuchet, etc. IBM Plex Mono A little something for developers. Replaces Courier New, Letter Gothic, Lucida Console, etc. IBM Plex Serif A hybrid of the third kind (combining the best of Plex, Bodoni, and Janson into a contemporary serif). Replaces Cambria, Garamond, Lucida Bright, Times New Roman, etc. IBM Plex is freely available as TrueType and OpenType at: and looks consistently good across Windows, Linux and Mac IBM Systems Technical University (c) 2019 IBM Corporation 41