1 INTRODUCTION Human creature has emerged as a very specialized species in theprocess of evolution. Ayurveda is a practical science that deals withphysiological and pathological status of human mortal. Ancient seers ofAyurveda have classified the elements of the body under three fundamentalcomponents Dosa, Dhatu and Mala. For the existence of mortal, twoelementary requirements are there, one that form anatomical configurationand second which continue physiological provenance. Among formermentioned element Dosa and Mala are the principal physiological entities.These two elements are not structural one and stable too. The basicstructural architectures of the body are formed by Dhatus. They are moststable constituents of the body. Dhatu form the substratum, which bear andnourish other constituents of the body and its concomitant conjugation isresponsible for the existence and continuation of human mortal. They act asrecipient for all the functions taking place in the body. Though the basic elements are categorized under these three groupsbut some elements are left which are not defined. Ancient seers found itdifficult to attribute their functions to former one. Thus further definedspecialized groups of elements termed as Upadhatu. Grammaticalunderstanding of the term shows that Upadhatu consist of two parts prefixUpa and the word Dhatu. Prefix Upa is suggestive of proximity and closeresemblance to the term Dhatu. So in nutshell, it could be said thatUpadhatu is derivative of Dhatu and has some resemblance in terms ofstructure, function and nature. They are important physiological units andradically engaged to design the structural architecture of the mortal. Dhatu form the Basic architecture of the body, they are not accomplished toexecute the functions of body without the support of Upadhatus. Upadhatu furnish abridge between these fundamental entities. This Bridge is also obligatory to ensue
2all the physiological functions. Their function commences since evolvement ofmortal itself. Upadhatus are also involved in emergence of diseases and theknowledge is necessary to understand the pathological conditions. Though theyexhibit a pivotal role in existence of life their knowledge is confined & enfolded inSutras. The methodology of Science is to say things contained in short guidelines. Annotators have tried to unroll the Sutras. They have given a majorcontribution to flourish this source of knowledge. There after the responsibilitycomes on the shoulders of intellectuals of science to explicate this knowledge thuscontributing to make it available for all other followers for application. The ultimatemotto of the science is to achieve Health of mortal. Hence it is necessary toexplicate the knowledge of Upadhatus.Previous Research Work - Following works have been carried out till date i.e.(1) Upadhatu Viniscaya - Vaidya S.P; 1970, Jamnagar.(2) Stanya Upadhatu Ka Sharir Kriyatmaka Adhyayana - Meena D. 1998 (N.I.A. Jaipura)(3) Manasapesi Sharira Ke Sandarbha Me Twaka Upadhatu Ka Prayogika Adhyayana - Singh K. N. 1997, (N. I. A. Jaipur). Many objects remain untouched in these works. Hence considering the necessity of enrolling the knowledge regarding theUpadhatu, the problem has been selected for the study. A Series of research works should be carried out to explore this field.Keeping this in mind, to step further in this direction, the work was planned, toacquire the knowledge regarding basic concept of Upadhatu. The mammalian hierarchy specifies the possibility of initiation of life fromwomb. Raja & Stanya are Stri Visista Upadhatus. This is first attempt to practicallyassess the Upadhatu. Considering the time period available for the study & the
3availability of the subject under concern discipline, Raja seemed to be mostassessible Upadhatu. The comprehensive study has been done on Upadhatu Raja; itsPrakrtatva & Vikrtatva. The conflicting statements are reviewed regarding thisUpadhatu. Majority of the revered seers has adduced that it is Upadhatu of Rasa butfew referred it to Rakta Dhatu. Acarya Sarngadhara & Bhavamisra have distinctlyquoted that it is Upadhatu of Rakta. Considering all, to judge the hypothesis (towhich Dhatu the Upadhatu Raja belongs) and to support conceptual study, appliedstudy has been undertaken with respect to Artavadusti (Rajodusti) for assessment ofUpadhatu Raja.Aims and Objectives: -(1) To Study in detail the Concept of Upadhatu.(2) To Study in detail the Concept of Upadhatu Raja.(3) To resolve the constroversy regarding Upadhatu Raja.(4) Assessment of Prakrtatva & Vikrtatva of Raja.(5) To evaluate therapeutically (Upasayanupasayabhayam) the proximity of Raja with Rasa & Rakta Dhatu.Plan of Study:The present work was designed in two parts(I) Conceptual study(II) Clinical study(I) Conceptual Study- For conceptual part of the study Ayurvedic Classics likeBrhattrayi, Laghuttrayi and other Sangraha Granthas, Journals, Research papers,Modern Texts, etc has been referred. Various fundamentals of Ayurveda areconcerned with these Upadhatus, a light is also shed on these points. The opinions ofvarious Acaryas regarding the concept of Upadhatu Raja is put froth in a systemicway which provides a scientific background to resolve the controversy regarding thisUpadhatu.
4(II) Clinical Study: Ayurveda is a practical Science. Hence fundamentals should be tested onpractical background. For the practicg60al assessment of Upadhatu Raja & to find out its relation with Rasa & Rakta Dhatuclinical study was designed. Upadhatu shows specific relation with Dhatus. They derive theirnourishment after the action of concern Dhatvagni. Status of Upadhatu dependsupon the status of Dhatvagni with which it is related. This Principle of Dhatvagni has been applied for practical assessment.Attyartava condition of Asrgdara has been selected for the study. Prasadana Dravyas distinctly act on concern Dhatvagni. Thus they improvedeteriorated status of Upadhatu. Drugs have been selected on the basic of thisPrasadana principle of Cikitsa. To see the specific relation of Raja with Rasa & Rakta Dhatu, two Groupswere made viz. - (1) Rasaprasadana Group (A) (2) Raktaprasadana Group (B)The observations and results are elaborated in this section.(III) Discussion and Conclusion: Rational behind the fundamentals stated in the conceptual part and the dataobtained from the clinical study has been discussed and important conclusuions aredrawn on these basis.(IV) Summary: The work is summarized at the end.(V) Addenda: This section includes the bibliography and proforma of the clinical work.
5Historical Review Veda is the most ancient literature of the world from which Ayurveda; thescience of life is known to be separated. In Veda the references of Upadhatus arefound in dispersed manner. The number of Asthi Sandhi and their types i.e. Cala andAcala Sandhi are quoted in Rgveda. Ayurveda is said as Upaveda of Atharvaveda.The following references are found in Atharvaveda- The structure of Sandhi and their specific position in the body is quoted."Hira" word is used for Sira; their number is mentioned to be Sahasra. Lohitavarnaword is used for Suksma Sira. References of Twak are found in relation withKustha. "Carma" word is used for Twak. Snayu are also quoted. The references ofRajovahi Nadya are found. Vasa is quoted by the name of Vapa. In MantraSamhita of Kausika Sutra the treatment of Attyartava is mentioned with the help ofMantra. Rajovahi Nadya are mentioned by the name of Lohitavasa.Samhita Kala: - Caraka Samhita was the first who had elucidated Upadhatus collectively inone Sutra. Susruta has given the description of the Upadhatu components separatelybut not as a unit. Astanga Sangrahakara has mentioned these components underPrasadaja elements.Madhya Kala; - Commentator Cakrapani and Dalhana have elaborately explained theUpadhatu concept. Acarya Sarngadhara has introduced a modified unit of Upadhatu.Modern Era-The Ayurvedic scholars like P.S. Variyara, Dr. C. Dwarkanatha, and RanajitaraiDesai have tried to explain these Upadhatus.
6CONCEPT OF UPADHATU(I) EVOLVEMENT OF UPDADHATU: In order to develop the precise concept of Upadhatu availablereferences from the classics are compiled as follows. Acarya Caraka while describing the nutrition of body elements definesa separate group of elements, but has not entitled them. Further whileanalyzing this unit commentator Cakrapani entitled them as Upadhatu.These seven components are Stanya, Rakta (indicative of Raja), Kandara,Sira, Vasa, Twak and Snayu. Cakrapani has also quoted the opinion ofAcarya Bhoja in this regard. Bhoja has mentioned only five components ofthis unit, which are Sira, Snayu, Raja, Stanya and Twak. He hasnomenclated this unit as Upadhatu. Acarya Susruta has not mentioned these components collectively andalso not used the term Upadhatu. While describing the functions of Dosa,Dhatu and Mala revered seer has mentioned Raja and Stanya. Along withthese two components, "Garbha" is mentioned under this unit. CommentatorDalhana has termed these three as Upadhatus. Among the remainingcomponents except Vasa all are mentioned under Vatavyadhi Nidana andCikitsa. In Sutrasthana while explaining the nourishment of Dhatus insuccessive manner Acarya Susruta has used the term "Prajayate" (S.Su.14/10). Elucidating this term revered Dalhana shed a light on Upadhatus.Here commentator has enlisted the same components as stated by AcaryaCaraka and further added Sandhi to the list. He has nomenclated this unit asUpadhatu, Gayadasas commentary on Susruta Samhita is available onNidanasthana only, and while annotating on Nidanasthanas first chapter hehas mentioned the Sloka regarding Upadhatus - "Rasat Raktam Tatha Stanyam Asrjah Kandara Sirah| " Mamsat Vasa Twacah Sat Ca Medasah Snayu Sambhavah ||".[S. Ni.1/25-29, Nyayacandrica]
7He had modified the first part of Sutra as mentioned above. He has notmentioned Sandhi. Here he remarked that originally this Sloka belongs tofifteenth chapter of Sutrasthana. He further opines that when "Dharana"Karma of Dhatu is expected, "Dhatu" term should not be restricted to onlySaptadhatu but Mala and Upadhatu are also to be considered along withthem. In this regard he has clearly used the term Upadhatu. Further references from the classics are mentioned wherecommentators have interpreted the "Dhatu" term in Sloka for Upadhatus andMalas along with Sapta Dhatu.(1) "Dosa Dhatvagni Samatam... |" [S. Ni. 1/18]In the above verses "Dhatu" term is interpreted for Upadhatu and Mala,along with Sapta Dhatu.(2) "Sama Dosah Samagnisca Sama Dhatu Mala Kriyah |" [S. Su. 15/41]In the above context Dalhana has interpreted the "Dhatu" term forUpadhatus along with Sapta Dhatu. In Uttaratantra, Acarya Susruta hasmentioned the Dhatu and Upadhatus related with Netra. (S. U.1/19)Revered Oracle of next era Astanga Sangrahakara has not used the termUpadhatu. While explaining the Dhatu metabolism, revered Acarya hasmentioned the components as a "Prasadaja Part" but not nomenclated themas Upadhatu. Revered Acarya adds Sandhi in these Prasadaja entities forthe first time, which is accepted by Dalhana as mentioned previously. In thiscontext they have not mentioned Raja and Stanya (A.S. 6/45). Acarya hasconsidered these two entities separately while elucidating the "AnjaliPramana" of body elements. (A.S.Sa.5/93). Revered oracle Laghu Vagbhatahas not mentioned these components collectively anywhere and also notused the term "Upadhatu". Commentators of Astanga Sangraha andAstanga Hrdaya have not nomenclated these components as Upadhatus. Further the seer of medieval period Sarngadhara, stands differentlywhile enlisting this unit of Upadhatu. Revered oracle has enlisted Stanya,
8Raja, Vasa, Sweda, Danta, Kesa, and Oja as unit of Upadhatu. (SA. Pr.5/16-18). He has clearly mentioned them as "Sapta Upadhatavah." (SA. Pr.5/1). Further the oracle of next era, Bhavamisra, has accepted the opinion ofSarngadhara. There are some references available in Bhavaprakasa, whichshows similarity with Caraka and Susruta schools of thoughts also. Theauthor of Yogatarangini has also accepted the Sarngadhara school ofthoughts. Review of the Classics.Century Names of Revered Mentioned the Upadhatus Used the term Acaryas Collectively as a Unit "Upadhatu" Yes No Yes No 4-6 th Caraka + + 4-6th Susruta + + 4-6 th Vrddha Vagbhata As a Prasadaja + elements 4-6 th Laghu Vagbhata + + 11 th Bhoja + + 11 th Gayadasa + + 11 th Cakrapani + + 12th Dalhana + + 13th Indu, Arundatta, + + Hemadri 14 th Sarngadhara Modified Unit + 16 th Bhavaprakasa + 17 th Yogatarangini +
9 Bhoja has mentioned only five components as Upadhatu. AcaryaCaraka has elucidated seven components as Upadhatu. AstangaSangrahakara adds Sandhi to the list. Commentator Dalhana accepted itand thus the number of the Upadhatu becomes eight. The author ofmedieval period Sarngadhara comprehends Sweda, Danta, Kesa and Ojaunder Upadhatu. Upadhatus quoted by AcaryasNames of Revered Names of the Upadhatus No. Acaryas Mentioned Bhoja Stanya, Raja, Sira, Twak 5 Snayu.Caraka; Gayadasa; Stanya, Raja, Kandara, Sira, 7 Cakrapani Vasa, Twak, Snayu.Vrddha Vagbhata; Stanya, Raja, Kandara, Sira, 8 Dalhana Vasa, Twak, Snayu, Sandhi Sarngadhara; Stanya, Raja, Vasa, Sweda, 7 Bhavamisra; Danta, Kesa, Oja. Trimalla Bhatta (Y.T.)
10 Upadhatus accepted by Acaryas Newly introduced by Total Sarngadhara Name of Stanya Raja Kandara Sira Vasa Twak Snayu Sandhi Sweda Danta Kesa Oja Acarya Caraka + + + + + + + + - - - - 7 Gayadasa + + + + + + + + - - - - 7 Cakrapani + + + + + + + + - - - - 7 Bhoja + + - + - + + - - - - - 5 Astanga + + + + + + + + - - - - 8Sangrahakara. Dalhana + + + + + + + + - - - - 8Sarngadhara + + - - + - - - + + + + 7 Bhavamisra + + - - + - - - + + + + 7 (II) ETYMOLOGY: One has to apply the grammatical understanding of the term to derive the indepth meaning of the word. The word Upadhatu consists of two parts i.e. Prefix "Upa" and the word "Dhatu". (I) DHATU: Vyutpatti: "Dha Sitanigamati Iti Tun Unam | Sarira Dharaka Vastuni |" [SKD - 1/70]. The word Dhatu is derived from the root "Dha" which means to support and nourish. "Dhiyate Sarvam Asmin Iti |" [SKD] Everything existing is supported by this or because they bear and support, they are termed as Dhatu.
11Nirukti: a) "Dadayati Sarira Samvardhakan Iti Dhatu |" (SKD)Which supports the growth of the body is termed as Dhatu. b) "Ete Sapta Swayam Sthitva Dehan Dadhati Yan Nrnam |" [SKD - IInd/790]Dhatus are stable constituents, the basic elements of the body, which makethe body exist.(II) Upa: "Upa Pradi Vimsati Upasargantargata Upasaraga Visesah |"[Ayurvediya Sabdakosa]Upa" is a prefix attached to the word "Dhatu". Prefix changes the meaning ofthe word with which it is acting. The literary meaning of "Upa" is:"Anugatini | Anukampa | Adhikyam | Hinah | Samipyam |"Towards, near to, by the side of, resemblance, nearness, with the idea ofsubordination and inferiority. [M.W.Dic.](III) Upadhatu-Vyutpatti: "Pu Upamitah Dhatubhih |" [SSTMN] "Pradhana Dhatusadrsesu |"That shows close resemblance towards Dhatu.Nirukti: 1. "Dhatubhava Te Upadhatavah |"Upadhatus are evolved from Dhatus. 2. "Dhatu Samipe Bhava Upadhatavah |" [SA.Pr. 5/1 - Dipika]Upadhatu are produced along with Dhatus. 3. "Dhatubyah Ca Upajayante Tasmat Ta Upadhatavah |" [S.Su.14/10-Bhanumati]
12Those, which are derivatives of Dhatus, produced at complementary,subsidiary level, are known as Upadhatus. 4. "Dhatoh Upadanabhutat Jato Anya Dhatuh |"[C.Ci.17/17-Cakra]"Upadana" means Samavayi Karana (immediate cause). Dhatu are theimmediate cause of Upadhatu. 5. "Upagatah Vaikrtyam Prapto Dhatu Upadhatuh |" [SA.Pr. 5/17-18; Gudhartha Dipika]Vitiated state of Dhatu is termed as Upadhatu.(III) CHARACTERS OF UPADHATU : Classics have explained the concept of Upadhatu in correlation withDhatu. Upadhatu are derived from Dhatus. Acarya Caraka has explainedtheir specific correlation in the following verse: "Rasat Stanyam Tato Raktam Asrjah Kandarah Sirah | Mamsat Vasa Twacah Sat Ca Medasah Snayu Sambhavah | " [C. Ci. 15/17] Dhatu Related Upadhatus Rasa Stanya, Raja Rakta Kandara, Sira Mamsa Vasa, Twak Meda Snayu, Sandhi (Dalhana)First four Dhatus are related with Upadhatus. Revered annotator Dalhana inSutrasthana elucidates the rational behind this. "Vivista Karyantara Utpada Darsanartham |" [S.Su. 14/10 - Dalhana]In the context of nourishment of Dhatus, Acarya Susruta has specified theterm "Prajayate" for first four Upadhatus only. "Rasat Raktam Tato Mamsam Mamsat Medah Prajayate |" [S. Su.14/10]
13Annotator Dalhana has elucidated that to specify the distinct function ofthese Dhatus the term "Prajayate" is used for them. Further he opines thatwe cannot deduce the cause behind this, the only logic is "Swabhava."The features of these Upadhatus are as follows:1) Produced at Complementary level: - "Dhatubhyah Ca Upajayante |" [Bhoja]Upadhatus are produced from Dhatu metabolism, but they are produced atsubsidiary level, secondary level. The word "Upajayante" suggests that theyare byproduct of Dhatu metabolism.2) Gativivarjita: - "Jayanta Eva, Param Na Janayanti |" [C.Ci. 15/17, Cakra]Commenting on the above verse of Bhoja, revered Cakrapani furtherenlightens the view that they are not having the property to producesuccessive elements. "Dhatvantara Aposanat ....... Upadhatu Sabdena Uccante |" [C.Ci.15/17-Cakra]Cakrapani has stated that since they do not have the property of nourishingthe Dhatus, they are termed as Upadhatus.They have no fate to get transformed into further components. Acarya Bhojahas referred this character of Upadhatu as "Gativivarjita".Commentator Sivadasa Sen further confines the meaning of this term as"Atra Gativivarjita Iti Anena Dhatvantara Posanadya Gatih Nisidhyate |" [S.Su.14/10 -Sivadasa Sen]He explained that Upadhatu do not have any fate to nourish successiveDhatu. In the context of Dhatus their Gativarjitva is proved.3) Sarira Posakatva: - Annotator Cakrapani specifies that though Upadhatudo not nourish Dhatu, but they do nourish other components of the body.
14 To understand the precise concept of Upadhatus, their role in bodyphysiology it is necessary to know the characters of Dhatus on the basis ofwhich Upadhatus are described in classics. Characters of Dhatu Characters of Upadhatu1. Dhatvantara Posakatva: Dhatvantara Aposakatva: Dhatu nourishes Successive Dhatu. Upadhatu do not nourish successive Dhatu or Upadhatu.2. Gativivarjita - This property is not found is Dhatu. Upadhatu possesses Gativivarjitva in relation with Dhatu.3. Dhatu Sneha Parampara: - Dhatu nourishes successive as well as Such type of inter-relation is not present former Dhatu. They are connected to in Upadhatus. each other through nourishing pool.4. Sarira Posakatva: - It is present in Dhatus. It is present in Upadhatus too.5. Sarira Dharanatva: - Dhatus bear the body elements. In Upadhatus this function is supportive to Dhatus.6. Dhatu functions right from conception Some Upadhatus (Raja & Stanya) & continue through out the life. functions for specific time period only.7. Some Dhatu (i.e.Sukra) produces alike Upadhatus do not have reproductive body elements. It is having capacity. Function of Raja & Stanya is reproductive capacity. supportive to reproduction.8. Dhatus do not act as Mala Bhava for Some (Raja & Stanya) of them are Body. Only Sukra is ejaculated from excretory in nature & act as Mala
15 the body by means of specific function Bhava for the body if not expelled after of reproduction. specific time period.(IV) MODIFIED CONCEPT OF SARNGADHARA :Svatantra Siddhanta of Acarya Sarngadhara regarding the concept ofUpadhatu: -Eminent oracle Sarngadhara has not accepted the opinion of the formerAcaryas. He introduced a modified unit of Upadhatu. "Stanyam Rajasca Narinam Kale Bhavati Gacchati |" Suddha Mamsabhavah Snehah Sa Vasa Parikirtitah | Swedo Dantah Tatha Kesah Tathaiva Ojasca Saptamam | Iti Dhatubhava Jneya Ete Saptopadhatavah |" [SA. Pr. 5/16-18]Sarngadhara has asserted Stanya, Raja, Vasa, Sweda, Danta, Kesa, andOja as Upadhatu.Acarya Bhavamisra concurred with the opinion of Sarngadhara. "Stanyam Rajo Vasa Swedo Dantah Kesah Tathaiva Ca | Oja ca Sapta Dhatunam Kramat Saptopadhatavah ||" [BH. Pu. 3/212]According to this school of thoughts, Dhatus are related with Upadhatus infollowing manner: - Modified Unit of Upadhatu of Acarya Sarngadhara Related Upadhatu Dhatu Accepted Upadhatus as Newly introduced Excluded previously mentioned Upadhatus Upadhatus Rasa Stanya - Raja Rakta - Raja Kandara, Sira Mamsa Vasa - Twak.
16 Meda - Sweda Snayu, Sandhi Asthi - Danta - Majja - Kesa - Sukra - Oja -As compared to Caraka, Sarngadhara schools are having separate views onfollowing points:Acarya Sarngadhara has not mentioned Kandara, Sira, Twak, Snayu, andSandhi. Instead of these he appendaged Sweda, Danta, Kesa and Oja to thelist of Upadhatu. All the seven Dhatus are mentioned in relation withUpadhatus.Acquiring the knowledge of newly introduced Upadhatus: -1) Sweda - Acarya Caraka and Susruta has referred it under "Dhatu Mala" ofthe body. Sweda is derived from Mala portion of the Meda Dhatu. AcaryaSarngadhara and Bhavamisra have mentioned it under Upadhatu and DhatuMalas too. (SA.Pr. 5/15; BH. Pu. 3/209)ii) Danta - Ancient seer has not mentioned Danta under "Dhatu Mala."All body elements are categorized under Prasadaja or Mala entities.Commentator Cakrapani has explained in this context that Danta receives itsnutrition from Mala portion of Asthi Dhatu. Danta are included in Asthi byAcarya Caraka. Acarya Susruta has termed it as "Rucakasthi". Susruta hasnot referred Danta under "Dhatu Mala".iii) Kesa - Acarya Caraka and Astanga Sangrahakara have included Kesaunder Dhatu Mala. Acarya Sarngadhara mentioned it as an Upadhatu ofMajja.iv) Oja - It is elixir of all the Dhatus starting from Rasa to Sukra.(C.Su. 17/75, S. Su. 15/19 - Dalhana; A.H.Su. 11/37 - Arundatta;A.S.Su. 19/28; C.Su. 17/17 - Cakra; C.Su. 28/4 - Cakra)
17Annotator Cakrapani has quoted few anonymous statements in this regard.Some are of the view that Oja is a specialized form of Sukra since it doesentnourishe the mind. Some opine it as eighth number of Dhatu. In this contextone anonymous statement supports the view of Sarngadhara to consider theOja as Upadhatu. Rational behind this is explained that like other Dhatusthough it sustains the body but does not nourish it. Acarya Bhavamisra inthis context states this entity as essence of all the Dhatus.(BH.Pu.3/101). Cakrapani while commenting on Upadhatus narrated hisopinion that Oja should not be considered as Dhatu or Upadhatu. It cannotbe separated from Dhatus, as it is elixir of them. (C.Ci. 15/17 - Cakra). While commenting on Upadhatu, author of Gudhartha Dipika,Kasirama Vaidya has elucidated his opinion. He raised a question regardingthe Upadhatu of Rasa and Rakta in males. During this discussion he opinesthat when improperly metamorphosed Rasa Dhatu come out of the body it iscalled as Upadhatu of Rasa. Due to vitiation of Pitta, augmented Rakta whengoes upward it is to be named as Upadhatu of Rakta. Further he has given ameaning of Upadhatu as"Upagatah Vaikrtyam Prapto Dhatuh Upadhatuh |" [SA.Pr. 5/17-18]According to his opinion vitiated form of Dhatu is to be termed as Upadhatu.(V) PHYSIOLOGY OF UPADHATU FORMATION: Dhatu metabolism is a nourished pool of all the body constituents.Through this pool all elements including Upadhatus derive their nourishment. Revered seer Caraka explains metabolism process behind this.Upadhatu are sustained being fed by their nourishing factor. Food afterdigestion takes two forms viz. the Prasadaja (essence) and the Kitta.Depending upon their nourishment from Prasadaja or the Kitta, the tissueelements of the body are described of two types, the pure once"Prasadakhya" and waste product "Malakya". From Prasadaja portion all the
18Dhatus are formed in progressive order. Upadhatu are also nourished fromthis Prasadaja part. Ahara Rasa when goes to the abodes of one Dhatu after the action ofSrotasagni it is transformed into two parts Prasadaja and Kitta. Prasadajaportion is further divided into two parts. The main portion of it providesnourishment to that Dhatu and the subtle portion (Suksma Bhaga) is meantto provide nourishment to two elements, by its further division. The majorportion of it goes to the site of next Dhatu and the subtle of it providesnourishment to the Upadhatu. Third waste portion nourishes the Mala of therespective Dhatu. In this way from the Prasadaja part of Ahara RasaUpadhatus derive their nourishment in progressive order. Sthula portion Prasadaja Sthula portion Successive Dhatvagni Portion (major) DhatuAhara Suksma Suksma portionRasa Mala portion Srotasa of (subtle) Upadhatu portion Dhatu In this way when Ahara Rasa comes to the abodes of Rasa Dhatu, bythe action of Rasadhatvagni it get metamorphosed, divided into two parts,the Prasadaja portion and the Mala portion. The Prasadaja part againdivided into two parts Sthula Bhaga and Suksma Bhaga. Sthula portion of itsupplies nourishment to the Rasa Dhatu and Suksma portion of it againdivided into parts. The major portion of it goes to the abodes of Rakta Dhatuand subtle part provides nourishment to Stanya and RAJA(?).In the same manner the subsequent Upadhatus are derived from theirrespective Dhatus.
19Diagrammatic representation of Nourishment of Upadhatu: -
20 The process of Dhatu metabolism goes on incessantly like thepassage of time (Kalavat Anavasthitatva). If all the Dhatvagnis, Vayu andSrotasas are unimpeded they play a pivot role in continuation of Dhatumetabolism. These components are closely related with Upadhatus too.(1) Importance of Vayu: - (I) Illumination (Sandhuksana): "Dhatvagni Samatam |" [S.Ni. 1/10]Vayu is responsible to maintain the normal status of Dhatvagnis. "Agni Sahayavan |" [S. Ni. 1/16 - Dalhana]Vayu is called as "Agnisakha" by the classics. It illuminates the Dhatvagnis. (ii) Separation (Vivecana):Vayu is responsible for appropriate allocation of nutritional material to everyelement of the body.(iii) Conveyance (Gati): "Dhatugatih Samah |" "Rasadinam Posyam Dhatum Prati Gamanam |"Nutritional need of each element is transported to its abode by the action ofVayu. Upadhatu receives their specific nutrients from Rasadi Dhatus andwhich are conveyed to them by the action of Vayu.(2) Importance of Srotasa:Srotasa play an important role in Dhatu metabolism. They are channels oftransportation and transformation. "Parinam Apadyamananam Dhatunam Abhivahini Bhavanti AyanaEarthen |" [C.Vi. 5/3]"Parinam Apadyamana" means Dhatus, which are under the process oftransformation from their previous status. Srotasa convey such Dhatus fromthe abodes of previous Dhatu to successive one.
21The former Dhatu nourishes successive one for this purpose transformationis necessary which supervene at the level of Srotasa. The transformingnutrients are conveyed through these channels.All the structural entities are having their separate channels of transportation.Tissue elements are situated in different parts of the body so each of themshould have separate Srotasa to carry their particular nourishment.One canal cannot irrigate trees situated in different places. The Sameprinciple is applied to the nourishment of body elements. After separation ofnutrients of Upadhatus, Srotasa are necessary to convey the nutrients torespective Upadhatus.Classics have not clearly mentioned the Srotasa for all the Upadhatus.Acarya Susruta has mentioned Stanyavaha and Artavavaha Srotasa inrespective context. One principle is stated by revered oracle Cakrapani tounderstand the knowledge about unexplained Srotasa."Jnanavanto Hi Anena Lingen Anuktam Api Sroto Anumiyate |" [C.Vi. 5/6-7 -Cakra]This supports the view that Srotasas of Upadhatus are also present. "Bhava Hi Na Antarena Srotasa Abhinirvartante |" [C.Vi. 5/3]For every transformation the Srotasas are required. Any substanceundergoes metamorphic changes within the Srotasa. "Srotah Karaniko Hi Dhatunam Prayo Raktadinam Uttara DhatuPosaka Bhaga Parinamo Bhavati |" [C. Vi. 5/3 - Cakra]In the above reference commentator Cakrapani specifically enumerated thatmetamorphosis phenomenon distinctly supervenes at Srotasa level. Thissuggests that Agni is particularly concerned with Dhatu metabolism andresides at Srotasa.(3) Importance of Dhatvagni & Bhutagni: -Dhatvagni plays a principle role in the formation of Upadhatus. Status ofDhatvagni inevitably affects status of Upadhatu. Transformation process of
22Upadhatus is elucidated upto the level of Dhatvagnis only. Furthertransformation is not explained anywhere in the classics.Commentator Cakrapani states evidence of Upadhatu Agni. "Yani Agnyantarani Upadhatu Maladigatani Tani Api AvaruddhaniBhutagnisu Eva |" [C.Ci. 15/30-39; Cakra]Agni, which resides at Upadhatu and Mala, is a type of Bhutagni. Knowingthe role of Bhutagni explained by Acaryas could assess its function."Bhutagni Vyapara" is explained at following levels of metabolism:1) Initially their role is mentioned after the action of Jatharagni, whichsupervenes in the Kostha. Bhutagni reside inside the particles of substancesitself. Jatharagni illuminates them. "Jatharagni Paka" results in thebreakdown of food into five distinct physico-chemical groups of substanceshaving dominance of each Mahabhuta. They are further acted upon by eachBhutagni, leads to radical changes in its qualities termed as "VilaksanaGuna." Thus substances are ready for process of Dhatvagni, whichsupervene at various Dhatu level. There mentioned seven Dhatvagnis atdifferent levels. Dhatus are present in two forms i.e. Posaka and Posya.The terminology is used by Cakrapani to explain the Dhatu metabolism. Theformer nourishes later. The action of Dhatvagni forms two types of materialsubstances viz. Prasadaja and Mala as explained before. Further at Dhatu level, Bhutagni works in the similar manner as theywork at Jatharagni level. Bhutagni are also present at Upadhatu and Malalevel as stated by Cakrapani. Thus after the action of Dhatvagni thePrasadaja portion which nourishes Dhatu and Upadhatu, and the Kittaportion which nourishes Mala, further subjected to action of Bhutagni, wherethe changes in the radical qualities takes place. In this way these substancesare refined at every level of Agni. The final Bhautika molecular configurationof each nutrient, which is homologous with Posya element, supervenes onlyafter the action of Bhutagni. The newly formed compounds, which are results
23of metabolic reactions performed by Dhatvagni and finally configured byBhutagni, are utilized for two purposes. 1. For newer growth of elements 2. To compensate the wear and tear of the already working cells.At the level of Upadhatu, after the action of Bhutagni no further residue isformed. The Upadhatu are the final product of metabolism. They do notnourish successive Dhatu or Upadhatu. They are finalized forms. "SnehaDhatu Parampara" which manifests at Dhatu level cannot be observed incase of Upadhatus. They are motionless, final products of Dhatumetabolism.(VI) UTPATTI (EMERGENCE) OF UPADHATU:Sarirasthana of classics have illustrated this subject in "GarbhavakrantiSarira" and "Garbhavyakarana Sarira." In this regard ancient seers haveexplained that: "Trutiye Masi Sarvendriyani Sarvanga Avayavasca YaugapadyenaAbhinirvartante" | [S. Sa. 3/15]Emergence of all the body constituents takes place at embryological stage. "Raktadayo Hi Garbhat Prabhuti Eva Utpanna...I" [C. Ci. 15/16-Cakra]While commenting on the verse regarding the nourishment of Dhatu,Cakrapani has clearly mentioned that all the Dhatus manifest duringgestational period itself. Their further nourishment is achieved by Dhatumetabolism. Further while explaining the nourishment of Upadhatus fromDhatus he has very clearly stated that "Posana Krama" (way ofnourishment) of Dhatus is described in this context. Their emergencesupervenes at gestational period itself.Acarya Laghu Vagbhata has clearly explained the emergence of Upadhatuin "Garbhavakranti" Sarira as follows.
24 "Sastame Masi Snayu Sira Twak Bala…. Utpatti |" [A. H. Sa. 1/51]Revered seer has stated that during sixth month of gestational periodemergence of Snayu, Sira and Twak takes place. The characters, which arepresent since birth, are termed as "Nitya Bhava." All the Dhatus andUpadhatus are termed as "Nitya Bhava" of the body. Upadhatu Raja andStanya are exceptions for this, since they emerge few years after birth andalso not continue through out the life. Such entities are known as "AnityaBhava".STUDY OF SPECIFIC UPADHATUS(I) Upadhatu Raja & Stanya: Raja & Stanya are present only in females. They are derived by means ofspecific function attributed to female physiology i.e. reproduction. They are calledas Upadhatus because they derive their nourishment from Prasadaja portion ofDhatus. Both the entities are present in liquid state. Raja nourishes developingembryo during gestational period and Stanya nourishes infant for specific period oftime. These two entities are functional one. These two entities are excretory in nature. After certain period they are to beexpelled from the body, otherwise they function as Mala and will be pathological forbody. UPADHATU - STANYA Every product comes into existence for its specific function to beperformed by it only. During pregnancy developing embryo receivesnourishment through feto-maternal nourishing pool (placenta). Afterparturition that pool vanishes. Then after the maternal circulation is avertedtowards breast, where the essence part of Rasa transformed into Stanya which
25provide nourishment to the neonate still his digestive system will developedto digest the outside food material.UTPATTI OF UPADHATU STANYA: Rasat Stanyam ...... | [C. Ci. 15/27] There is no controversy about the formation of Stanya. All the Acaryashave narrated its formation from the essence part of Rasa. Ahara Rasa when metamorphosed by Rasavaha Srotasagni gettransformed into three parts:1) Sthula Amsa (gross portion) is used for the maintenance and growth of the Rasa Dhatu.2) Suksma Amsa (subtle portion) meant for the genesis of the next Dhatu i.e. Rakta.3) Mala Amsa (waste portion) which is meant for the genesis of waste products of that Dhatu i.e. Kapha. In puerperient woman the some part of Suksma Amsa is used forformation of Upadhatu Stanya. In Stanyavaha Srotasa it is metamorphosed to Stanya by the action oflocal Agni.(figure) Upto what limit the lactation should continue? Great sages have statedthat upto to dentition the lactation should continue in children."Atha Enam Jata Dasanam Kramaso Apanayet Stanat |" [A. S. U. 1/39]. After eruption of teeth, gradual weaning should be done and breastmilk should be supplemented with semisolid food. Dentition is the indication of development of digestive system alongwith improved status of Agni. Agni is now capable to digest light and
26anabolic cereals. As the infant grows, requirement of the Dhatus increases.Developing Dhatus need additional nourishment than they receive it from thebreast milk. More over his needs and requirements are higher as far as thenourishment from breast milk is concerned. Therefore it is wise to switch overon cereals after six months of age. Acarya Susruta has also mentioned the period to start thesupplementary food as sixth month."Sanmasat Ca Enam Annam Prasayeta Laghu |" [S. Su. 10/54]. During the age of childhood the "Ksirapa-Avastha" is mentioned forone year. It means that upto six months all nutritional requirements should bemet by breast milk. After six months breast milk should be supplemented withsemisolid, light foods.CHARACTERS OF NORMAL BREAST MILK:A test for untainted milk: When poured over a pot of water, it gets mixed up with the waterhomogenously (neither float, nor sinks) then it is said to be endowed withnatural qualities. The white colour of breast milk similes with colour of Conch shell. It should have natural colour, smell, taste and touch. It should not be very cold or very hot; it should suit the bodytemperature of child. It should be clear (free from impurities), thin, frothless, and shredless. It should be sweet in taste and astringent as a secondary taste.
27 Such type of pure milk imparts health, growth and strength of thechild. Kasyapa has given emphasis on resultant that is the qualities acquiredby the child due to consumption of pure milk. Such type of milk impartsunobstructed growth of different body parts, strength to body organs,longevity as well as good health to the child and does not show any type ofabnormality in child and mother. The great seer Harita has also narrated the qualities of breast milk, as itis supportive to increase the Satva, Bala and complexion of a child. Milk is having similar properties to that of Oja; so it is conductive inthe promotion of Oja. Thus milk is an elixir per excellence. Milk is invigorating (Jivaniyam) in action. Human milk is wholesome, invigorating and possesses nourishingproperty. Eye pains also get revealed due to breast milk. Bhavamisra quotes it as Laghu, Sita and Sara. It possesses AgniDipana property. It alleviates Vata and Pitta Dosa. It instantaneously nourishes the Sukra Dhatu. It is Param Vajikara i.e. aphrodisiac in action. It is also having Vayasthapana, Sandhanakara, Rasayana, andAyusyakara properties.Milk Ejection factors: "Siranam Hrdayasthanam Vivrtatvat Prasutitah | Trtiye Anhi Caturthe Va Strinam Stanyam Pravartate ||" [A. S. U. 1/11] After delivery Dhamanies of the cardiac region get dilated thus on thirdor fourth day ejection of milk starts.
28 Revered seer Harita opined that due to force used during bearing downefforts by the parturient woman, the Srotasas get cleared leading to milkejection. Acarya Susruta enumerates that the touch, sight, remembrance andenfolding the child are the factors which account for milk ejection. Uninterrupted affection for the child is the countable factor for theproper flow of the milk. In this regard Susruta has enumerated the analogues factors betweenStanya and Sukra. Stanya just like Sukra is not seen even when the body is cut andbecause of being present throughout the body, Stanya is described as similarto Sukra. The factors account for the ejection of milk similes with those ofSukra.MODERN COUNTERPART:MAMMARY GLANDS: Mammary glands are much modified sudoriferous glands. They are ingrowths from ectoderm, which forms their ducts and alveoli, supported byvascularised connective tissue derived from the mesenchyme. In females ducts and secretary elements undergo extensivedevelopment during puberty and pregnancy. The mammary glands contains:1) Glandular tissue of tubulo- alveolar type2) Fibrous tissue connecting its lobes3) Inter lobar adipose tissue.
29 Subcutaneous tissue encloses the gland, sending in many septa tosupport its lobules. From the covering fascia fibrous processes extend to theskin and the papilla, as suspensory ligaments (of Cooper).Alveoli are functional units of milk formation. They are lined by a layer oflow columnar cells lines. External to these is a layer of elongated mayo-epithelial cells like smooth muscle, and outside this again a basementmembrane. Two layers of cubical cells, the main ducts, near their surfaceopening, line the ducts and acquire a stratified epithelium. Mammary structurevaries with age, pregnancy and lactation. After puberty both the ductal systemand the supporting adipose tissue grows much faster due to increasedsecretion of estrogen. The ducts develop branches whose ends form potentialalveoli.LACTATION:Synthesis and secretion from the breast alveoli:-Though some secretary activity is evident during pregnancy and acceleratedfollowing delivery, actually milk secretion starts on third or fourth postpartumday. Mammary glands free from the effect of estrogen and progesteroneproduction begin its milk secretary activity in previously fully developedmammary glands. The secretary activity is enhanced directly or indirectly bygrowth hormone, thyroxin, glucocorticoids and insulin.Ejection of Milk:-Discharge of milk from the mammary glands depend on the suction forceexerted by the baby during suckling and contractile mechanism acting alongwith, which expresses the milk from the alveoli into the ducts. Impulses fromthe nipple to supra-optic nucleus further along the hypothalamo-pituitary axisto the posterior pituitary. Oxitocin, liberated from posterior pituitary. Inaddition to oxytocic effect produces contraction of the myoepithelial cells of
30the alveoli and the ducts containing the milk. Through this reflex the milk isforced down into the ampulla of the lactiferous ducts. Now the baby can suckit.Maintenance of lactation: - Copious milk secretion and the maintenance of effective andcontinuous lactation depend on suckling. Along with removal of milk fromthe ampulla it causes release of prolactine. Prolactine is the most importantgalactopoietic hormone from posterior pituitary. Basal prolactine levels arenot elevated, but periodic surge of prolactine release induce lactogenesis.Important Role of Suckling:- It evokes milk ejection and is involved in the maintenance andaugmentation of lactation because it promotes release of oxytocin andprolactine both. Milk production can continue for several years if the mothercontinues to be suckled but the rate of secretion normally decreased rathermarkedly by seven to nine months.Breast Feeding: It achieves correct balanced diet and immunological protection. Breastfeeding plays an important role in the social evolution of the family and thehuman way of life. The composition of milk itself has become ideally adaptedto the need of each mammalian species. The composition of breast milkchanges with the age of the child. Upto first five days of postpartum breast milk is known as colostrum. It is having low energy content but much higher lactoferin (humeral factor) and antibody content than mature milk. It is rich in protein and Vitamin A, sodium and chloride content. It has laxative action on the body because of large fat globules. Colostrum is an important vehicle for transfer of immunoglobulins from mother to child. It contains
31 secretary IgA, IgG, IgM antibodies which act on lumen of the neonates gut to protect against infection. This presents an important defense mechanism for the newborn whose own immune system is not yet fully developed. The breast milk secreted during six to fifteen days is termed as transitional milk. The concentration of the antibodies continues to be high in the milk, which is secreted during this period. It protects the newborn against infections. Mature milk is secreted from the fifteen day postpartum. Slow changes in the composition of mature milk continue throughout lactation. It has been observed that in mothers who deliver prematurely the concentration of antibodies continues to be high longer than in mothers who deliver full term babies. This may provide additional protection to the vulnerable premature infant. There are other differences also in the composition of premature milk as compared to term milk, the significance of which is not understood. It is tempting to believe that changes in the composition of breast milkwith the age and maturity of the infant are related to the changing nutritionalrequirements of the infant. The composition of breast milk differs from onespecies to another.The qualities of human milk:- High count of lymphocytes, neutrophils and macrophages confer non-specific as well as specific immunity. Lactoferrin is an iron binding protein,which competes with iron-demanding bacteria for iron available in thegastrointestinal tract thereby reducing the growth of bacteria. Theconcentration of these lactoferrin is much higher in humans than that of
32animal milk. The antibacterial enzyme, lysosome is 3000 times higher inhuman milk than in cows milk.Digestive Property: Casein present in human milk is more easily digested thanthat in cows milk. The presence of folate and cobalamin binding proteins inhuman milk suggests that these proteins assist the absorption of thecorresponding vitamins. The higher concentration of lactose in human milkpromotes calcium absorption. Several lipases most important of which is thebile salt stimulated lipase (BSSL). Milk lipases assist the endogenous lipase inlipid digestion, which is an important function because lipid digestion is poorin the new born, specially the preterm newborn.Growth Factors: Breast milk has been found to have several growth promoting factorssuch as epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and somatomedin-C.Contraception: Lactational amenorrhoea due to high prolactine level keeps FSH andLH suppressed. It may last from three months to three years, but it is highlyvariable and does not last for the full duration of breast feeding in every case. The study of Upadhatu Raja, controversy regarding Raja as Upadhatu and itsPrakrtatva is furnished in a separate Capter.KANDARAEtymology:1. Vyutpatti - "Kadi + Aran Tapa Ca |" [SKD]2. Nirukti - "Mahatyah Snayavah Proktah Kandarah |" [BH. Pu. 51]Synonyms: Mahasnayu, Mahanadi. [SKD - IInd]Mahasnayu are termed as Kandara. Annotator Cakrapani named it as Sthula Snayu.Commentator of Sarngadhara quotes it as Mahanadya.Revered Cakrapani whilecommenting on Susruta Samhita quotes it as Sthula Sira. "Vrttastu Kandara Sarva Vijneya Kusalaih Iha |" [S. Sa. 5/30-31]
33While explaining the types of Snayu revered seer Susruta has defined this entity.He has stated that Vrtta Snayu are to be considered as Kandara. Vrtta means roundstructure. (S.E.Dic.)Utpatti : As Kandara are known as a type of Snayu, hence their emergence analoguswith Snayu. They are emerged from Sneha of Medodhatu, which is conveyed by Vayuand by the action of Agni, results into Kandara. After accommplishment, the further nourishment of Kandara is derived fromRakta Dhatu."Snayu Kandarayoh Ca Abheda Eva |" [S. Ni. 1/25-29 Nyacandrica] Nyayacandrikakara (commentator of Susruta Samhita) while commenting onthe Snayugatavata Laksana narrated that these symptoms are also to be considered incase of Kandaragata Vata Laksanas. He further narrated the reason that, since SthulaSnayu is named as Kandara, the symptoms of Vata will be common in bothconditions.Characters : Kandara is Vrtta (round in shape), Sthula (Gross structure), Sthira (Stable)and Murtimad (i.e.specific form). This indicates Prthvi Mahabhuta dominance in thisentity. It is stout, condensed and tough structure. It is placed in Madhyama RogaMarga.Position: "Asthi Sandhi Asritah |" [C. Su. 11/48] Acarya Caraka States that they are placed where the bonding between joints ofbones is required. Acharya Susruta has enumerated sixteen Kandara in the body. Outof them four are placed in both Pada and four each in Hasta, Griva and Prstharespectively.Functions of Kandara : "Prasarana Acuncanayoh Anganam Kandara Matah |" [SA.Pr. 5/39].
34 Acarya Sarngadhara opines that Kandara is responsible for endurment ofvarious movements. It supports to bear the body weight. It provides strength to thelocal architecture. It bounds the articulating structures.Tendons : Tendons are integral part of muscles being largely made up of collagenfibres. Their vascular supply is sparse hence appear white. Taking the form of cordsor straps, they are round, oval or elongate in section. They consist of fascicles ofcollagen fibres. Tendones are strongly attached to bones, not only via their periostea but alsooften by tendon fasciculi which may penetrate deeply into cortical osseous tissue. At the sites of tendinal attachment there is often a plate of whitefibrocartilage. The tensile strength of tendons is similar to that of bone. Tendons are slightly elastic and some contractile energy is stored in themwhen muscles contract. They also exhibit viscosity. Certain vaian wing tendons are highly elastic and have complex,ultrastructural interactions between their collagen and elastic fibres. The metabolic rate of tendons is very low. Repair involves the initialproliferation of connective tissue cells associated with collagen fibres followed byinterstitial deposition of new fibres.Kandara are involved in the pathogenesis of following diseases :Khanja, Grdhrasi, Pangu, Viswaci. They actively participate in the Samprapti stageof these diseases.SIRAEtymology :Vyutpatti- "Senoti | Sin Bandhane | Bahulam Anyatrapi |" [A.K.]Nirukti - "Sr Sarati Asmin Anena l" [A. K.] "Saranat Sira |" [C. Su. 30/12]Saranam means flowing, moving, proceeding, going. [S. E. Dic.]
35Various Annotators have interpreted this word in following way.1. "Saranat Gamahat |" [Jyotiscandra Saraswati] This refers that something is flowing through this or the entity itself travelsfrom one part to another.2. "Rasadinam Gamanat Sira Iti Uccyante |" [Gangadhara] This shows the specificity of material flowing through this i.e. Rasadi.3. "Saranam Mrdugatya Calanam Iti |" [Gananatha Sen] It shows characters of flow, i.e. smooth, rhythmic.4. "Saranat Desantara gamanat .......|" [Cakrapani] It indicates condition of material from one part to another.5. "Sarva Sarira Visarpanam Asam ........... |" [Jyotiscandra Saraswati]It indicates that branches of Sira are spread all over the body.Through these channels Rasadi elements are flowing from one place to another.Utpatti- The Great seer Susruta has specified the accomplishment of Sira inGarbhavyakarana Sariraas- "Medasah Sneham Adaya Sira Snayutvam Apnuyat | Siranam Tu Mrduh Pakah Snayunam Ca Tatah Kharah |" [S. Sa. 4/29]The function of Vayu is mentioned as- "Sarvasarira Dhatu Vyuhakarah (Racanakarah) |" [C. Su.12/8]Vayu is responsible for structural configuration and placement of various organs inthe body. This spurred Vayu by receiving Sneha of Meda converts them into Siraand Snayu. Though the Upadana Karana for both the structure is same, finalconfiguration differs due to action of Agni. During transformation when the actionof Agni is for short duration, Mrdu Paka results in formation of Sira.Vaidya Hariprapanna Sarma has elucidated the reason behind this Mrdu Paka-"Atra Mrdu Paka Bhavati Nirantara Rasa Sambhrtatvat |" [S. Sa. 4/29 -Pathabheda].Due to continuous contact of Rasa, Sira are Mrdu in nature.Nourishment of Upadhatu Sira - "Asrjah Kandarah Sirah |" [C. Ci. 15/17]
36They receive their nourishment from Rakta Dhatu. Rakta Dhara Kala essentiallyfound in Sira, Yakrta and Pliha, which are mentioned as principal sites of Rakta.Kala are nourishing in nature.Mulasthana of Sira -There are different opinions regarding the origin of Sira.1) Acarya Susruta has mentioned that Sira are having their origin at Nabhi.2) Treatise of Caraka has not mentioned the origin of Sira. In the context of Hrdayaand transportation of Oja they have narrated a term Arthedasa Mahamula. Variouscommentators of Caraka interpose it differently-A) According to Cakrapani this is the explanation of Dhamani.B) Gangadhara opines it as Dasa Sira.C) Acarya Jyotiscandra Saraswati has mentioned them as Sira and narrated theirorigin from Hrdaya.D) "Dasamula Sira Hrdaya Prati Braddha |" [A.S. Sa 6/2].Astanga Sangrahakara has stated that Sira are having their origin from Hrdaya.E) Laghu Vagbhata opines the same as Sangrahakara.F) "Hrdayat Sampratayante Siranam Dasa Matarah |"The statement of Vrddha Jivakiya Tantra also supports the Vagbhata.Principal Sira: - The Great oracle Susruta has mentioned that there are forty principal Sira present in the body. Vrddha and Laghu Vagbhata refer them as Ten major Sira.The author of current era have tried to resolve this controversy-During gestational period maternal circulation is received through "Garbha NabhiNadi", which is attached to the umbilicus of the fetus so it is obvious that channels,which are media of transportation of nourishing material to the body parts, shouldhave their origin at the Nabhi. After birth infant is independent of this maternalcirculation. Hence during further development, Sira resume their origin fromHrdaya.
37Acarya Jyotiscandra Saraswati opines that these Ten Sira originate from Hrdayathis statement does not interrogate fundamental origin of all the Siras at NabhiSthana. E.g. Twigs of a tree develop from stem. Roots of a tree traverse deep intosoil spread and draw up nutrition, which nourishes all part of a tree. In the samemanner Sira procures nutritional material from Ahara Rasa and further it istransported to different parts of the body. He further opines that after dissection onecould observe only Two Sira originated from Hrdaya. At the distance of fourAnguli they are divided into each of five branches, thus becomes Ten. These TenSiras are stated as "Dasa Matrka Sira".Division of Sira: -Principal Sira are further divided into four types as Vatavaha Sira, Pittavaha SiraKaphavaha Sira and Raktavaha Sira. Further each of the four types of Sira arebranched into 175 Sira.Vrddha Vagbhata has clearly explained that Vatavaha Sira conveys Rakta havingVata Dosa predominance. It means that division is based on predominance of Dosa.Acarya Jyotiscandra Saraswati Opines-"Tah Khalu Sarire Raktasya Caturvidhyat Caturvidha Bhavanti |” [C.Sa.7/2 Comm.]Depending on the dominance of either Dosa in Rakta, which is flowing all over thebody, Sira are classified into four types.Characters of the Siras -These are the channels for conveyance of Rakta. Internal surface is havingRaktadhara Kala. Sira are Mrdu in nature. They are having Cala (unsteady) property.They are mentioned under Pitrja Bhava. Depending upon the predominance of DosaSira are having Aruna, Nila, and Gaura Varna. Laxity or sturdiness of the wall ofSira is depending upon the quantity of Rakta traversing through it. Hence duringRaktaksaya condition Sira Saithilya is observed. Sira possess constrictor anddilatory property.
38Sira differs according to their thickness (diameter) some are large while others aresmall. They spread all over the body just like small and minute lamina arising fromthe central core of life."Tatra Yad Susiram Viviktam Sarvam Tat Akasiyam |"Sira is a type of "Akasiya" Racana. (Hollow Structure)Various anatomical structures are correlated with Sira: -Authors of the present era opine their different views regarding this entity.P.S. Variyara - Sira means Vein.Gananatha Sen - Nila Sira are Veins and these are the actual Sira.Pandita Gangadhara Sastri - Vataja Sira are Sympathetic nerve fibers.Ghanekara - Vatavaha and Raktavaha Sira are Arteries. Pittavaha Sira are veins.Kaphaja Sira are to be taken as lymphatics. Sira never to be considered as Nerves.Modern Counterpart:Blood vessels form a closed system of tubes that carries blood away from the heart,transport it to the tissues of the body and then return it to the heart.Arteries are vessels that carry blood from the heart to the tissues. Large elasticarteries leave the heart and divide into medium sized muscular arteries that branchout into the various regions of the body. Medium sized arteries then divide intosmall arteries, which in turn divide into still smaller arteries called Arterioles. As thearterioles enter a tissue, they branch into countless microscopic vessels calledCapillaries. Substances are exchanged between the blood and body tissues throughthe walls of capillaries. Before leaving the tissue, groups of capillaries unite to formsmall veins called Venules. These in turn, merge to form progressively larger bloodvessels called Veins. Veins then convey blood from the tissues back to the heart.Because blood vessels require oxygen & nutrients just like other tissues of the bodylarge blood vessels especially also have their own blood vessels, called vasavasorum.Lymphatic vessels begin as closed-ended vessels called lymphatic capillaries inspace between cells, Just as blood capillaries converge to form Venules and Veins,
39lymphatic capillaries unite to form larger tubes called lymphatic vessels. Lymphaticvessels resemble veins in structure but have thinner walls and more valves.Functions of various Sira: -1) Upsnihyate Anugruhyate-Upsnihyate Iti: a) "Pustim Niyate Tarunanam Sariram |" b) "Vrddhanam Sariraparinamat Ten Snehena Sariram Yapyate |"Anugrhyate Iti: a)"Paripalyate |"Dalhana has elucidated that in adult age Sira brings about Upacaya of bodyelements, while in old age they do only Yapana Karma. "Siram Sakalam Ca Etat Sirabhih Posyate Sada |" [BH. Pu. 3/224].Garden or green field is made wet by water carrying big or small channels.Similarly the Siras supply nutrition to the body and help in sustainance of life.2) Siranam Prana Adharatvam -Nabhi is concerned with Prana. Like spokes arising from center of a wheel Sirasurrounds Nabhi from all sides. Hence Sira provide substratum for the functions ofPrana.3) Sira lies at the site of Marma and supply nutrition to Snayu, Asthi, Mamsa, andSandhi and thus maintains the body.4) Functions of Each type of Sira -a) Vatavaha Sira - "Kriyanam Apratighatam Amoham Buddhi Karmanam |" [S.Sa.7/9] [" Kriyanam Iti 1) Kayariyanam 2) Vak Kriyanam-Dalhana]In normal state Vatavaha Sira performs all physical functions along with voluntaryand involuntary action.The word Buddhi Karma is related with five sense organs and mind. Intellect playsimportant role for taking decision in the normal state. Vatavaha Sira performs all thefunctions of Buddhi.2) Pittavaha Sira - "Bhrajisnutam Annarucim Agnidiptim Arogatam | Samsarpat Swah Sirah Pittam Kuryat |" [S Sa. 7/10].
40Pittavaha Sira bring luster to the body, produces urge for food. It increases appetite,maintains normal health and does other normal functions concerned with it.3) Kaphavaha Sira- "Sneham Angesu Sandhinam Sthairyam Balam Udirnatam |" [S. Sa. 7/13]Kaphavaha Sira causes lubrications to the various parts of the body and producesfirmness in the joints. It also improves the strength & does all the functions allottedto it.4) Raktavaha Sira - "Dhatunam Puranam Varnam Sparsajnanam Asamsayam |" [S. Sa. 7/15]The Raktavaha Sira nourishes the Dhatu, improves the complexion, causes a definiteperception of Sparsa (touch) and does other characteristic functions in the body.Sira Viddha Laksana: - "Siragatah Sadyah Chinnasu Sirasu Raktatipravrttih |" [S. Su. 22/8]Sira provide substratum for transportation of "Jiva Rakta." So any type of injury toSira may be fatal. From the injured Sira abundant quantity of blood flows out.Various diseases manifest due to vitiation of Vata. Upadhatu Vasa "Suddha Mamsasya Yah Snehah Sa Vasa Parikirtitah | "[S.Sa 4/13] Vasa is a type of Sneha distinctly present in muscles.Etymology:1. Vyutpatti- "Vasati, Vaste Va |"[A.K]2. Nirukti- a)Vasa Nivase- "Vasati Sarire Visesatah Mamse Iti Vasa |"It resides in the abodes of Mamsa Dhatu.b) Vasa Acchadane- "Accadayati Sariram Mamsam Udaradikam Va Iti Vasa |"It mantles the Mamsa Dhatu.Utpatti - "Vasa Mamsa Niryasah |" [S.Su.23/12]Vasa is derived from essence of Mamsa Dhatu. It is nothing but the extract ofMamsa Dhatu.
41There are three types of Sneha located at various places in the body. They are Majja,Meda and Vasa.1. Majja- It is a type of Sneha, which is placed in bones. Revered author GananathaSen has mentioned its two types 1. Pitta Majja 2. Rakta Majja.2. Meda- "Sandra Sarpitulyah Sneha Dhatuh Sarirasya |” [PS. Pr. page-10]Viscid, Sarpitulya (resembles with clarified butter) Sneha, which is mainly placed inbetween, layers of abdomen and in subcutaneous tissues.3. Vasa- "Vasa Nama Tanu Medorupam Suddha Mamsa Snehah |" A.S.Su.6/106]Vasa is a dilute form of Meda.Vasa show close resemblance with Meda. Vasa is mentioned as a synonym of Meda. "Ati Guru Snigdham Bala Karya Ati Brhanam |"[BH. Pu.3/49]These are the characters of Meda, which shows close resemblance with Vasa. Bothare lubricating substances. They provide strength to other substances. They nourishother structures of the body."Tasya Medasya Anupravesah Tulya Upadanatwat |" [PS.Pr.10]Both Vasa and Meda are derived from essence part of Mamsa Dhatu. According tosome authors these two entities are one and the same. "Medasah Tapyamanasya Sneho Va Kirtita Vasa |" [BH. Pu.3/31]Bhavaprakasa opines that Sneha of Meda Dhatu is also termed as Vasa.Characters of Upadhatu Vasa-Due to Apya Mahabhuta Dominance Vasa possesses the properties likeDrava (liquid), Sandra (viscid), Manda (sluggish), Snigdha (unctuous),Mrdu (soft /mushy), Picchla (sticky).Kapha Dosa resides at Vasa. Pramana of Vasa has three Anjali in normal person.The measurement described here pertains to the ideal standard.Functions of Vasa-1. Snehana- Vasa is a lubricant for the body tissues.2. Varnya- It adds complexion.3. Brmhana-It nourishes other tissue of the body.4. Balya- It strengthens the tissues.
425. It alleviates the Vata Dosa.Vasa is described as a type of animal Sneha. The characters of Vasa Sneha asdescribed by classics similitude with Majja. Along with above mentioned propertiesit is aphrodisiac in nature. It causes augmentation of Pitta and Kapha. Theirpotencies via hot or coldness are to be determined according to the nature of theanimal from which they are collected.Modern Counterpart: - Adipocytes (fat cells) - When occurring singly the cells are oval or sphericalin shape but when mutually compressed they are polygonal. Each cell consists of aperipheral rim of cytoplasm, in which the nucleus is embedded, surrounding a singlelarge central globule of fat. Many microfilaments are also seen around the lipidvacuole as well as some endoplasmic reticulum Fat cells are specially & exclusivelyconcerned with the storage & perhaps the synthesis of fat. The fat first appearing asisolated small globules, which later coalesce to form a single large droplet. Thesespecific cells have a well defined distribution within the body. One of the content ofthe muscle is fat cells. Adipose tissue- A few fat cells occur in loose connective tissue in most partsof the body. However in adipose tissue these occur in great abundance and constitutethe principal component.
43 TwakEtymology:Vyutpatti - "Twak+ Paksa Tap |" [SKD II Page-7]Nirukti - "Tvacati Samvrnnoti Meda Sonitadikam Sarvasariram |" [SKD] "Twacati | Twaca Samvarane | Yadva Tanoti| Tanyate Va | Tanu Vistare| Tenoteranacca Vah| [A.K. 223/62]Synonyms - Chavi, Chadani, Asrgdhara, Tattika, Carma, Kwalli.[A.K.;Sabdaratnavali]Utpatti:- When the fertilization takes place, the fetus develops very rapidly throughthe process of transformation. Each and every molecule is involved in this process.The formation of seven layers of the skin exhibit in the similar manner as thedifferent layer of the skim on the surface of boiled milk occurs. "Asrjah Pacyamanasya Ksirasya Iva Santanikaha Sat twaco Bhavanti |"[A.S.Sa. 5/24] Vrddha Vagbhata has asserted that Rakta Dhatu plays principle role inmanifestation of skin."Raktasya Swo Usmah Pacyamanat.....|"(Indu). Whilecommenting on above verse Indu has elucidated that metamorphosis of Rakta by itsown Usma (Agni) results in accomplishment of all the layers of skin.Skin is mentioned as Upadhatu of Mamsa by all the seers exceptSarngadhara.Annotator of Sarngadhara Samhita has explicated Twak as "MamsaMala." "Mamsasya Sarah Sad Twacah |" [A.S. Sa. 6/29; C.Ci. 15/17] Nourishment of the skin is achieved through essence of Mamsa Dhatu. Mamsa Pesi covers Sira, Snayu and Asthi, Sandhi etc organs of the body.Similarly skin mantles the whole body. Accadana Karma of Skin is identical with Mamsa Dhatu.Layers of Skin
44 Great seer Caraka has defined the six layers of skin as follows -1) Udakadhara - The external layer of the skin is known as Udakadhara. "Udakam Dharayati Iti Udhakadhara |" OR "Udakena Ghriyatel"This layer hold up the Udaka and provide substratum for its functioning. "Sarvasariracaram Bahya Twak Bibharti |" [C. Sa. 7/15]While circulating all over the body Udaka also nourishes the skin and resides at itsexternal layer. Here it is known as Lasika. Lasika is one of the seats of Pitta. Pittaresiding at this layer is termed as Bhrajaka Pitta, which adds the complexion to theskin. Moisture of the skin is maintained due to this layer.2) Asrgdhara:- "Dharayati Asram |" [A.K.] "Na Raktam Bahih Syandyate|" [ A.S.Sa 5/26-Indu]The second layer of the skin is known as Asrgdhara.It provide substratum for Rakta Dhatu.3) Third layer - It is the site for the manifestation of Sidhma and Kilasa. This layer of the skin is the place where the vitiated Dosa give rise to Kilasaand Sidhma.4) Froth layer - The fourth layer is the site for the manifestation of Dadru and Kustha.5) Fifth layer - It is the site for the manifestation of Alaji and Vidradhi.
456) Sixth layer: - This is the innermost layer of the skin. The excision of which causestrembling, person may enter into darkness (gets fainting) like a blind man. Arumsika(boils of joints), which is having thick root manifestes at this layer. These areextremely difficult for treatment. Vrddha Vagbhata has named this sixth layer asPranadhara. It is related with underlying Mamsa Dhatu. It holds the Prana. These arethe six layesr of the skin, which covers the entire human body. Acarya Susruta in the context of Garbhavyakarana Sarira illustrates theseven layers of skin along with their measurements.1) Avabhasini - The first outer layer of the skin is called Avabhasini. It reflects all the colors.At the level of this layer five shades come into the light. The thickness of this layeris described as 1/18th of Vrihi. This layer is described as the seat of Sidhma andPadmakantaka (Type of Ksudra Kustha).2) Lohita - The second layer is known as Lohita. Its thickness is described as 1/16th ofthe thickness of the Vrihi. It is the seat of Tilakalaka, Nyaccha and Vyanga (Typesof Ksudra Kustha).3) Sweta - The third layer of the skin measures 1/12th of the thickness of Vrihi. It is thesite of Carmadala, Ajagalli and Masaka (Ksudra Kustha).4) Tamra - Fourth layer of the skin named Tamra measures 1/18th of the thickness ofVrihi. Different types of Kilasa & Kustha manifests in this layer.5) Vedini - This fifth layer of the skin measures 1/5th of the thickness of Vrihi. It isdescribed as the seat of Kustha and Visarpa.
466) Rohini - The sixth layer is labelled as Rohini. It is equal to the thickness of Vrihi.The Granthi, Apaci, Arbuda, Slipada and Galaganda types of diseases takes place inthis layer.7) Mamsadhara - The seventh layer named as Mamsadhara has double the thickness of Vrihiand it is a seat of Bhagandara, Vrana and Arsa. Sarngadhara has named this layer of skin as Sthula Twak. These measurements as mentioned above are specially found in fleshy partsof the body and not in the fore head or smaller parts like fingers. Dalhana states differently regarding the thicking of this layers. According to him Vrihi should be taken as Yava. Parinaha (circumference)of each Vrihi is to be divided into twenty parts. Among these 18 parts are to beconsidered, for 1st layer. So the thickness of first layer of skin will be 18/20 Yavaand not 1/18 Vrihi. According to this consideration the total thickness of the skinwill be 5.95 Yava. On the basis of opinion of Susruta the total thickness of the skinis 3.53 Vrihi.Characters of Skin -Skin is described as Sthula (Gross), Sthira (Stable) and Murtimad (having specificform). Due to this properties skin is having Prthvi Mahabhuta dominance.It also possesses Mrdu (Soft), Snigdha (Luster) Guna, which indicate presence ofApya Mahabhuta.Sparsana property (tactile sensation) of it is indicative of Vayu Mahabhuta. Skin is a Matrja Avayava. Sarata of Rakta Dhatu is characterized byunctuousness, red colour, and beautiful dazzling appearance of the ears, eyes, face,
47tongue, nose, and lips, sole of the hands and feet, nails, forehead. These allcharacters are observed on skin. It comes under Bahya Roga Marga. It is narrated as Mulasthana (origin) ofMamsavaha Srotasa. Lomakupa that are the Mulasthana of Swedavaha Srotasa opens on skin.Mala of Majja Dhatu maintains the unctuousness of the skin.Relation with Dosa:- Bhrajaka Pitta is mainly related with skin. Luster, Colour, reflected shadowof the skin these characters are attributed by Bhrajaka Pitta. Skin is the mainplatform for various functions of Vayu.Functions of Skin-1) Skin covers the whole body, thus protect it from various foreign materials.2) Indriya Adhisthana - It is important sense organ. It pervades all the sense organs.No sensation can occur without a sense of touch. All the five kinds of sensationscould be received through tactile sensation only.3) "Bhumih Srotasam Ca Swedavahanam |"[PS. Pr. Page-56]. The conveyance of perspiration (Sweda) occurs through Swedavaha Srotasa,which opens on skin. Hence it is an important organ of excretion for Sweda Mala. Through the mechanism of perspiration it also regulates the temperature ofthe body. So it is an important organ for heat regulation.Microscopic structure of SkinThe Epidermis -
48It is composed of Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. In this tissue there iscontinuous replacement of cells. Keratinocyte cells are in constant replacement.There also include melanocytes, phagocytic langerhans cells, and Merkel cells.Number of strata represents different stages in Keratinocyte maturation.1) Stratum Basale (Stratum germinativum) - It includes single layer of cells, whichlies in contact with basal lamina. Division of a population of stem cells formsKeratinocytes in this layer. The basal cells have many cytoskeletal filamentsincluding actin microfilaments & Keratin filament bundles Melanin granules arealso present in many of these cells.2) Stratum Spinosum - Contain more mature Keratinocytes several layers deep,Internally the cells possess large numbers of Keratin filament bundles, because thecells are anchored together in this way the stratum provides much tensile strengthand coherence to the surface of the integument. Many cells are attached todesmosomes at the cell surface.3)Stratum Granulosm - Ultrastructurally these cells contains Keratin filamentbundles enclosed or enmeshed by the irregular masses of densely stainingKeratohyalin granules.4) Stratum Lucidum - Only found in thick glubrous skin closely resembles tostratum corneum.5) Stratum Corneum - Consists of closely packed layers of flattened, dead Keratin.The cells of this layer, corneocytes are quite large. Basement Membrane ofEpidermis consists of lamina lucida and lamina densa.Dermis-Providess considerable strength to skin by virtue of the numbers & arrangement ofits collagen fibers and has elastic recoil. It provides compartment for blood vessels,lymphatics, Nerves & defensive cells and so is vital to the survival of the epidermisand to much of the skins physiology.1) Papillary Layer -It includes housing rich networks of sensory nerve endings andblood vessels. Superficial surface is marked by numerous papillae that interdigitatewith recesses in the base of epidermis and form the dermo-epidermal junction. At
49their interface lying under each epidermal ridges are two longitudinal rows ofpapillae one on either side of the midline through which sweat ducts pass within theepidermal rete pegs.2) Reticular layer- Its bundles of collagen fibers are thicker than those in thepapillary layer and interface with them and with each other to form strong threedimensional lattices.Blood supply - Blood enter the skin through small arteries penetrating the reticularlayer from its deep aspect. Sheet like plexus is form in both dermis and superficialfascia.Would Healing - When skin is injured dermis responds by repair while epidermisresponds by regeneration. The collective response of the skin to injury is termed aswound healing.SnayuEtymology:Vyutpatti: "Sa + Bahulakat Un |"Nirukti: 1)" Snati Sna Sauce |" "Anga Pratyanga Sandhibandhanah Upayah Snayoh |" [A.K. Page-224/60] 2) "Snati Sudhyati Doso Anaya Sna Un | Sarirasthe Vayuvahi NadiBhede |" [SSTMN]Synonyms: Vasnasa, Snasa, Snayu, Snava. [Abhidhana Cintamani] In Ayurvedic classics mostly Snayu word is used. At one place VrddhaVagbhata has used the word Snava.Utpatti:
50 Vrddha Vagbhata has mentioned that accomplishment of Snayu takes placeat sixth month of gestational period. According to Madhukosakara emergence ofSnayu takes place at seventh month of gestational period. With the help of Vayu,Sneha of Meda gets transformed into Snayu by the process of Agni. The KharaPaka of Agni is responsible for conversion of Meda to Snayu. Acarya Kasyapaopines differently regarding the Utpatti of Snayu. According to him Snayu is derivedfrom Asthi & Mamsa Dhatu. Nourishment of Snayu is derived from essence part ofMeda Dhatu."Sukrat Asthi Asthito Mamsam Ubhabyam Snayavah Smartah |" [KA. Sa. page-70;Asamanagotriya].Characters of Upadhatu Snayu: "Snayu Iti Sanakara Upadhatu Visesah Yen Dhanusi Nahyante |" [S. Su 25/21 - Dalhana]."Sana" means hemp. Appearance of Snayu resembles with hempen string. It ismentioned under Pitrja Bhava. It is a Prthvi dominating structure hence possessesSthula (Corpulent), Sthira (stable), Murtimad (having specific form), Guru (heavy),Khara (rough) and Kathina (hard) Gunas. It is solid, dense, tough, strong and rigid innature. It contributes to the anatomical configuration of Marma. It is mentionedunder Madhyama Roga Marga. It forms the Mulasthana (origin) of MamsavahaSrotasa. Concealed Snayu reveals longevity of life.Classics have described Nine hundred Snayu. These are of four types:1) Pratana 2) Vrtta 3) Prthu 4) SusiraThese words indicate the specific structure of Snayu.1) Pratana Snayu: - "Pratanavattyo means Bisa Mrnala Sadrusah |"[BH. Pu.3/258]Pratana means Vistrtah; Pratana means Tendril, ramifying or Branching.Pratana Snayu is found in extremities and all joints.2) Vrtta Snayu: - Vrtta Snayu is called as Kandara. These are described in previouschapter of Kandara.3) Susira Snayu: - Susira means pours or perforated, having whole.This type of Snayu is found at the distal ends of Aamasaya, Pakvasaya and Basti.
514) Prthu Snayu: - "Prthu Iti Mahati Sthula |” [SKD]Prthu means wide, expansive. This type of Snayu is present in the Parsva, Urah, andPrsta and at Sira.Anatomical Structures resembling with Snayu: - The strong bonding of the joints is achieved through forms of regularconnective tissue. This includes those highly fibrous tissues with fibers regularlyorientated either to form sheet such as fasciae and aponeurosis or thicker bundles asligaments and tendons. The direction of the fibers within such structures is related tothe stress, which they undergo but there is considerable interweaving of fibrousbundles, even within tendons, which increases their structural stability andresilience. Regular connective tissue is predominantly collagenous but in someligaments elastic components also occur, as in the ligaments flava of the vertebrallaminae and in the vocal folds. Some elastin is also present between the collagenlamellae of many other ligaments and fasciae. In other sites, the collagen fibers mayform precise geometrical patterns.I) Ligaments: - Pratana Snayu resembles with ligaments. Ligaments provide strengthto the joints. There present fibrous capsule. The capsule usually has localthickenings of parallel capsular ligaments (which are nothing but the bundles ofcollagen fibers. Accessory ligaments are separate from capsules and may be extracapsular or intracapsular in position. All ligaments although yielding little to tensionare pliant and do not resist normal actions, being designed to check excessive orabnormal movements. All ligaments are slightly elastic. Due to tension in ligamentsthe movement of the joints is limited (controlled).II) Aponeurosis: - Pratana Snayu resembles with Aponeurosis. These are sheets ofwhite compacted collagen fibres attached directly or indirectly to skeletal musclesand distributing their contractile forces to fasciae, other muscles, cartilage or bone.Sometime a whole attachment is aponeurotic. Elsewhere aponeurosis provides largeaxillary attachment areas for muscle fibres. Some major aponeurosis interlace atlinear decussations or raphes.
52III) The Sphincters or Valves placed at various junctions of alimentary and atBladder neck resembles with the description of Susira Snayu.1) Pyloric Sphincter - is a muscular ring formed by a marked thickening of thecircular gastric muscle, some longitudinal fibers also interlacing with it.2) Cardiac Sphincter - Formed from the circular films of the gastric wall.3) Ileocaecal valve - Consisting of two flaps projecting into the lumen of largeintestine. In the distended, fixed Caecum the flaps are semi lunar. At the end theflaps coalesce, continuing as narrow membranous ridges, the frenula of the valve.Circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the terminal ileum continue in the valveto form a sphincter. The margin of the ileocaecal valve is a reduplication of theintestinal mucosa and circular muscle.Longitudinal fibers are partly reduplicated as they enter the valve. The valve notonly prevents reflux from the caecum to the ileum but is probably also a sphincterregulating the passage of ileal contents into the caecum.4) Anal Sphincters -At the anorectal junction, the rectal circular muscle is thickened as nonstriatedsphincter ani internus. The sphincter ani externus surrounds the whole anal canal. Itis usually consisting of three parts, all composed of skeletal muscle. Muscle tone inboth internal and external sphincters keeps the Canal and anus closed.5) Bladder Sphincter:-Bladder neck - The non striated muscles of this region distinct from that whichcomprises the detrusor proper. The arrangement differs in male and female.Male - The non striated muscles form a complete circular collar extend distally tosurround the preprostatic portion of the urethra. These fibres are termed as internal,proximal and preprostatic urethral sphincter.Female - the female bladder neck also consists of non striated muscle. But infemales they do not possess a smooth muscle sphincter at the bladder neck since themuscle fasciculi extend obliquely or longitudinally into the urethral wall and notform circular orientation. It is unlikely that the active contraction of this region playsa significant part in the maintenance of female urinary continence.
53Functions of the Snayu:- "Snayavo Bandhanani Syuh Dehe Mamsasthi Medasam |" [SA.Pr.5/36; BH.Pu.3/258-259]Snayu bound the various structures of the body. Mamsa, Asthi, Meda are fastenedby the Snayu. It supports the above structures. "Asthi Samyogah Tatra Upanibaddhah Ca Snayuh |" [C. Su. 11/48]Due to contiguous support of Snayu all the joints of the body are able to sustain thebody weight. Just like a boat made upof firmly joined wooden planks, which bearthe weight of many persons in water, Snayu execute crucial role to bear the bodyweight.Injury to the Asthi, Mamsa Pesi, Sira & Sandhi do not cause as much disability as aninjury to the Snayu. Great oracle Susruta has described the Snayu Viddha Laksanasas shortening, debility of body parts, inability to perform their actions, severeexcruciating pain. Wound healing after a long time should be understood as causeddue to cut or injury to the Snayu. SandhiEtymology-Vyutpatti- "Sam + Dha + Lyut |" [A.K.] "Sandhanam | Upasarge Ghoh Kih |"[A. K. page-340]Nirukti- “Sandhiyate Yasyam Iti |" "Sanyoge Asthidvaya Samyogasthane |" [SSTMN]Definition- "Sandhayah Ca Anga Sandhanat Dehe Prokta Kaphanvita |" [SA.Pr.5/37] Articulation points of two or many structures are termed as Sandhi. Sandhi, mentioned as the Upadhatu of Meda Dhatu. "Medasah Sarah |" [A.S. Sa 6/29]. Sandhi derives their nourishment from essence part of Meda Dhatu.
54 Classics have given emphasis on the joints of bones. Acarya Susruta hasstated that though the joints between Mamsapesi, Snayu and Sira are present butsince they are innumerable hence not practical to describe them.Vrddha Vagbhata has mentioned these joints as Sahasradwaya (two thousand).Acarya Susruta has described two hundred and ten joints of bones. Acarya Kasyapahas mentioned this number as three hundred and eight one.According to Caraka the number of joints is two hundred.On the basis of their movement Acarya have mentioned two types Asthi Sandhinamely Cestavanta (movable) & Sthira (immovable). Movable joints are found in Sakha (extremity), Hanvasthi (mandible) andSroni (hip). The rest of the joints are known as immovable joints.On the basis of their anatomical structure they are further divided into eight types.1. Kora Sandhi. 2. Ulukhala Sandhi. 3. Samudga Sandhi. 4. Pratana Sandhi5. Tunnasevani Sandhi. 6. Vayasatunda sandhi.7. Mandala Sandhi.8. Sankhavarta Sandhi.Relation with Dosa: 1. Vayu: - Various movements at Sandhi are carried out with the help of Vyana Vayu. 2. Kapha: - Kapha Dosa plays an important role in smooth functioning of Sandhi. Slesaka Kapha is present at Sandhi. “Sandhistha Slesma Sarva Sandhi Samslesat Sarva Sandhi AnugrahamKaroti |" [S.Su.21/14] “Samslesana means Sandhibandhanam Karoti |" [S.Su. 15/4, Dalhana]Slesma provides the lubrication to joints. Lubrication, which is given by Sneha ofMeda, Kapha Dosa follows the same path. Features of Sandhi:
55Sandhi are covered by Mamsapesi. They mantle the joints. Concealed joints are thetoken of their excellence. Deeply located joints Sira, Snayu indicate the long span oflife. They are considered in Madhyama Roga Marga.They are mentioned as the Mulasthana of Majjavaha Srotasa.Functions of Sandhi: -All types of movements are performed due to presence of thin articulating entity.This structural architecture helps to do all the activities of body. They participate inanatomical derivation of Marma.Any type of injury to Sandhi causes great debility. Great seer Susruta has explainedsandhi Viddha Laksanas. When the joint, either movable or immoveable are injuredthere will be great swelling, very severe pain, loss of strength of the joints, splittingpain, edema and loss of function of the joints.Modern Counterpart:Functionally the joints are classified into three types take into account the degree ofmovement they permit.1. Synarthrosis- It is an immovable joint.2. Amphiarthrosis- It is a slightly movable joint.3. Diarthrosis- It is a freely movable joint.Concentrating on Diarthrosis- Diarthrosis have a variety of shapes and permitseveral different types of movements.General structure of Diarthrosis- There present synovial space, which separates the articulating, bones. Articulating cartilage covers the surfaces of the articulating bones but doesnot bind the bones together. It reduces friction at the joint. Articular capsule encloses the synovial cavity and unites the articulatingbones. It is composed of two layers. The outer layer is called the fibrous capsuleusually consist of dense irregular connective tissue. Its great tensile strength resistsdislocation. The fibers of some fibrous capsule are arranged in parallel bundle & arethere for highly adapted to resist recurrent strain. Such bundles of fibers are calledligaments (ligare-to bind) the strength of such ligaments is one of the principal