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- 1. Software for Data Analysis in SPSS: On over view M. Nagaiah ,D.L.I.Sc M.Phil ,Scholar Alagappa University, Karaikudi – 630 003 nagaiahben@gmail.com K. Ayyanar,D.L.I.Sc M.Phil ,Scholar Alagappa University, Karaikudi – 630 003 ayyanar.k1992@gmail.com Abstract This study deals with the most important aspects of software in SPSS stands for "Statistical Package for the Social Sciences". It's a very powerful program that can do all of the statistics that you are ever likely to want to use. When it comes to giving you statistical results, it will give you what you want - as well as a lot of extra stuff that you may not need! The secret to using SPSS is to take it one small step at a time. This paper discusses the objectives of SPSS, Statistics included in the base software, How to use of SPSS, Feature of SPSS and Statistics Application for Software and IBM SPSS statistics. Introduction: Analysis of data is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision- making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, in different business, science, and social science domains. Using SPSS). Those of us who have used software for years think that we know it all and don’t pay a lot of attention to new features. I learned a huge amount from Andy’s book. What is SPSS? SPSS is a Windows based program that can be used to perform data entry and analysis and to create tables and graphs. SPSS is capable of handling large amounts of data and can perform all of the analyses covered in the text and much more. SPSS is commonly used in the Social Sciences and in the business world, so familiarity with this program should serve you well in the future. SPSS is updated often. This document was written around an earlier version, but
- 2. the differences should not cause any problems. If you want to go further and learn much more about SPSS, I strongly recommend Andy Field’s book (Field, 2009, discovering statistics Features: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences can perform basic statistic functions such as descriptive statistics to determine the variance, frequency, etc. For more advanced feature, there are also functions for analytic statistics, Bivariate statistics, predictions for numerical outcomes and prediction for identifying groups. To simplify data processing, SPSS allows you to rearrange your data. You can rename data and edit groups several times as required. In fact, there are only two types of data that are numbers and strings (text). After that, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences processes the data sequentially. After treatment, you can export the results you have achieved, i.e the tables or graphs in other programs such as Microsoft Word. The interpretation depends on the level of knowledge of the user. In addition, with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences files will be saved in. Spo. System requirements Operating Systems: Linux, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1 Hard disk space: 512mb Statistics Application: Statistics is the study of the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data. In applying statistics to, e.g., a scientific, industrial, or societal problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Statistics deals with all aspects of data including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments. When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs and survey samples. Representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can safely extend from the sample to the population as a whole. An experimental study involves taking measurements of the system under study, manipulating the system, and then taking additional measurements using the same procedure to determine if the manipulation has modified the values of the measurements. In contrast, an observational study does not involve experimental manipulation.. IBM SPSS Statistics: IBM SPSS Statistics is an integrated family of products that addresses the entire analytical process, from planning to data collection to analysis, reporting and deployment. With more
- 3. than a dozen fully integrated modules to choose from, you can find the specialized capabilities you need to increase revenue, outperform competitors, conduct research and make better decision SPSS Statistics: SPSS Statistics is a software package used for statistical analysis. Long produced by SPSS Inc., it was acquired by IBM in 2009. The current versions (2015) are officially named IBM SPSS Statistics. Companion products in the same family are used for survey authoring and deployment (IBM SPSS Data Collection), data mining (IBM SPSS Modeler), text analytics, and collaboration and deployment (batch and automated scoring services). The software name originally stood for Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), flecting the original market, although the software is now popular in other fields as well, including the health sciences and marketing. SPSS is a widely used program for statistical analysis in social science. It is also used by market researchers, health researchers, survey companies, government, education researchers, marketing organizations, data miners, and others. The original SPSS manual (Nie, Bent & Hull, 1970) has been described as one of "sociology's most influential books" for allowing ordinary researchers to do their own statistical analysis.[4] In addition to statistical analysis, data management (case selection, file reshaping, creating derived data) and data documentation (a metadata dictionary was stored in the data file) are features of the base software. SPSS modeler: IBM SPSS Modeler is a data mining and text analytics software application built by IBM. It is used to build predictive models and conduct other analytic tasks. It has a visual interface which allows users to leverage statistical and data mining algorithms without programming. IBM SPSS Modeler was originally named Clementine by its creators, Integral Solutions Limited. This name continued for a while after SPSS's acquisition of the product. SPSS later changed the name to SPSS Clementine, and then later to PASW Modeler.[1] Following IBM's 2009 acquisition of SPSS, the product was renamed IBM SPSS Modeler, its current name. Application: SPSS Modeler has been used in these and other industries: Customer analytics and Customer relationship management (CRM) Fraud detection and prevention Optimizing insurance claims
- 4. Risk management Manufacturing quality improvement Healthcare quality improvement Forecasting demand or sales Law enforcement and border security Education Telecommunications Entertainment: e.g., predicting movie box office receipts How to use SPSS: SPSS a mature, proprietary, commercial statistical analysis software package with a graphical user interface. It is one of the most commonly used software solutions for statistical data analysis in academia, particularly the social sciences. Use of SPSS is commonly, though not universally, taught to students in social science university degree programs around the world. Several limitations, however, exist with use of SPSS, including: 1. It is expensive (full version is over $1000, with annual license fees) but it have a trail version also 2. Student versions are not fully functional (i.e., there are restrictions in the number of cases and variables and to advanced statistics). Fortunately the free replacement w: PSPP is available at little or no cost, and has unlimited cases and variables. Some advanced statistics (notably GLM) however are not yet supported. Being able to use and teach use of SPSS/PSPP in many university social science departments is almost a requirement. tests, factor analysis, cluster analysis, principal components analysis, chi-square analysis and more. Some very advanced statistical tests are as of 2014 not yet implemented. At the user's choice, statistical output and graphics are available in ASCII, PDF, PostScript, SVG or HTML formats. A range of statistical graphs can be produced, such as histograms, pie-charts scree plots and np-charts Statistics included in the base software: Descriptive statistics: Cross tabulation, Frequencies, Descriptive, Explore, Descriptive Ratio Statistics
- 5. Bivariatestatistics: Means, t-test, ANOVA, Correlation (bivariate, partial, distances), Nonparametric tests Prediction for numerical outcomes: Linear regression Open SPSS: If SPSS is installed on your hard drive, click Start, Programs, SPSS for Windows, SPSS for Windows If there is an SPSS shortcut like this on the desktop, simply put the cursor on it and double click the left mouse button Click the left mouse button on the button on your screen, then put your cursor on Programs or All Programs and left click the mouse. Select SPSS 15.0 for Windows by clicking the left mouse button. (For a while that started calling the program PASW Statistics 15, but they seem to have given that up as a dumb idea when everyone else calls it SPSS. The version number may change by the time you read this.) Either approach will launch the program Use one of these approaches to open SPSS yourself. Review of layout: The Data Editor window has two views that can be selected from the lower left hand side of the screen. Data View is where you see the data you are using. Variable View is where you can specify the format of your data when you are creating a file or where you can check the format of a pre-existing file. The data in the Data Editor is saved in a file with the extension
- 6. SPSS Menus and Icons Review the options listed under each menu on the Menu Bar by clicking them one at a time. Follow along with the below descriptions. File includes all of the options you typically use in other programs, such as open, save, exit. Notice, that you can open or create new files of multiple types as illustrated to the right. Edit includes the typical cut, copy, and paste commands, and allows you to specify various options for displaying data and output Click on Options, and you will see the dialog box to the left. You can use this to format the data, output, charts, etc. These choices are rather overwhelming, and you can simply take the default options for now. The author of your text (me) was too dumb to even know these options could easily be set View allows you to select which toolbars you want to show, select font size, add or remove the gridlines that separate each piece of data, and to select whether or not to display your raw data or the data labels. Data allows you to select several options ranging from displaying data that is sorted by a specific variable to selecting certain cases for subsequent analyses. Transform includes several options to change current variables. For example, you can change continuous variables to categorical variables, change scores into rank scores, add a constant to variables, etc. Analyze includes all of the commands to carry out statistical analyses and to calculate descriptive statistics. Much of this book will focus on using commands located in this menu. Graphs include the commands to create various types of graphs including box plots, histograms, line graphs, and bar charts.
- 7. Utilities allow you to list file information which is a list of all variables, there labels, values, locations in the data file, and type. Add-ons are programs that can be added to the base SPSS package. You probably do not have access to any of those. Window can be used to select which window you want to view (i.e., Data Editor, Output Viewer, or Syntax). Since we have a data file and an output file open, let’s try this. Window Editor in SPSS: Select Window/Data Editor. Then select Window/SPSS Viewer. Help has many useful options including a link to the SPSS homepage, a statistics coach, and a syntax guide. Using topics, you can use the index option to type in any key word and get a list of options, or you can view the categories and subcategories available under contents. This is an excellent tool and can be used to troubleshoot most problems Exiting SPSS: To close SPSS, you can either left click on the close button located on the upper right hand corner of the screen or select Exit from the File menu. Choose one of these approaches. A dialog box like the one below will appear for every open window asking you if you want to save it before exiting. You almost always want to save data files. Output files may be large, so you should ask yourself if you need to save them or if you simply want to print them. Click No for each dialog box since we do not have any new files or changed files to save.
- 8. Prediction for identifying groups: Factor analysis, cluster analysis (two-step, K- means, hierarchical), Discriminate Variables: Graphical user interface: In computer science, a graphical user interface or GUI, pronounced /ˈɡuːi/ ("gooey") is a type of interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation. GUIs were introduced in reaction to the perceived steep learning curve of command-line interfaces (CLIs),[2][3][4] which require commands to be typed on the keyboard. CONCLUSTION: The successful Software of any field in the research work, SPSS (now called PASW Statistics, but still referred to in this document as SPSS) is a perfectly adequate tool for entering data, creating new variables, performing EDA, and performing formal statistical analyses. It is very common that you will find some error in your data at some point. So it is highly likely that you will need to repeat all of your analyses, and that is painful without exact records, but easy or automatic with most good software. Also, because it takes a long time from analysis to publishing, you will need these records to remind yourself of exactly which steps you performed. Reference: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g0G_GAdo268 http://www03.ibm.com/software/businesscasestudies/us/en/corp?OpenDocument&Site=defau lt&cty=en_us Devore J.L.probability and statistics for engineering and the science .6th edition Belmont ,CA: Thomson learinng ,2004 Zar J.H. Biostatistical Analysis. 4th edn. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1999.