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  2. 2. PRICE <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of money charged for a product or service, or the sum of the values that consumers exchange for the benefits of having or using the product or service. </li></ul><ul><li>Amounting of money refers to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worth </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Factors to Consider When Setting Prices Customer perceptions of value Other internal and external considerations Marketing strategy, objective and mix. Nature of the market and demand Competitors strategies and prices Product cost Price floor No profits below this price
  4. 4. <ul><li>Cost-Based Pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Setting prices based on the costs for producing distributing and selling the product plus a fair rate of return for effort and risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Value-based Pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Setting prices based on buyer’s perceptions of value rather than on the seller’s cost. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Value-Based Pricing <ul><li>Good value pricing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right combination of quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good service at a fair price </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Value added pricing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>value-added features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>services </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Value-Based Pricing versus Cost-Based Pricing Product Cost Price Value Customers Customers value Price Cost Product Cost-Based Pricing Value-Based Pricing
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>TYPES OF COST </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FIXED COST </li></ul><ul><li>Cost that do not vary with production or sales level. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>factory land, building </li></ul><ul><li>machinery </li></ul><ul><li>management salaries </li></ul><ul><li>property taxes </li></ul><ul><li>insurance </li></ul><ul><li>rent </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>VARIABLE COST </li></ul><ul><li>Cost that vary directly with the level of production. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>direct material cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>direct labor cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>factory supplies </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>TOTAL COST </li></ul><ul><li>the sum of fixed and variable cost for any given level of production. </li></ul><ul><li>Total cost = fixed cost + variable cost </li></ul>
  10. 10. COST AT DIFFERENT LVELS OF PRODUCTION <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Total fixed cost = 100,000 Rs. </li></ul><ul><li>No. of units = 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Per unit cost = 100,000/10 = 10,000 Rs. </li></ul><ul><li>No. of units = 100 </li></ul><ul><li>Per unit cost = 100,000/100 = 1000 Rs. </li></ul><ul><li>No. of units = 1000 </li></ul><ul><li>Per unit cost = 100,000/1000 = 100 Rs. </li></ul>
  11. 11. COST PER UNIT AT DIFFERERNT VELS OF PRODUCTION PER PERIOD 10 100 1000 Cost per unit 1 2 3
  12. 12. LEARNING CURVE <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>The drop in the average per unit production cost that comes with accumulated production experience. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 10 20 30 1000 2000 3000 Accumulated production Cost per unit LEARNING CURVE
  14. 14. COST BASED PRICING Cost-plus Pricing Adding a standard mark up to the cost of the product.
  15. 15. EXAMPLE Suppose Variable cost = 10 Fixed cost = 3,00,000 Expected unit sales = 50,000 Unit cost = variable cost + Fixed cost Unit sales Unit cost = 10 + 300000 50000 = 16 Mark up price = Unit cost 1 – desired return on sales = 16 1 – 0.2 = 20
  16. 16. BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS AND TARGET PROFIT PRICING <ul><li>Break Even Pricing </li></ul><ul><li>setting price to break even on the cost of making and marketing a product </li></ul><ul><li>Break Even Volume </li></ul><ul><li>the point at which total revenue and total cost curves cross each other. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Example Break even volume = Fixed cost Price – variable cost = 300000 20 – 10 = 30,000 units Total cost = fixed cost + variable cost
  18. 18. 600 800 1000 10 20 30 40 50 Sales volume in units (Thousands) Cost in Rupees (Thousands) Total revenue Target profit Total Cost 200 400 30 40 50 20 30 40 50 10 20 30 40 50
  19. 19. <ul><li>Internal Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Overall Marketing Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>General Pricing Objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current profit maximization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market share leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer retention and relationship building </li></ul></ul>Other Internal & External Considerations Affecting Price Decisions
  20. 20. <ul><li>Marketing Mix Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions made or other marketing is variables may affect pricing decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Target Costing </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Small Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Large Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Market </li></ul>
  21. 21. EXTERNAL FACTORS <ul><li>The Market An Demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pricing in different types of marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pure competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monopolistic competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oligopolistic competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pure monopoly </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. ANALYZING THE PRIC -DEMAND RELATIONSHIP <ul><li>DEMAND CURVE </li></ul><ul><li>A curve that shows the number of units the market will buy in a given time period, at different prices that might be changed. </li></ul>
  23. 23. INVERSALY RELATED <ul><li>Demand and price are inversely related; that is, the higher the price and lower the demand. </li></ul><ul><li>the demand curve some times slopes up word </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>PRICE ELASTICITY </li></ul><ul><li>Inelastic </li></ul><ul><li>If demand are hardly changes with small change in price, we say demand is inelastic. </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic </li></ul><ul><li>If demand changes greatly, we say the demand is elastic. </li></ul>
  25. 25. price p 2 P 1 P’ 2 P’ 1 Quantity demanded per period Quantity demanded per period A. Inelastic B. Elastic Q 2 Q 1 Q’ 2 Q’ 1
  26. 26. FORMULA Price elasticity of demand = - % change in quantity demand %change in price
  27. 27. <ul><li>COMPETITORS STRATEGIES AND PRICE </li></ul><ul><li>cost, price, and market offerings </li></ul><ul><li>nature of competition it faces. </li></ul><ul><li>A high- price, high-margin strategy </li></ul><ul><li>A low- price, low margin strategy </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>OTHER EXTERNAL FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>Economic condition </li></ul><ul><li>The government </li></ul>