EVALUATION OF MEDOHARA (HYPOLIPIDAEMIC)EFFECT OF CHITRAKA (PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA LINN.)               – AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY...
D.G.M.AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE POST GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTER                                   GADAG - 582 10...
J.S.V.V. SAMSTHE’S             D.G.M.AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE    POST GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTER               ...
Declaration by the candidate        I here by declare that this dissertation / thesis entitled “Evaluation of medohara(hyp...
© Copy right                    Declaration by the candidate I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health ...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS      Any research is not an individual effort. It is a contributory effort of many hearts,hands and heads...
I am at a loss of words while thanking my beloved parents Shri Veeranna Arali and Smt. Akkamahadevi V. Arali and my dear h...
iii
ABBREVIATIONA. Hru – Ashtanga hrudayaA. San – Ashtanga sangrahaAK –AmarakoshaAPI -Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of IndiaBPN -Bhav...
ABSTRACT OF “EVALUATION OF MEDOHARA (HYPOLIPIDAEMIC) EFFECT OF                 CHITRAKA (PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA LINN.)        ...
INDEX OF“EVALUATION OF MEDOHARA (HYPOLIPIDAEMIC) EFFECT OF          CHITRAKA (PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA LINN.)               – AN...
LIST OF TABLESTable 1: Drug reviewTable No                            Title of Table                        Page No   1.1 ...
Table 4: Observations and resultsTable No                            Title of Table                       Page No   4.1   ...
control and hyperlipidemic control groups 4.24      Comparison of mean values of lipid levels in between                  ...
9.      Comparison of mean values of lipid levels in between          102           hyperlipidemic control and churna trea...
Introduction...                                   INTRODUCTION       Cardiovascular diseases with an incidence of approxim...
Introduction...that cardiovascular diseases will be the most important cause of mortality in India by year2015 11.        ...
Introduction...Purpose of the study:       The available drugs like statins, fibrates and nicotinic acid, though very effe...
Aims and objectives…                AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY1. To carry Preliminary Phytochemical investigations o...
Drug review…                                    DRUG REVIEWHistorical aspect of drug:Veda: No references were found regard...
Drug review…like Grahani, Arsha, Pandu, Rajayakshma, and Kasa.Chakradatta: Chakrapaani, advocates its use in Sleepada, Dad...
Drug review…Gana and varga:Classification according to different classics:Sl.No. Different authors              Gana / Var...
Drug review…Paryaya Nama: Sr. Grantha →      Cha. Su. A.   DN21 MPN22 KN23 BPN24 RN25 SGN26 Mah. No Synonyms        Sa.  S...
Drug review…          28, 29, 30ÌlÉÂÌ£ü                :ÍcɧÉMü – ÍcɨÉÇ oÉÑ먂 §ÉÉrÉiÉå CÌiÉ| (pÉÉ. SÏ)             cÉåiÉ...
Drug review…Vernacular names (names in different languages) 31:Arabic        Shitaraj, ShitarazBengal        Chita, Chitra...
Drug review…Types of Chitraka according to various granthas:Chitraka is one of the important drugs in indigenous medicine ...
Drug review…Rasapanchaka of Chitraka:Sr    Grantha                       Rasa           Guna                         Veery...
Drug review…Karma according to different classics:Sr. Grantha →              Cha. Su. A.   DN43 MP         KN45     BP    ...
Drug review…Rogaghnata according to different authors: Sr. Grantha →       Cha. Su. A.         DN50 MPN51 KN52 BPN53 RN54 ...
Drug review…3. Paste of Chitraka is mixed with Shunti and sourgruel is applied to Arsha.(Cha.Chi14/68)4. Powdered Chitraka...
Drug review…Toxic effect 61: In small doses, it acts as a sudorific and stimulates the contraction of themuscular tissue o...
Drug review… 9.     Chitrakadi udvartana         Shotha                      Cha. chi. 12/72 10.    Pippalyadi choorna    ...
Drug review… 41.    Agnitundi rasa                Agnimandya                    Bhai. Ra. 10/94 42.    Agnimukha lavana   ...
Drug review…Latin name: Plumbago zeylanica Linn.Plumbum: LeadPlumbago: That cures lead palsyZeylanica: Of ceylonTaxonomic ...
Drug review…sterile is found in Plumbago.Flowers - Occur in terminal scapes or peduncles in panicles. Flowers bisexual, re...
Drug review…Perennial herbs or under shrubs, sometimes scan dent.Leaves - Alternate, membranous, entire (in one species ab...
Drug review…Habit 68:Plumbago zeylanica Linn.Stem - A perennial herb, subscandent, stems 0.6 to 1.5 M., long, somewhat woo...
Drug review…       Transverse section of root shows that the root is nearly circular in out line and itshows following cha...
Drug review…almost 100% if both ends of the seed are cut before sowing. Seeds germinate in 21–30days at 21°C. After 3 mont...
Drug review…Triterpenes – Lupeol and lupenyl acetate have been isolated from the root.Amino acids – Aspartic Acid, tryptop...
Drug review…appetizer, uterotonic, antibacterial, antifungal, antifertility, anticancer(Plumbagin),anticoagulant, antitumo...
Drug review…Madagascar: The roots are applied as a vesicant, while in Mauritius and Rodrigues aroot decoction is used to t...
Drug review…     antibacterial activities against Bacillus mycoides, B. pumilus, B. subtilis, salmonella     typhi, staphy...
Drug review…      was estimated using staphylococcus aureus and in low doses of plumbagin caused a      constant increase ...
Drug review…      against L1210 lymphoid leukemia in mice. It is thout to be inhibitor of mitosis. It      has been evalua...
Drug review…       lowered the cholesterol/phospholipids ratio and elevated HDL cholesterol       significantly. Furthermo...
Drug review…        roots significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by cumene hydroperoxide,        ascorbate-fe(...
Drug review…       polychromatic          erythrocytes   (MnPCEs),   increased   the    PCE/NCE       (normochromatic eryt...
Drug review…          ÍcɧÉMü – ÍcɨÉÇ oÉÑ먂 §ÉÉrÉiÉå CÌiÉ| (pÉÉ. SÏ)          cÉåiÉͶÉiÉç, ÍcÉiÉÉå eÉlÉÉlÉç §ÉÉrÉiÉå C...
Drug review…            ÍcɧÉMüÉå SWûlÉÉå uÉÎlWûÈ mÉÉPûÏlÉÉå SÉÂhÉÉåÅÂhÉÈ||            urÉÉsÉÉå WÒûiÉÉzÉÉå WÒûiÉçpÉÑYmÉÉsÉ...
Drug review…            ÍcɧÉMüÉåÅlÉsÉlÉÉqÉÉcÉmÉÉPûÏurÉÉsÉxiÉjÉÉåwÉhÉÈ|       aÉÑhÉMüqÉï:          kÉluÉliÉËU ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: ...
Drug review…          UÉeÉ ÌlÉbÉûhOÒ:           ÍcɧÉMüÉåÅÎalÉxÉqÉÈ mÉÉMåüMüOÒûÈ zÉÉåTüMüTüÉmÉWûÉ:|           uÉÉiÉÉåSUÉz...
Drug review…           äÉÉåwhÉÉåaÉëWhÉÏ MÑü¸zÉÉåTüÉzÉïÈ MÑüqÍqMüÉxÉlÉÑiÉç||           uÉÉiÉzsÉåwqÉWûUÉåaÉëÉWûÏuÉÉiÉÉzÉïÈ ...
Disease review…                                      DISEASE REVIEWIntroduction to Medoroga:       The definition of swast...
Disease review…Formation of Meda dhatu 99:           According to Charaka, the Rakta dhatu is combined with tej, apa and i...
Disease review…Drudatva: This is possible with the help of snayu the upadhatu of meda. Both snayu andsandhi are directly r...
Disease review…Vrikka:Vrikka, one of the kosthanga formed by the sara of rakta and meda dhatu. Charaka hasconsidered as “M...
Disease review…meda dhatu and the medodhatu thus produced makes body sthoola.Etiology of Medo Roga 110, 111:According to m...
Disease review…                                    Nidana sevana                          Mandaagni and production of ama ...
Disease review…  Ama: Dhatvagnimandyajanya.  Srotasa: - Rasavaha, Medovaha, Mamsavaha, Udakavaha, Swedavaha.  Srotodush...
Disease review…Complications Medoroga 115, 116:       Some of the common complications of Medo Roga are Prameha, Prameha, ...
Disease review…                                  BASIC CONCEPT OF LIPIDS     Lipids are substances, which are actual or po...
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EVALUATION OF MEDOHARA (HYPOLIPIDAEMIC) EFFECT OF CHITRAKA (PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA LINN.) – AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY - MUKTAYAKKA ARALI, Department of Dravya Guna, Post Graduate Studies & Research Centre, D.G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE,GADAG

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  1. 1. EVALUATION OF MEDOHARA (HYPOLIPIDAEMIC)EFFECT OF CHITRAKA (PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA LINN.) – AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY By: MUKTAYAKKA ARALI Dissertation submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of AYURVEDA VACHASPATI M.D. IN DRAVYAGUNA Under the Guidance of Dr. KUBER SANKH M.D. (Ayu) And Co-guidance of Dr. SHASHIKANTH B. NIDAGUNDI M.D. (Ayu) DEPARTMENT OF DRAVYA GUNA POST GRADUATE STUDIES & RESEARCH CENTER SHRI D.G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GADAG - 582103 2006-2009
  2. 2. D.G.M.AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE POST GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTER GADAG - 582 103 This is to certify that the dissertation “Evaluation of medohara(hypolipidaemic) effect of Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.) – An experimentalstudy” is a bonafide research work done by Muktayakka Arali in partial fulfillment ofthe requirement for the post graduation degree of “Ayurveda Vachaspati M.D. (DravyaGuna)” Under Rajeev Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka. Dr. Shashikanth B. Nidagundi Dr. Kuber Sankh M.D. (Ayu) M.D. (Ayu) Co-guide Guide Lecturer Asst. Professor Dept of Dravya Guna Dept of Dravya Guna DGMAMC, PGS&RC, Gadag DGMAMC, PGS&RC, Gadag Date: Date: Place: Gadag Place: Gadag
  3. 3. J.S.V.V. SAMSTHE’S D.G.M.AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE POST GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTER GADAG, 582 103 Endorsement by the H.O.D, principal/ head of the institution This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Evaluation of medohara(hypolipidaemic) effect of Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.) – An experimentalstudy” is a bonafide research work done by Muktayakka Arali under the guidance ofDr. Kuber Sankh M.D. (Ayu), Asst. Professor, Dept of Dravya Guna, in partialfulfillment of the requirement for the post graduation degree of “Ayurveda VachaspatiM.D. in Dravya Guna” Under Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore,Karnataka..(Dr. G. V. Mulagund) (Dr. G. B. Patil)Professor & HOD Principal,Dept. of Dravya Guna DGMAMC, PGS&RCDGMAMC, PGS&RC GadagDate: Date:Place: Gadag Place: Gadag
  4. 4. Declaration by the candidate I here by declare that this dissertation / thesis entitled “Evaluation of medohara(hypolipidaemic) effect of Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.) – An experimentalstudy” is a bonafide and genuine research work carried out by me under the guidance ofDr. Kuber Sankh M.D. (Ayu), Asst. Professor, Dept of Dravya Guna, DGMAMC,PGS&RC, Gadag.Date: Signature of the candidatePlace: Gadag (Muktayakka Arali)
  5. 5. © Copy right Declaration by the candidate I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate this dissertation/ thesis in print or electronic format for the academic / research purpose.Date:Place: Gadag (Muktayakka Arali) © Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka
  6. 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Any research is not an individual effort. It is a contributory effort of many hearts,hands and heads. I am very much thankful to the subjects of this study. I am extremely happy to express my deepest sense of gratitude to my respectedguide Dr. Kuber Sankh, M.D. (Ayu) for having inspired me in selecting the subject andfor his valuable guidance at every stage in preparing the dissertation. I am grateful to Co-guide Dr. Shashikanth B. Nidagundi, M.D. (Ayu) for hisvaluable suggestions, constant encouragement and for kind co-operation at all levels ofmy work. I express my gratitude to Dr. G. V. Mulagund, Professor and H.O.D for his adviceand encouragement in every step of this work. I am sincerely grateful to Dr. G. B. Patil, Principal, for his encouragement andproviding all necessary facilities for this research work. I offer my sincere thankas to Dr. G. S. Hiremath, Proffessor and HOD, Dept ofDravya Guna, DGMAMC, Gadag for their kind suggestion and co-operation. I extend my gratitude to Dr. Purushottamacharyulu, Dr. P. Shivaramudu,Dr.Suresh Babu, Dr. K.S.R. Prasad, Dr.M.C. Patil, Dr. K. S. Paraddi, Dr. U. V. Purad,Dr. R.V. Shettar, Dr. G. Danappagoudar, Dr. S. N. Belawadi, Dr. Samudri, Dr. J. G.Mitti, Dr. Yasmin A.P, Dr. B.G .Swami, Dr. Veena. Kori and Dr. Yerigeri, R.M.O.DGMAMC, Gadag. I am especially thankful to Mr. Manjunath K. P., Mr. Vishwanath Swamy, and Mr.Shivakumar Inamdar, Dr Ashok B. K., Mr. Suresh Huggishettar and Mr. Girish for theirheartful cooperation, timely help and advice. I express my immense gratitude to Shri. V. B. Mundinamani (librarian) and Mr.Shyavi and Mr. Kerur for facilitating me in collection and production of my thesis. i
  7. 7. I am at a loss of words while thanking my beloved parents Shri Veeranna Arali and Smt. Akkamahadevi V. Arali and my dear husband Mr. Danesh Kendur and his family members for all the love, affection and efforts for my progress and success. I am extremely happy to express my deepest sense of gratitude to my all uncles and aunties. I am extremely happy to express my heartfelt gratitude my beloved daughter Sanjana and sisters, Uma, Pankaja, Nirmala and my brother Sharanabasava for constant help and encouragement to move ahead. I take this moment to express my thanks to my senior friends Dr. ShivaleelaKudari, Dr. Ashwini Vastrad, Dr. Shalini Sharma, Dr. V. M. Kataraki, Dr. Rudrakshi, Dr.Shivaleela Kalyani, Dr. Kamalakshi for their support and advice. My in depth regards to my friends Dr. Savitha Bhat, Dr. Jaya, Dr. Kalavati D. P.Dr. Vijayalaxmi, Dr. Mukta Hiremath, Dr. Veena. Jigalur, Dr. Anupama, Dr. Kavitha, Dr.Sarvamangala, Dr. Prasanna Joshi, Dr. Sanjeeva, Dr.Neeraj, Dr. Adarsha, Dr. Nataraja,Dr. Udaya, Dr. Shaileja, Dr. Ravi, Dr. Shivakumar, Dr. Asha Maradka, Dr. C.C.Hiremath, Dr. S. B. Rotti, Dr. Bhopesh, Dr Deepa T. for their support and cooperation. I express my immense thanks to Prabhu and Shettyappa Gouda, attenders dept ofDravya Guna for their cooperation during the experiment. I pay my tributes to the souls of all the animals which were sacrificed for the sakeof my work. I would like to express my cordial thanks to all those who helped me directly orindirectly in this work.Date:Place: Gadag (Muktayakka Arali) ii
  8. 8. iii
  9. 9. ABBREVIATIONA. Hru – Ashtanga hrudayaA. San – Ashtanga sangrahaAK –AmarakoshaAPI -Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of IndiaBPN -Bhavaprakash NighantuBhai. Ra -Bhaishajya RatnavaliCD -ChakradattaCha.sa -Charaka samhitaDN - Dhanvantari NighantuKN -Kaiyadeva NighantuMN -Madanapala NighantuMah. N – Mahaushadha NighantuNA -Nighantu AdarshaPVS - P.V. SharmaRN -Raja NighantuSGN -Shaligrama NighantuSu.sa -Sushruta samhitaVM – Vrunda MadhavaSthanas:Chi -Chikitsa sthanaSu -Sutra sthanaUt -UttaratantraKa -Kalpa sthanaSha -Shareera sthanaNi -Nidana sthanaVi -Vimana sthana iii
  10. 10. ABSTRACT OF “EVALUATION OF MEDOHARA (HYPOLIPIDAEMIC) EFFECT OF CHITRAKA (PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA LINN.) – AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY”. The objective of this study was to evaluate the medohra (Hypolipidaemic) effectof Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.) in alcoholic extract and in churna form inglucocorticoid induced hyperlipidaemia. Hydrocortisone was (10mg/kg/day/i.p)administered for two weeks to albino rats to increase the serum lipid levels. Alcoholicextract churna of Chitraka was then administered in a dose of 200mg/kg/day/p.o and180mg/kg/day/p.o respectively for four weeks. Atorvastatin was taken as the standarddrug at the dose of 5.5mg/kg/day/i.p. Chitraka, both in alcoholic extract and churna formhad significantly lowered the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL andincreased HDL levels in glucocorticoid pre-treated groups. It was also effective inreducing hyperglycemia, which was also induced by hydrocortisone. It also reducedtissue lipid content of liver and regressed atheroma and plaque formation in aorta. Thepresent study indicates that, Chitraka alcoholic extract and churna in a dose of200mg/kg/day/p.o and 180mg/kg/day/p.o respectively, has significantly reversed thehyperlipidaemia induced by glucocorticoid. This suggests need for a further in depthevaluation.Key words: Chitraka, Hyperlipidaemia, Medohara, Hypolipidaemic, Glucocorticoid. iv
  11. 11. INDEX OF“EVALUATION OF MEDOHARA (HYPOLIPIDAEMIC) EFFECT OF CHITRAKA (PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA LINN.) – AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDYCHAPTER CONTENT PAGES 1 Introduction 1- 3 2 Aims and Objectives 4 3 Review of literature - Drug review 5 – 37 - Disease review 38 - 68 4 Materials and Methods 69 - 82 5 Observations and Results 83 – 107 6 Discussion 108 – 115 7 Conclusion 116 -117 8 Summary 118 -119 9 Bibliographic References 120 -130 v
  12. 12. LIST OF TABLESTable 1: Drug reviewTable No Title of Table Page No 1.1 Gana and varga of Chitraka according to different classics 7 1.2 Synonyms of Chitraka 8 1.3 Vernacular names of Chitraka 10 1.4 Rasapanchaka of Chitraka according to different classics 12 1.5 Karmas of Chitraka according to different classics 13 1.6 Rogaghnata of Chitraka according to different classics 14 1.7 Vishishta yogas of Chitraka 16-18Table 2: Disease reviewTable No Title of Table Page No 2.1 Clinical features of medoroga according to different authors 44 2.2 Normal serum lipid values 49 2.3 Characteristics of lipoprotein 59 2.4 Fredrickson’s classification of hyperlipoproteinemias 66Table 3: Materials and methodsTable No Title of Table Page No 3.1 Protocol of experiment 82 vi
  13. 13. Table 4: Observations and resultsTable No Title of Table Page No 4.1 Physico chemical values of Chitraka 83 4.2 Phytochemical analysis of Chitraka 85 4.3 Results of TLC 87 4.4 Master chart 90 4.5 Parameter 1.1 Values of Total cholesterol of all the groups 91 4.6 Summary of Data 91 4.7 ANOVA Table 92 4.8 Parameter 1.2 values of Triglyceride of all the groups 92 4.9 Summary of Data 93 4.10 ANOVA Table 93 4.11 Parameter 1.3 Values of HDL cholesterol of all the groups 94 4.12 Summary of Data 94 4.13 ANOVA Table 95 4.14 Parameter 1.4 Values of LDL cholesterol of all the groups 96 4.15 Summary of Data 96 4.16 ANOVA Table 97 4.17 Parameter 1.5 Values of VLDL cholesterol of all the groups 97 4.18 Summary of Data 98 4.19 ANOVA Table 98 4.20 Parameter 1.6 Values of serum glucose of all the groups 99 4.21 Summary of Data 99 4.22 ANOVA Table 100 4.23 Comparison of mean values of lipid levels between normal 101 vii
  14. 14. control and hyperlipidemic control groups 4.24 Comparison of mean values of lipid levels in between 101 hyperlipidemic control and alcoholic extract treated groups. 4.25 Comparison of mean values of lipid levels in between 102 hyperlipidemic control and churna treated groups. 4.26 Comparison of mean values of lipid levels in between 102 hyperlipidemic control and standard drug treated groups. 4.27 Comparison of mean values of lipid levels in between normal 103 control and churna to normolipid groups. 4.28 Comparison of mean values of lipid levels in between 103 hyperlipidemic control and alcoholic extract, churna and standard drug treated groups. 4.29 Mean of all the groups for lipid levels 104 4.30 Mean of all the groups for serum glucose 105 LIST OF GRAPHSGraph No Title of Graph Page No 1. Mean values of Total cholesterol of all groups 91 2. Mean values of Triglyceride of all groups 93 3. Mean values of HDL-C of all groups 95 4. Mean values of LDL-C of all groups 96 5. Mean values of VLDL-C of all groups 98 6. Mean values of Serum glucose of all groups 100 7. Comparison of mean values of lipid levels between normal 101 control and hyperlipidemic control groups 8. Comparison of mean values of lipid levels in between 101 hyperlipidemic control and alcoholic extract treated groups. viii
  15. 15. 9. Comparison of mean values of lipid levels in between 102 hyperlipidemic control and churna treated groups. 10. Comparison of mean values of lipid levels in between 102 hyperlipidemic control and standard drug treated groups. 11. Comparison of mean values of lipid levels in between normal 103 control and churna to normolipid groups. 12. Comparison of mean values of lipid levels in between 103 hyperlipidemic control and alcoholic extract, churna and standard drug treated groups. LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHSPlate No Title of the photograph 1 Fig 1- Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn) Fig 2 – Inflorescence of Chitraka Fig 3 – Root of Chitraka 2 Fig 4 – Dry root of Chitraka Fig 5 – Coarse powder of Chitraka Fig 6 – Fine powder of Chitraka Fig 7 – Soxhlet extraction Fig 8 & 9 – Alcohol extraction 3 Fig 10 – Weighing of albino rat Fig 11 – Albino rats in the cage Fig 12 – Intra peritoneal route of administration Fig 13 – Oral route of administration 4 Thin layer chromatography 5 Histopathology of liver 6 Histopathology of aorta ix
  16. 16. Introduction... INTRODUCTION Cardiovascular diseases with an incidence of approximately 50% are the maincause of death in most advanced countries 1. The disease burden contributed bycardiovascular diseases has been increasing in the developing world also. The WorldHealth Organization (WHO) estimates that every year 12 million people worldwide diefrom cardiovascular diseases, with most of them being from the developing world 2. The underlying primary cause of cardiovascular disease is believed to beatherosclerosis, a progressive multifactorial disease of the arterial wall 3, 4. Central to thepathogenesis of atherosclerosis is deposition of cholesterol in the arterial wall 5. Previously considered a disease of the affluent, the past three decades have seenconsiderable decline in the incidence and prevalence of atherosclerotic coronary arterydisease in the industrialized western world; whereas at the same time this problem isassuming epidemic proportion in the developing world 6. Coronary artery disease among Asian Indians has been found to be more severe,diffuse and associated with serious complication and increasing mortality at a youngerage 7. By 2020 it is estimated that it will be the major cause of death in all regions ofworld 8. CHD is the number one killer among the diseases and it accounts for 37% of adultdeaths in the US every year 9. In India; persons suffering from the CHD are doubled inthe last 20 years. In South India, CHD incidences are 7.4% in rural area and 13.9% inurban area, which is higher than north India (Rural- 3% and urban 9.7%). Mortality fromcardiovascular disorders in India is 430/100000 in both sexes and in males it is 460 10whereas in females it accounts for 400/100000 deaths per year . It has been predictedHypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 1
  17. 17. Introduction...that cardiovascular diseases will be the most important cause of mortality in India by year2015 11. Wealth of evidence from epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies hasestablished the association between hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis,hypercholesteraemia is clearly a risk factor. Of the lipoproteins, it is the LDL which is themost atherogenic, where as HDL offers a protective effect and helps in removing 12cholesterol from the arterial wall . The risk of IHD in individuals withhypercholesterolemia is about thrice as great as in those with normal plasma cholesterollevels 13. It is emerging as major health problem in the modern era as it (Hyperlipidaemia)leads to coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accidents. Hyperlipidaemia is an important, yet modifiable risk factor of all lipidabnormalities. Thus, it has been suggested that reduction of plasma lipid levels either bydietic restriction or by drugs may prevent the development of atherosclerosis or arrest itsprogress. Studies have shown that a reduction in plasma cholesterol does infact reduce 14the risk of myocardial infarction . Overall, 1% reduction in plasma cholesterolconcentration in middle-aged men reportedly results in 2% reduction in the incidence ofCHD 15. In Ayurveda, there is no direct reference of a single disease entity that can bedirectly correlated with the hyperlipidaemia. Moreover different scholars have differentopinions about the nearest possible disease. Most of them have consideredhyperlipidaemia under the heading of Medoroga.Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 2
  18. 18. Introduction...Purpose of the study: The available drugs like statins, fibrates and nicotinic acid, though very effective, 16have a spectrum of adverse effects and are costly . Although the well knownhypolipidaemic agent “statin therapy” reduces the mortality and morbidity associatedwith coronary artery disease, most of them don’t achieve the LDL cholesterol level;besides, it also has a lot of side effects like increased lithogenecity of bile, nausea,abnormal liver function and myosytis. In classics Chitraka is highly valued for its lekhana and medohara action.Medoroga being Vatakapha dosha predominant disease, the drugs which are having Vata-Kaphahara properties, are mainly used. Chitraka which is having Katu rasa, Ushnaveerya, Katu vipaka and Vata-Kaphahara properties 17 used to treat it. In the present context in spite of various existing hypolipidaemic drugs there isnecessity of still better, safe and effective hypolipidaemic drugs. Again Chitraka is easilyavailable and cost effective drug. So with due consideration to above reasons, the present study was taken up toconfirm experimentally, the hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka.Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 3
  19. 19. Aims and objectives… AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY1. To carry Preliminary Phytochemical investigations of Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.) including thin layer chromatography (TLC).2. To evaluate the medohara (Hypolipidaemic) effect of Chitraka using the glucocorticoid induced hyperlipidaemic experimental model.3. To evaluate the action of alcoholic extract of Chitraka on hyperlipidaemic animals.4. To evaluate the action of Chitraka churna on hyperlipidaemic animals.5. To evaluate the action of Chitraka churna on normolipid animals.6. To compare the action of test drug in alcohol extract and in churna form along with hyperlipidaemic control and standard drug treated groups.7. To evaluate and compare the histopathological changes of liver and aorta samples in between the groups.Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 4
  20. 20. Drug review… DRUG REVIEWHistorical aspect of drug:Veda: No references were found regarding the drug, Chitraka in the Veda.Purana: Not found any references of Chitraka in Purana. 18Samhita kala : We find various references in samhita period regarding varieties,preparations that are indicated in many diseases.Charaka samhita: Acharya Charaka first recorded therapeutic use of Chitraka. Hedescribed the same drug widely in 168 different conditions by two synonyms. Amongthese synonyms, Chitraka is repeated for 165 times & Agni is repeated for three times.Sushruta samhita: Sushruta used it in 99 various conditions using synonyms viz,Chitraka repeated for 85 times, Agni for 6 times, Hutabhuk for 3 times, Hutashan for 2times and Hutash for 3 times.Ashtanga Hrudaya: Chitraka has been mentioned 104 times in different preparations.Here Chitraka has been referred by three synonyms viz, Chitraka for 67 times, Agni for27 times and Agnika for 10 times.Kashyapa samhita: Kashyapa recorded many uses of Chitraka especially in Balagrahachikitsa, Grahabaadhaa chikitsa, Udavarta chikitsa, Rajayakshma chikitsa etc.Sharanghadhara Samhita: Sharanghadhara used the Chitraka in different preparationslike Kwatha, Choorna, Asava etc according to different diseases viz, Udara roga, Shotha,Pinasa, Kshaya etc.Vangasena: Vangasena described it in the management of Medoroga, vatarakta,Udararoga, Shotha etc.Bhavaprakasha: Bhavamishra has mentioned it for the treatment of different diseasesHypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 5
  21. 21. Drug review…like Grahani, Arsha, Pandu, Rajayakshma, and Kasa.Chakradatta: Chakrapaani, advocates its use in Sleepada, Dadru, Nasaarsha, Galagrahaetc.Amarkosha 19: Chitraka is mentioned in Vanaushadhi varga of Amarkosha-2/4/80. 20Kautilya Arthashastra : Chitraka is mentioned in Kautilya Arthashashtra, whileexplaining Asavasambhara dravya in 29th patha and in 33rd patha it is mentioned whileexplaining useful Kalka sambhara dravya in the preparation of Sura for the King. (Kau.Arth.Adhi.-2, Adhy-25, Prakarana-42, Patha- 25 & 33)Nighantu kala: In the Nighantu Kala, Chitraka is explained with a variety of synonymsand its Gunakarmas.Adhunika kala: Acharya Mahendrakumar shastri in his Brihat Dravyagunadarsha,Ramsusheel Sharma in his Vanaushadhi nidarshika have described Chitraka along withits three varieties. It is also described in Dravyaguna vignana written by Vd. P.V.Sharma, Dr. J. L. N. Shastri, Dr. G. Pandey and in Data base on medicinal plants Vol – I,Wealth of India Vol -VIII. Modern botanical texts and various flora have identified Shweta Chitrakato Plumbago zeylanica, Rakta Chitraka to Plumbago rosea (Syn. P.indica Linn) and thatof Neela chitraka to Plumbago capensis.Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 6
  22. 22. Drug review…Gana and varga:Classification according to different classics:Sl.No. Different authors Gana / Varga1. Charaka samhita Lekhaneeya Dashemani, Bedhaneeya Dashemani, Deepaneeya Dashemani, Triptighna Dashemani, Arshoghna Dashemani, Shoolaprashamana Dashemani & Katuskandha.2. Sushruta samhita Aragvadhadi gana, Varunaadi gana, Mushakakadi gana, Pippalyadi gana, Mustadi gana, Amalakyadi gana, Veerataraadi gana.3. Ashtanga sangraha Aushadi Varga,Soshanadi Gana, Vamaka Gana, Aragwadhadi Gana, Mushkakadi Gana, Vatskadi Gana, Mustadi Gana.4. Ashtanga Hridaya Aragvadhadi gana, Mushkadi Gana, Mustadi Gana,Varunaadi gana.5. Dhanwantari Nighantu Shatapushpaadi varga6. Maadhava dravyaguna Shaaka varga7. Madanapala Nighantu Shuntyadi varga8. Kaiyadeva Nighantu Mishrakaadi varga9. Bhavaprakasha Nighantu Hareetakyaadi varga10. Raja nighantu Pippalyadi varga11. Shaaligrama nighantu Hareetakyaadi varga12. Nighantu Adarsha Chitrakaadi varga13. Mahoushadi Nighantu Mahoushadhi varga14. Amarakosha Vanaushadhi varga Table 1.1 Showing Gana And Varga according to different classicsHypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 7
  23. 23. Drug review…Paryaya Nama: Sr. Grantha → Cha. Su. A. DN21 MPN22 KN23 BPN24 RN25 SGN26 Mah. No Synonyms Sa. Sa. san. N.27 ↓ 1. Agni + + + + + + - + - - 2. Anala - - - + - + + + + + 3. Aruna - - - + + + - + - - 4. Chitrapali - - - - - - - + - - 5. Chitrka + + + + + + + + + + 6. Chitranga - - - - - - - + - - 7. Chitrabanu - - - + - - - - - - 8. Dahana - - - + + + - + - - 9. Daruna - - - + + + - + - - 10. Dvipi - - - + - + - + - - 11. Havi - - - - + - - - - - 12. Hutabhuk - + - - + + - - - - 13. Hutasho - + - - - + - - - - 14. Jwala - - - - - + - - - - 15. Jwalana - - - - - + - - - - 16. Jyothi - - - - - + - - - - 17. Jyotishka - - - + - - - + - - 18. Krishana - - - + - - - + - - 19. Katu - - - + - - - + - - 20. Maali - - - - + - - - - - 21. Pachi - - - - + - - - - - 22. Paalaka - - - - - - - + - - 23. Paali - - - + - + - - - - 24. Paathi - - - + - + + + + + 25. Paavaka - - - + - + - + - - 26. Shabala - - - - - - - + - - 27. Shatha - - - - - + - - - - 28. Shardula - - - - - - - + - - 29. Shikha - - - - - + - - - - 30. Shiki - - - + - - - + - - 31. Shura - - - - - - - + - - 32. Ushana - - - - - - + - + + 33. Vallari - - - + - - - - - - 34. Vanhi - - - + + + - + - - 35. Vanhinama - - - - + - - - - - 36. Vyala - - - + + + + + + + Table 1.2 showing synonyms of ChitrakaHypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 8
  24. 24. Drug review… 28, 29, 30ÌlÉÂÌ£ü :ÍcɧÉMü – ÍcɨÉÇ oÉÑ먂 §ÉÉrÉiÉå CÌiÉ| (pÉÉ. SÏ) cÉåiÉͶÉiÉç, ÍcÉiÉÉå eÉlÉÉlÉç §ÉÉrÉiÉå CÌiÉ| (ÌlÉ. AÉ)It improves and maintains agni. Therefore, it helps in protection of buddhi (mentalfaculty) and proper health.ÍcɧÉMü – ÍcɧÉçÇurÉÉbÉëÌlÉpÉÉå ÍpÉlÉÌiÉ oÉWÒûzÉÉå aÉÑsqÉÉlÉiÉͶɧÉMüÈ CÌiÉ | (lÉÉ.Ã.ÌuÉ.)It hunts immediately many diseases like Gulma etc similar to vyaagra, so called asChitraka.AlÉsÉ – AÎalÉiÉÑsrÉÈ EwhÉ:xmÉzÉåïuÉÏrÉåï cÉ|| (lÉÉ.Ã.ÌuÉ.)It acts corrosively both internally and externally.SWûlÉ – SWûiÉÏÌiÉ SWûlÉÈ|It causes ulceration and burning sensation when applied over the skin.mÉÏPûÏ – ÌmÉPûÌiÉ ÌWûlÉÎxiÉ xÉqrÉMçü ÌuÉsÉzlÉÉÌiÉ uÉÉ aÉëWûhÉÏ MÑü¸ÉÌS UÉåaÉÉlÉç uÉÉiÉÉÌSSÉåwÉÉǶÉåÌiÉ| (ÌlÉ.AÉ.)It completyely cures Grahani, Kushta and subsides aggravated doshas also.uÉÎlWûxÉÇgÉMü – uÉÎlWûÈ xÉÇgÉÉ rÉxrÉ | uÉÎlWûmÉrÉÉïrÉlÉÉqÉMüÉ CirÉjÉïÈ| (pÉÉ. SÏ.)It is known with all the names of fire.Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 9
  25. 25. Drug review…Vernacular names (names in different languages) 31:Arabic Shitaraj, ShitarazBengal Chita, Chitraik, Chittu, SufaidBurma KanChopphiju, KinkhenphiuCanarese Chitramula, Chitramulike, Mulike,VahniChinese Pai Hua T’enga, Pe Hoa T’enDeccan Chitarmul, ChtarmulamEnglish Ceylon Leadwort, White Flowered LeadwortFarasi Vekhvaranda,Bekhbarandar,ShitarakFrench Dentelaire de CeylonGujarathi Chitro, Chitra, ChitrapitaroHindi Chita,Chitra,Chiti,Chitraka Lalchita,Raktachitra,LalchitarakKannada Chitramool, BilayLatin Plumbago zeylanica Linn.Malayalam TumpukotuveliMarathi Chitraka, ChitramulaNepal ChituPersian Bighbarindeh, Shitarak, ShitirikPunjabi ChitrakaSanskrit Chitraka, Agni, Anala, Dahana, Daaruna, EtcSimhalee Ellantitul, SudunitulTamil Adigaraddi, Akkini, Angodiveli, KanilamTelugu Agnimata, Chitramulamu, TellachitramulamuUrdu ChitalakriUriya Chitamulo, Chitaparu, Krishanu Table 1.3 showing different Vernacular names of ChitrakaHypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 10
  26. 26. Drug review…Types of Chitraka according to various granthas:Chitraka is one of the important drugs in indigenous medicine and recognized mainlybased on the color of the flower. 32According to Acharya Vagbhata - Chitraka is of three kinds i.e. Pita, Sita and Asita.Pita is yellow flowered, Sita white flowered and asita (Krishna) blue flowered variety. Inconformity with the above statement of Vagbhata, Asita variety is the best variety used asRasayana.According to Rajanighantu 33, it is of two types i.e. Shwetachitraka and Raktachitraka.Red flowered type is considered more potent with its properties than white coloured andhence the few synonyms used in this context like, Atidipya, Dipyagni, are inconfirmatory with this statement. The other synonyms of Raktachitraka mentioned asKala, Vyala, Kalamoola, Maarjara and Chitranga. 34According to Shaligramanighantu it is of three types i.e. Shwetachitraka,Raktachitraka and Krishnachitraka. The author has described the therapeutic uses ofRakta Chitraka and Krishna Chitraka in detail.Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 11
  27. 27. Drug review…Rasapanchaka of Chitraka:Sr Grantha Rasa Guna Veerya Vipakano1. Charaka Samhita 35 Katu Ushna Ushna Katu2. Dhanvantari nighantu 36 - Ushna Ushna Katu3. Madanapala nighantu 37 - Laghu, Rookhsa, Ushna Ushna Katu4. Kaiyadeva nighantu 38 Tikta, Katu Laghu, Rookhsa, Ushna Katu5. Bhavaprakash nighantu 39 - Laghu, Rookhsa, Ushna Ushna Katu6. Raja nighantu 40 - Ushna Ushna Katu7. Shaligrama nighantu 41 - Laghu, Rookhsa, Ushna Ushna Katu8. Mahoushadha nighantu 42 - Laghu, Rookhsa, Ushna Ushna Katu Table 1.4 showing rasapanchaka of Chitraka according to different classicsChitraka is not having prabhava property.It is evident from the above table that maximum numbers of the authors have acceptedRaspanchak as below:Rasa : Katu.Guna : Laghu, Ruksha, UshnaVeerya: UshnaVipaka: KatuAccording to Kaiyadeva nighantu, Chitrka is tridoshahara. It acts as Kaphahara due to itsKatu rasa, due to its Tikta rasa it acts as Pittahara and as Vatahara due to its Ushna guna.Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 12
  28. 28. Drug review…Karma according to different classics:Sr. Grantha → Cha. Su. A. DN43 MP KN45 BP RN47 SG Mah.No Karma ↓ Sa. Sa. san. N44 N46 N48 N.491. Vaatahara - - - - + + + + - +2. Pittahara - - - - - + - - - -3. Kaphahara - + - + + + + + - +4. Lekhana + - - - - - - - - -5. Bhedana + - - - - - - - - -6. Deepana + + - - - + - - - -7. Triptigna + - - - - - - - - -8. Arshoghna + - - - - - - - - -9. Shoolaprashamana + - - - - - - - - -10. Paachana + + - - - + + - + +11. Graahi - - - - + - + - + +12. Rochana - - - - - + - - - -13. Rasayana - - + - - - - - - -14. Kanduhara - - - - - - - + - -15. Krimihara - - + - + + + + + +16. Medogna - + - - - + - - - -17. Vishahara - + - - - - - - - -18. Vruna shodhaka - + - - - - - - - -19. Yonidoshahara - + - - - - - - - -20. Stanyashodhaka - + - - - - - - - -21. Netrya - + - - - - - - - -22. Vrushya - + - - - - - - - -23. Medya - + - - - - - - - - Table 1.5 showing karmas of Chitraka according to different classicsHypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 13
  29. 29. Drug review…Rogaghnata according to different authors: Sr. Grantha → Cha. Su. A. DN50 MPN51 KN52 BPN53 RN54 SGN55 Mah. No Rogaghnata Sa. Sa. san. N.56 ↓ 1. Arsha + + + + - + + + + 2. Atisara + - - - - - - - - 3. Ama - - - - - + - - - - 4. Grahani + - + + + + + + + + 5. Gulma + - - - - - - - - - 6. Shoola + + + - - - - - - - 7. Kandu - - - - - - - + - - 8. Krimi - - + - + + + + + + 9. Kushta + + + - + + + - + + 10. Kasa + - + + - + - + + 11. Kshaya + - - - - - - 12. Meha + + + - - - - - - - 13. Pandu - + + - - - - - - 14. Shwitra - + + - - - - - - - 15. Swarabheda - + - - - - - - - - 16. Shotha + - - + + + + + + + 17. Udara + + - + - + - - Table 1.6 showing rogaghnata of Chitraka according to different classicsTherapeutic uses of Chitraka 57:1. In medhoroga, Chitraka root powder should be taken with madhu. (Vangasena 22)2. Bark of Chitraka is pasted with in a jar, curd or buttermilk prepared in the same, onintake it destroys piles. (Cha.Chi 14/76, Su.Chi.6/13, A.Hru.Chi. 8/30, VM 5/18)Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 14
  30. 30. Drug review…3. Paste of Chitraka is mixed with Shunti and sourgruel is applied to Arsha.(Cha.Chi14/68)4. Powdered Chitraka root bark along with takra cures Atisara. (Cha.Chi.10/119)5. Chitraka gruta is indicated in Udararoga. (Cha.Chi. 13/116)6. In Kushta, Chitraka moola is indicated daily, along with gomutra. (Su.Chi. 9/45)7. In Shwitra, gomutra mixed with Chitraka, Trikatu, madhu should be kept in a jar ofghee for a fortnight. Than, patient should thereafter take it daily. (Su.Chi. 9/39)8. In Sikatameha, Chitraka root decoction is indicated. (Su. Chi. 11/8)9. Chitraka root powder and Bala root powder each one tola along with warm watershould be given in Pandu. (S.U.44/26)10. Chitraka sidda ghruta is indicated in Sangrahani, Gulma, Shotha, Udararoga andPleeha. (C.D.)11. Chitraka root should be applied in Shlipada with Devdaru.(C.D.)12. To perforate the abscess, it is applied on wound. (C.D.)13. Acharya Vagbhata described the details regarding the use of Chitraka root powder asRasayana. (A.H.U.39/62-65)14. By preparing Ghruta with Chitraka mixed curd and again adding Chitraka rootpowder and Takra Ghruta will be prepared and can be used in the patient suffering fromShotha, Arsha, Atisara, Vataj Gulma, Prameha etc.(Ch.Chi.17/55,56)Part used: Root & Root bark according to all classics.Dose: ½ to 2 Masha 58 Powder – 1-2gm 59 Decoction – 25-50ml 60Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 15
  31. 31. Drug review…Toxic effect 61: In small doses, it acts as a sudorific and stimulates the contraction of themuscular tissue of the heart, intestine and uterus. In large doses, it causes death fromrespiratory failure. It has toxic effect mainly on lung, liver and uterus. When appliedexternally, the roots produce painful irritation and blisters. While administered internallythey act as narcotic irritant poisons, producing pain in the stomach, thirst, vomiting anddiarrhea.Antidote 62: For lung, mastagi and gum acacia and for liver, rose flower and sandalwoodshould be used.Substitute 63, 64:  In the unavailability of Chitraka, the substitute for it is Danti kshara and Apamarga mentioned by Bhavaprakasha poorvakhanda in Mishraprakarana.  While Praval and Manjistha mentioned by Unani Dravyagunadarsha. 65Adulterant : Plumbago indica Linn. (Syn. P.rosae Linn.) commonly known as RaktaChitraka is used for the same conditions as P. zeylanica.Vishistha yogas: Sl.no Vishistha yoga Uses References 1. Hingusaurchalaadya gruta Vataja gulma Cha.chi.5/69 2. Hingvaadi choorna Vatakaphaja gulma Cha. chi. 5/80 3. Bhallatakadhya gruta Kaphaja gulma, Pleeha, Cha. chi.5/146 Grahani, Shwasa, Pandu 4. Dantihareetaki Gulma, Shootha, Arsha, Cha. chi.5/155 Aruchi 6. Chitrakadi lepa Shwitra Cha. chi.7/170 7. Mahapanchagavya gruta Apasmara Cha. chi.10/20 8. Chitrakadi gruta Shotha, Arsha, Gulma Cha. chi.12/56Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 16
  32. 32. Drug review… 9. Chitrakadi udvartana Shotha Cha. chi. 12/72 10. Pippalyadi choorna Udara roga Cha. chi.13/79 11. Vidangaadikshara Gulma, Pleeha Cha. chi.13/80 12. Panchakola gruta Udara,Shotha,Arsha, Gulma Cha. chi.13/112 13. Kshra vatika Shotha, Jalodara Cha. chi.13/163 14. Pippalyadi dwitiya pralepa Arsha Cha. chi.14/54 15. Chavyadi gruta Arsha Cha.chi. 14/108 16. Dantyarishta Arsha Cha. chi.14/145 17. Chitrakadi gutika Grahani Cha.chi.15/96-98 18. Chitrakadi leha Kasa Cha. chi.18/173 19. Shaddharana yoga Vatavyadhi Su. Chi. 4/4 20. Patralavana vatavyadhi Su. Chi. 4/30 21. Chitrakadi taila Bhagandhara Su. Chi. 8/50 22. Chitraka kwata Sikatameha Su. Chi.11/9 23. Dhanvantara gruta Pramehapidika Su. Chi. 12/5 24. Navayasa loha Prameha, Kushta, Shotha Su. Chi.12/11 25. Shtaphala gruta Udara, gulma, Shotha Su. Chi.14/14 26. Chitraka rasayana Shwitra Su. Chi 28/3 27. Madhukadi gruta Arsha A.Hru. Chi.8/130 28. Soorana modaka Arsha A.Hru. Chi.8/157 29. Chitrakadi kwata Shoola, Anaaha, Vibhanda A.Hru. Chi. 14/48 30. Tryushanadi gruta Vataja gulma A.Hru. Chi. 14/21 31. Chitraka gruta Udara A.Hru. Chi.15/7 32. Chitrakadi kalka Udara A.Hru. Chi. 15/42 33. Rohitaka grita Pleehavruddi A.Hru.Chi15/93 34. Lakshadi choorna Kushta A.Hru. Chi. 19/41 35. Vidangaadi pindi Kushta A.Hru. Chi. 19/45 36. Shashaankalekhadi lepa Kushta A.Hru. Chi. 19/46 37. 39. Vyoshadi yoga lepa Shwitranashaka Shwitra Hridroga, Kamala Stoulya, A.Hru. Chi.14/25 So. 19/64 38. 40. Gomutrasava Chitraka guda Shwitra Agnimandya A.Hru. Chi. 20/7 Bhai. Ra. 10/273Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 17
  33. 33. Drug review… 41. Agnitundi rasa Agnimandya Bhai. Ra. 10/94 42. Agnimukha lavana Agnimandya Bhai.Ra.10/86-88 43. Chitraka haritaki Kshaya,kasa,peenasa, gulma Bhai. Ra.63/28 44. Chitraka taila Nasarsha Bhai. Ra. 63/34 45. Navaka guggulu Medoroga Bhai. Ra. 39/43 Table 1.7 showing vishishta yogas of ChitrakaHypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 18
  34. 34. Drug review…Latin name: Plumbago zeylanica Linn.Plumbum: LeadPlumbago: That cures lead palsyZeylanica: Of ceylonTaxonomic position of shweta chitraka:According to Benthem & Hooker (1862-1883)Kingdom - PlantaeGroup - AngiospermaeSub Group - DicotyledonaeDivision - GamopetalaeSub Division - HeteromeraeFamily - PlumbaginaceaeGenus - PlumbagoSpecies - zeylanicaFamily Characters 66: PlumbaginaceaeThe plants of this family are perennial herbs or shrubs with narrow leaves, withoutstipules, and bears water or chalk glands.Stem - Erect or sometimes climbing.Leaves -Often radical rosulate.Inflorescence -Raceme, each flower having two lateral bracteoles, which always remainHypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 19
  35. 35. Drug review…sterile is found in Plumbago.Flowers - Occur in terminal scapes or peduncles in panicles. Flowers bisexual, regular.Calyx - Generally membranous, persistent, sepals connate, in an inferior, tubular, 5-10ribbed calyx, often hyaline between the ribs.Corolla - Petal free, 5, sometimes connate at the base in a short tube to which thefilaments are attached, rarely connate in a linear tube, hypogynous.Stamens - Opposite the petals, 5 filaments adnate below to the corolla or nearly free,anthers oblong, dorsified.Ovary - Superior, unilocular, with a solitary basal anatropous ovule with twointeguments borne at the top of a long filiform funicle with the micropyle pointingupwards. Styles five, opposite the sepals.Fruit - Membraneous or coriaceous capsule, dry, dehiscent or indehiscent.Seeds - Cylindrical, pendulous, albumen floury or absent, embryo straight. Among thehistological characters of prominence, the presences of epidermal glands are commoncontaining palisade and placed perpendicular to the organ. There are also long stalkedglandular shaggy hairs and simple unicellular hairs. The vessels are with simpleperforations and the wood parenchyma has simple pits. Cork develops superficially in thecortex with chlorenchyma in groups or in the pericycle. Calcium oxalate present orabsent. The cells of the stem and the root are characterized by many special cells filledwith Plumbagin and these are sometimes differentiated like secretary cells.Genera - This family contains about 10 genera.Genus Characters 67: PlumbagoHypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 20
  36. 36. Drug review…Perennial herbs or under shrubs, sometimes scan dent.Leaves - Alternate, membranous, entire (in one species absent), amplexicaul and auricledat the base, or with a petiole which is often dilated and amplexicaul.Flowers - White rose colored, or blue in terminal spikes, bracts and bracteoles shorterthan the calyx, some times minute.Calyx - Tubular, 5 toothed, clothed with prominent stipitate glands.Corolla - Hypocrateriform, tube long, slender, limb spreading. With 5 equal or slightlyunequal entire lobes.Stamens- Hypogynous, free from corolla, filaments dilated at the base, anthers linearoblong.Ovary - Attenuated at the apex into a terminal filiform style which divides above into 5longitudinally stigmatose branches.Capsule - Membranous, at length circumcises near the base, the deciduous part oftensplitting into 5 valves from the base to apex.Species - 280Habitat:A small genus of herbs, under shrubs or shrubs distributed in the tropics. Three speciesare recorded from India of which two are considered medicinally important. A perennial,sub-scan dent shrub found wild in peninsular India and West Bengal and cultivated ingardens throughout India. While P. rosea is a native of the Sikkim and Khasia.Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 21
  37. 37. Drug review…Habit 68:Plumbago zeylanica Linn.Stem - A perennial herb, subscandent, stems 0.6 to 1.5 M., long, somewhat woody,spreading, terete, striate and glabrous.Leaves - Thin 3.8-7.5 to 2.2-3.8 cm. ovate, sub acute, entire, glabrous, reticulatly Veined,shortly and abruptly attenuated into a short petiole, petiole narrow, amplexicaul at thebase and often dilated into stipule like auricles.Flowers - spikes, rachis, glandular, striate, bracteoles ovate, acuminate, shorter than thecalyx, glandular or not.Calyx - 1 to 1.3 cm. long, narrowly tubular, persistent, densely, covered with stalkedglands, teeth small with membranous margins.Corolla - White, slender, tube 2 to 2.5 cm, long, lobes 8 mm, long, obovate-oblong,acute, apiculate.Filaments - As long as the corolla tube, anthers exerted just beyond the throat.Capsule - Oblong, pointed pericarp thin below, thick and hardened above. 69, 70Pharmacognostical Study :Macroscopic study of root: Roots are 30cm or more in length, 6mm or more in diameter as also as short stoutpieces, including root stocks reddish to deep brown, scars of rootlets present; bark thinand brown, internal structure striated; Odor, disagreeable; taste acrid.Microscopic study of root:Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 22
  38. 38. Drug review… Transverse section of root shows that the root is nearly circular in out line and itshows following characters. Cark - Outer most tissue of cork consisting of 5-7 rows of cubical to rectangulardark brown cells. Cortex - Secondary cortex consists of 2-3 rows of thin-walled, rectangular, lightbrown cells. Most of the cortex cells contain starch grains. Secondary cortex followed bywide zone of cortex, composed of large polygonal to tangentially elongatedparenchymatous cells, varying in size and shape, containing starch grains and some cellswith yellow contents. Fibers scattered singly or in a group of 2-6. Phloem – It is a narrow zone of polygonal, thin-walled cells, consisting of usualelements and phloem fibers. Similar to cortical zone, phloem fibers are usually in groupsof 2-5 or more, but occasionally may occur singly. Phloem fibers are lignified withpointed ends and narrow lumen, similar in shape and size to those of secondary cortex. Cambium – Indistinct. Xylem – It is light yellow to whitish in color, vessels radially arranged with pittedthickenings. Medullary rays – These are straight, 1-6 seriate, and cells radially elongatedand filled with starch grains. Stone cells absent.Propagation & cultivation 71, 72: Its propagation is by seeds and by cuttings of side shoots. The compost mixtureconsisting of equal parts of loam, leaf mould and sand is best suited for its cultivation.Well-drained sunny situation and mild climate are preferable Plumbago zeylanica can also be propagated by seeds, rooted shoots from the baseof the plant or by semi-ripe cuttings, treated with a growth hormone. Germination isHypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 23
  39. 39. Drug review…almost 100% if both ends of the seed are cut before sowing. Seeds germinate in 21–30days at 21°C. After 3 months storage, germination decreased to 40%.In vitro propagation: Plumbago zeylanica can be mass-produced using in vitrocultivation of nodal explants, axillary buds, leaf or root explants and callus cultures. Theroots of the plants produced this way have a significantly higher content of plumbaginthan control plants, and there is potential for commercial cultivation.Phytochemistry:  Roots contain plumbagin, droserone, elliptinone, nisoshinanolone,plumbazeylanone, 3-chloroplumbagin, 3, 3’-biplumbagin, napthoquinone-citranone,zeylnone and isozeylinone. Root bark contains plumbagin. Aerial parts contain freeamino acids. Leaves and stem contain volatile oil 73.  Two plumbagic acid glucosides, 3-O-beta glucopyranosyl plumbagic acidand 3-O-beta-glucopyranosyl plumbagic acid methylester along with fivenaphthoquinones (plumbagin, chitranone, maritinone, elliptinone and isoshinanolone),and five coumarins (seselin, 5-methoxyseselin, suberosin, xanthyletin and xanthoxyletin)were isolated from the roots of Plumbago zeylanica. All coumarins were not previouslyfound in this plant. Cytotoxicity of these compounds to various tumor cells lines wasevaluated, and plumbagin significantly suppressed growth of Raji, Calu-1, HeLa, andWish tumor cell lines 74.Napthalene derivatives – the chief component is plumbagin, together with3-chloroplumbagin, 3,3”-biplumbagin, 3”,6”-biplumbagin(chitranone), isozeylanicone,zeylanicone, elliptinone and droserone.Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 24
  40. 40. Drug review…Triterpenes – Lupeol and lupenyl acetate have been isolated from the root.Amino acids – Aspartic Acid, tryptophan, trysonine, threonine, alanine, histidine,glycine, methionine and hydroxy proline were isolated from the aerial parts 75.  Plumbagin is a plant-derived naphthoquinone possessing a number ofpharmacological activities. It has been shown to have antimicrobial activity. In animals, ithas antimalarial, anticarcinogenic, cardiotonic, antifertilityaction, and anti-atheroslerosiseffects. Plumbagin is named after the plant genus Plumbago, from which it was originallyisolated.Plumbagin 76:IUPAC name: 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-naphthalene-1, 4-dioneChemical formula: C11H8O3Molar mass:188.17942 g/molPharmocology:  The root of the plant and its constituents are credited with potentialtherapeutic properties including atherogenic, cardio tonic, hepato protective andneuroprotective properties 77.  The roots of Plumbago zeylanica have shown to possess antipyretic,Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 25
  41. 41. Drug review…appetizer, uterotonic, antibacterial, antifungal, antifertility, anticancer(Plumbagin),anticoagulant, antitumor, hepatoprotective, cytotoxic, and CNS depressant properties 78.Traditional uses of Plumbago zeylanica 79:Africa and Asia: Plumbago zeylanica is very popular as a remedy for skin diseases,infections and intestinal worms, especially leprosy, scabies, ringworm, dermatitis, acne,sores, ulcers of the leg, haemorrhoids and hookworm.West Africa: The root or the leaves crushed with lemon juice are used as a counter-irritant and vesicant. The pulped roots or aerial parts are inserted into the vagina as anabortifacient.Southern Africa: A paste of the root in vinegar, milk and water and even cold infusionof Chitraka are used to treat influenza and blackwater fever.East Africa: Pounded roots are applied to swollen legs. A paste of powdered root or theroot sap is used for tattooing by different tribes. The paste or sap causes blisters and thenew skin has a darker color.Nigeria: The roots pounded with vegetable oil are applied to rheumatic swellings.Ethiopia: Powdered bark, root or leaves are used to treat gonorrhoea, syphilis,tuberculosis, rheumatic pain, swellings and wounds.Zambia: A root decoction with boiled milk is swallowed to treat inflammation in themouth, throat and chest.Zimbabwe: Plumbago zeylanica root cooked with meat in soup is eaten as anaphrodisiac, and it helps digestion. A root infusion is taken orally to treat shortness ofbreath.Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 26
  42. 42. Drug review…Madagascar: The roots are applied as a vesicant, while in Mauritius and Rodrigues aroot decoction is used to treat diarrhoea and dyspepsia.Physicochemical standards of Plumbago zeylanica 80: 1. Foreign matter - not more than 3 % 2. Total ash - not more than 3 % 3. Acid insoluble ash - not more than 1% 4. Alcohol soluble extractive - not less than 12 % 5. Water soluble extractive - not less than 12 %Research profile:Anti-microbial activity: A chloroform extract of Plumbago zeylanica showed significant activity against pencillin and non-pencillin resistant strain of Neissaria gonorrhoea. It also showedHypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 27
  43. 43. Drug review… antibacterial activities against Bacillus mycoides, B. pumilus, B. subtilis, salmonella typhi, staphylococcus aureus and others. Eye drops containing 50μg/ml of Plumbagin demonstrated significant antibacterial, antiviral and anti chlamydial effects in eye diseases with few side effects. Aqueous hexane and alcoholic extracts of the plant were found to show intensive antibacterial activity. The alcoholic extract was the most active and showed no toxicity when assessed using fresh sheep erythrocytes 81. Ethanolic extract of Plumbago zeylanica root was investigated for its antimicrobial activities against 11 human pathogenic bacteria and 6 phytopathogenic fungi using disc diffusion method and poisoned food technique respectively. The extract exhibited good antibacterial and antifungal activities against the test organisms. Among the test bacteria, Vibrio cholerae was found to be the most sensitive to the extract showing the highest diameter of zone of inhibition and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (200 g/ml). The extract was also very effective against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showing MIC value of 250 g/ml 82.(M Shafiqur Rahman and M Nural Anwar) Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Plumbago zeylanica: The results revealed that Plumbago zeylanica L. had the highest inhibitory effects against H. pylori 83.Immnomodulatory activity:  The effect of plumbagin was studied on peritoneal macrophages of BABL/c mice, evaluated by bacterial activity, hydrogen peroxide production and superoxide anion release. The bactericidal activity in vivo of plumbagin trated mouce macrophagesHypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 28
  44. 44. Drug review… was estimated using staphylococcus aureus and in low doses of plumbagin caused a constant increase in bactericidal activity. It was also seen to exert a similar response on oxygen radical releases showing a correlation between oxygen radical release and bactericidal activity. Plumbagin appeared to augment macrophase bactericidal activity at low concentration by potentiating oxygen radical release, where as at higher concentration it has inhibitory effects 84.  The antiallergic properties of the 70% ethanol extract from Plumbago zeylanica stems (EPZ) were investigated in the present study. The extract (500, 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited systemic anaphylactic shock induced by compound 48/80 in mice, reduced homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and skin reactions induced by histamine or serotonin in rats, significant differences were observed at the dose of 1000 mg/kg 85. (Dai Y et.al) Anti-inflammatory activity:  A phosphate buffered saline extract of the roots of Plumbago zeylanica stabilizes red blood cells subjected to both heat and hypotonic induced lyses. A biphasic response and the reduction in the enzymatic activity of alkaline and acid phosphatases were observed and adenosine triphosphate activity was stimulated in liver homogenates of formaldehyde-induced arthritic rats 86. Anti-cancer activity:  The plumbagin has been reported as having anticancer activity against fibro sarcoma induced by methyle cholanthrene and P388 lymphocytic leucamia, but notHypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 29
  45. 45. Drug review… against L1210 lymphoid leukemia in mice. It is thout to be inhibitor of mitosis. It has been evaluated against Dalton’s ascetic lymphoma where an inhibition of tumor growth and a significant enhancement of mean survival time were observed for trated mice when compared to control group. Peritoneal cell counts are also enhanced. Plumbagin treated group were able to reverse the change in various hematological parameters which are a consequence of tumor inoculation. Studies have shown that plumbagin, when administered in the dose of 4mg/kg body weight caused tumor regression in rats 3-methyl-4dimethyl aminoazobenzene (3MeDAB)- induced hepatoma. It reduced levels of glycolytic enzymes such as hexokinase, phosphoglucoisomerase and aldolase levels, which are increased of in hepatoma bearing rats, and levels of gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase which are decreased in tumor hosts 87.  Plumbagin administered intramurally and orally at 2mg/kg decreased tumor growth by 70% and 60% respectively in rats with methylchloranthrene-induced tumor 88.  Anticancer mechanism of plumbagin, a natural compound, on non-small cell lung cancer cells: Plumbagin exerted anticancer activity on NSCLC cells by modulating 89 the pro-survival and pro-apoptotic signaling that causes induction of apoptosis . (Gomathinayagam R et.al.) Hypolipidemic activity:  When administered to hyperlipidaemic rabbits plumbagin reduced serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol by 53-86% and 61-91% respectively. It alsoHypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 30
  46. 46. Drug review… lowered the cholesterol/phospholipids ratio and elevated HDL cholesterol significantly. Furthermore, Plumbagin treatment prevented the accumulation of cholesterol and triglyceride in the liver and aorta and caused regression of atheromatous plaques of the thoracic and abdominal aorta. The animal with plumbagin exerted more fecal cholesterol and phospholipids 90.  Effect of Plumbago zeylanica in hyperlipidaemic rabbits and its modification by vitamin E: Effect of ethanolic extract (50% v/v) of Plumbago zeylanica (root) alone and combined with vitamin E (an antioxidant) was studied in experimentally induced hyperlipidaemic rabbits. There was significant reduction in serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Marked reduction was observed with the formulation of P.zeylanica and vitamin E. The total cholesterol/HDL and LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios were found significantly decreased (P<0.05). P.zeylanica showed good margin of safety as determined by acute toxicity studies in albino rats and albino rabbits, as well as by the absence of adverse effects on haematological and biochemical parameters in albino rabbits upto 60 days of administration 91. (Alpana Ram) Anti-oxidant activity:  At a concentration of 1mM plumbagin prevented peroxidation in liver and heart homogenates. By comparision with menadione (which is having one hydroxyl group less) it was suggested that plumbagin may prevent NADPH and ascorbate- induced microsomal lipid peroxidation by forming hydroquinones. These may trap free radical species involved in catalyzing lipid peroxidation 92.  Antioxidant properties of Plumbago zeylanica aqueos and alcoholic extract ofHypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 31
  47. 47. Drug review… roots significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by cumene hydroperoxide, ascorbate-fe(2)+ and peroxynitrite. It contained high amount of polyphenols and flavonoids 93. (Tilak Jai C et.al) Anti-fertility activity:  In the rats treatment during the first weeks of pregnancy abolished certain uterine proteins resulted in both pre implantationary loss and abortion of fetus. The uterine endopeptidases (cathepsin D. remin, and chymotropsin) were studied after the root powder has induced and cathepsin D and remin may play a major role in maintanence of pregnancy and cymotripsin may be involved in post abortive involution. Plumbagin, at the dose of 1 & 2 mg/kg body weight prevented implant, induced abortion in albino rats without any tetragenic effects, and produced a significant inhibitory effect on copper acetate-induced ovulation in rabbits 94. Uterine stimulant activity:  The juice extracted from the root was found to have potent activity when treated on rat uterus in vitro, as well as on isolated human uterus 95. Anti-stress activity:  Protective effect of Plumbago zeylanica against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice: Plumbago zeylanica was tested for its possible in vivo protective effect against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. Pretreatment with the alcoholic root extract of Plumbago zeylanica (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight orally for 5 days) significantly reduced the frequency of micronucleatedHypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 32
  48. 48. Drug review… polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs), increased the PCE/NCE (normochromatic erythrocyte) ratio in the bone marrow, and decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation products with concomitant changes in the status of antioxidants. Both doses of Plumbago zeylanica were effective in exerting a protective effect against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress 96. Shlokas: ÌlÉÂÌ£ü of mÉrÉÉïrÉ:Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 33
  49. 49. Drug review…  ÍcɧÉMü – ÍcɨÉÇ oÉÑ먂 §ÉÉrÉiÉå CÌiÉ| (pÉÉ. SÏ)  cÉåiÉͶÉiÉç, ÍcÉiÉÉå eÉlÉÉlÉç §ÉÉrÉiÉå CÌiÉ| (ÌlÉ. AÉ)  ÍcɧÉçÇurÉÉbÉëÌlÉpÉÉå ÍpÉlÉÌiÉ oÉWÒûzÉÉå aÉÑsqÉÉlÉiÉͶɧÉMüÈ CÌiÉ | (lÉÉ.Ã.ÌuÉ.)  AlÉsÉ – AÎalÉiÉÑsrÉÈ EwhÉ:xmÉzÉåïuÉÏrÉåï cÉ|| (lÉÉ.Ã.ÌuÉ.)  SWûlÉ – SWûiÉÏÌiÉ SWûlÉÈ|  mÉÏPûÏ – ÌmÉPûÌiÉ ÌWûlÉÎxiÉ xÉqrÉMçü ÌuÉsÉzlÉÉÌiÉ uÉÉ aÉëWûhÉÏ MÑü¸ÉÌS UÉåaÉÉlÉç uÉÉiÉÉÌSSÉåwÉÉǶÉåÌiÉ| (ÌlÉ.AÉ.)  uÉÎlWûxÉÇgÉMü – uÉÎlWûÈ xÉÇgÉÉ rÉxrÉ |  uÉÎlWûmÉrÉÉïrÉlÉÉqÉMüÉ CirÉjÉïÈ| (pÉÉ. SÏ.) mÉrÉÉïrÉ:  kÉluÉliÉËU ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: ÍcɧÉMüÉåSWlÉÉå urÉÉsÉ:mÉÉPûÏlÉÉå SÉÂhÉÉåÅÎalÉMü:| erÉÉåÌiÉwMüÉå uÉssÉUÏ uÉÎlWû: mÉÉsÉÏ mÉÉOûÏ MüOÒû: ÍzÉZÉÏ || ¢ÑüwhÉÉÂhÉÉåÅlÉsÉÉå ²ÏmÉÏÍcɧÉpÉÉlÉÑ¶É mÉÉuÉMü:  qÉSlÉmÉÉsÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: ÍcɧÉMüÉå WÒûiÉpÉÑaÉç urÉÉsÉÉå SÉÂhÉÉå SWûlÉÉåÅÂhÉÈ| AÎalÉqÉÉÍsÉ WûÌuÉÈmÉÉcÉÏ uÉÎlWûlÉÉqÉÉ ÌuÉzÉåçwÉiÉÈ||  MæürÉSåuÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû:Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 34
  50. 50. Drug review… ÍcɧÉMüÉå SWûlÉÉå uÉÎlWûÈ mÉÉPûÏlÉÉå SÉÂhÉÉåÅÂhÉÈ|| urÉÉsÉÉå WÒûiÉÉzÉÉå WÒûiÉçpÉÑYmÉÉsÉÏ mÉÉPûÏ cÉ mÉÉuÉMüÉÈ | erÉÉåÌiÉurÉÉïsÉÉåÅlÉsÉÉå ²ÏmÉÏ ÍzÉZÉÉÎalÉeuÉïsÉlÉÈ zÉPûÈ ||  UÉeÉÌlÉbÉhOÕû: ÍcɧÉMüÉåÎalɶÉzÉÉSÕïsÉͶɧÉmÉÉsÉÏ MüOÒûÈÍzÉZÉÏ| ¢üzÉÉlÉÑSïWûlÉÉå urÉÉsÉÉåerÉÉåÌiÉwMüÈ mÉÉsÉMüxiÉjÉÉ|| AlÉsÉÉåSÉÂhÉÉåuÉÎlWûÈ mÉÉuÉMüÈ zÉoÉsÉçiÉjÉÉ| mÉÉPûÏ ²ÏmÉÏcÉ ÍcɧÉÉ…¡ûÉå gÉårÉÈ zÉÔU¶É ÌuÉÇzÉÌiÉÈ|| U£üÍcɧÉMü: MüÉsÉÉåurÉÉsÉÈ MüÉsÉqÉÔsÉÉåÅÌiÉSÏmrÉÉå qÉÉeÉÉïUÉåÅÎalÉSÉïWûMüÈ mÉÉuÉMü¶É| ÍcɧÉÉ…¡ûÉåÅrÉÇ U£üÍcɧÉÉåqÉWûÉ…¡ûÈxrÉÉSìÓSÉïÀûÍcɧÉMüÉåÅlrÉÉåaÉÑhÉÉŽ||  pÉÉuÉmÉëMüÉzÉ ÌlÉbÉÇhOÒû: ÍcɧÉMüÉåÅlÉsÉlÉÉqÉÉ cÉ mÉÉPûÏ urÉÉsÉxiÉjÉÉåwÉhÉÈ|  qÉWèÉæwÉkÉ ÌlÉbÉÇhOÒû: ÍcɧÉMüÉåÅlÉsÉlÉÉqÉÉ cÉ mÉÉPûÏ urÉÉsÉxiÉjÉÉåwÉhÉÈ|  qÉÉkÉuÉ SìurÉaÉÑhÉ: ÍcɧÉMüÉåÅÎalÉxÉqÉÈ mÉÉMåüzÉÉåjÉÉzÉïÈ ¢ÑüÍqÉMÑü¸WûÉ| xÉUÇ mÉÑlÉlÉïuÉÉrÉÑaqÉqÉÑwhÉuÉÏrÉïÇ UxÉÉrÉlÉqÉç || (ÌuÉÌuÉkÉÉæwÉÍkÉ uÉaÉï)  zÉÉÍsÉaÉëÉqÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÕû pÉÔwÉhÉ:Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 35
  51. 51. Drug review… ÍcɧÉMüÉåÅlÉsÉlÉÉqÉÉcÉmÉÉPûÏurÉÉsÉxiÉjÉÉåwÉhÉÈ| aÉÑhÉMüqÉï:  kÉluÉliÉËU ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: ÍcɧÉMüÉåÅÎalÉxÉqÉÈ mÉÉMåü MüOÒÑMüÈ MüTüzÉÉåTüÎeÉiÉç || uÉÉiÉÉåSUÉzÉÉåïaÉëWûhÉϤÉrÉmÉÉhQÒûÌuÉlÉÉzÉlÉÈ |  qÉSlÉmÉÉsÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: ÍcɧÉMüÈ MüOÒûMüÈ mÉÉMåü uÉÎlWû¢ÑüimÉÉcÉlÉÉå sÉbÉÑ È| äÉÉåwhÉÉå aÉëWûhÉÏMÑü¹zÉÉåTüÉzÉïÈ ¢ÑüÍqÉMüÉxÉÎeÉiÉç || zsÉåwqÉÉÌlÉsÉWûUÉå aÉëÉWûÏ iÉcNûÉMÇü zsÉåwqÉuÉÉiÉlÉÑiÉç ||  MæürÉSåuÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: ÍcɧÉMüÉå SÏmÉlÉxiÎxMüÈ MüOÒûÈ mÉÉMåü UxÉå sÉbÉÑÈ| AÎalÉuÉiÉç mÉÉcÉlÉÉå äÉÉå uÉÏrÉÉåïwhÉÉå UÉåcÉlÉÉå eÉrÉåiÉç || aÉëWûhÉÏMüTüuÉÉiÉÉqÉzÉÉåTüMÑü¹ÉåSU Ì¢üqÉÏlÉç| MüOÒûMüiuÉÉiÉç MüTÇü WûÎliÉ ÌiÉ£üiuÉÉiÉç ÌmɨÉlÉÉzÉlÉÈ || AÉæwhrÉÉSè uÉÉiÉÇ mÉëzÉqrÉiÉå ̧ÉSÉåwÉblÉÉå AÎalÉSÏmÉlÉÈ | iÉcNûÉMÇü sÉbÉÑ xÉÇaÉëÉWûÏ MüTüÌmɨÉÌuÉlÉÉzÉlÉqÉç ||Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 36
  52. 52. Drug review…  UÉeÉ ÌlÉbÉûhOÒ: ÍcɧÉMüÉåÅÎalÉxÉqÉÈ mÉÉMåüMüOÒûÈ zÉÉåTüMüTüÉmÉWûÉ:| uÉÉiÉÉåSUÉzÉÉåïaÉëWûhÉÏÎl¢üÍqÉMühQÕûÌiÉlÉÉzÉlÉÈ|| U£ü ÍcɧÉMü : xjÉÔsÉMüÉrÉMüUÉåÂcrÉÈ MÑü¸blÉÉåU£üÍcɧÉMüÈ| UxÉåÌlÉrÉÉqÉMüÉå sÉÉåWåûuÉåkÉMü¶É UxÉÉrÉlÉÈ||  pÉÉuÉmÉëMüÉzÉ ÌlÉbÉÇhOÒû: ÍcɧÉMüÈ MüOÒûMüÈ mÉÉMåüuÉÎlWû¢ÑüimÉÉcÉlÉÉå sÉbÉÑ:| äÉÉåwhÉÉå aÉëWûhÉÏMÑü¸zÉÉåjÉÉzÉïÈ ¢ÑüÍqÉMüÉxÉlÉÑiÉç| uÉÉiÉzsÉåwqÉWûUÉåaÉëÉWûÏuÉÉiÉblÉÈ zsÉåwqÉÌmɨɾÒûiÉç||  qÉWûÉæwÉkÉ ÌlÉbÉÇhOÒû: ÍcɧÉMüÈ MüOÒûMüÈ mÉÉMåüuÉÎlWû¢ÑüimÉÉcÉlÉÉå sÉbÉÑ:| äÉÉåwhÉÉå aÉëWûhÉÏMÑü¸zÉÉåjÉÉzÉïÈ ¢ÑüÍqÉMüÉxÉlÉÑiÉç| uÉÉiÉzsÉåwqÉWûUÉåaÉëÉWûÏuÉÉiÉblÉÈ zsÉåwqÉÌmɨɾÒûiÉç||  qÉÉkÉuÉ SìurÉaÉÑhÉ: aÉÇQûÏU ͶɧÉMüzcÉåÌiÉ zÉxrÉiÉå MüTüqÉÉÂiÉå| MüÉsÉzÉÉMÇü aÉUzsÉåwqÉzÉÉåjÉblÉÇ SÏmÉlÉÇ MüOÒû||  zÉÉÍsÉaÉëÉqÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÕû pÉÔwÉhÉ: ÍcɧÉMüÈ MüOÒûMüÈ mÉÉMåü uÉÎlWû¢ÑüimÉÉcÉlÉÉåsÉbÉÑÈ|Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 37
  53. 53. Drug review… äÉÉåwhÉÉåaÉëWhÉÏ MÑü¸zÉÉåTüÉzÉïÈ MÑüqÍqMüÉxÉlÉÑiÉç|| uÉÉiÉzsÉåwqÉWûUÉåaÉëÉWûÏuÉÉiÉÉzÉïÈ zsÉåwqÉÌmɨɾÒûiÉç|| (Bha. Para)  ÍcɧÉMüÈ mÉÉcÉMüÉåäÉÉåsÉbÉѶÉÉÎalÉmÉëSÏmÉlÉÈ| mÉÉMåüMüOÒûaÉëÌWûMü¶ÉÌiÉ£üÉåwhÉÉåÂÍcÉSÉåqÉiÉÈ|| UxÉÉrÉlÉÉåÎalÉxÉSìÓzÉÈ zÉÉåjÉMÑüziÉÉzÉïMüÉxÉWûÉ| ¢ÑüqÉÏluÉÉiÉÉåSUÇ MühQÕûrÉ¢ÑüiÉÇaÉëWûhÉÏÇiÉjÉÉ|| AÉqÉǤÉrÉÇcÉÉåSUÇ cÉ lÉÉzÉrÉåÌSÌiÉMüÐÌiÉïiÉÈ| MüOÒûiuÉÉiMüTüÉmÉëÉå£üÎxiÉ£üiuÉÉÎimɨÉlÉÉzÉMüÈ|| EwhÉiuÉɲÉiÉWûÉmÉëÉå£üÉåqÉÑÌlÉÍpÉxiÉiuÉSÍzÉïÍpÉÈ| (ÌlÉ. U.)Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 38
  54. 54. Disease review… DISEASE REVIEWIntroduction to Medoroga: The definition of swastya it self says that the person who is having structural andfunctional homeostasis of dosha, dhatu, mala, agni, aatma, indriya and mana governs the 97normal physiological functions of the human body . Disturbance or imbalance in anyone of the above leads to the origin of disease 98. So, Medoroga is the disease caused bythe disturbance in one of the essential seven component of the body i.e. Meda. Medo Roga may be correlated with hyperlipidaemia and associated disorders onthe basis of clinical signs and complications of the disease.Basic concept of Meda:Literally, the word Meda is derived from root “Jhimida Snehana”. This stands for sneha,fat, oil etc. It means the substance, which has snigdhatva property, is called Meda. Thereare many oily substances in the body like Vasa, Majja etc.Defination of Meda: In shabdakalpadrum, it is mentioned that Meda is “Mamsa prabhava dhatuvishesha” and this is the fourth dhatu. The important function of meda dhatu is tosmoothen the body with its snehana property. “Medayati snehayati anen iti medah”.Synonyms of Meda:Mamsaj and MamsatejAsthi KrutaVasa and VapaHypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 38
  55. 55. Disease review…Formation of Meda dhatu 99: According to Charaka, the Rakta dhatu is combined with tej, apa and is madesolid by the agni. So that it gets converted into mamsa, that again being digested by itsown agni, “medodhatvagni” and stirred up by the agni and getting combined with thequality of apa and unctuous substances and finally gets converted into the medodhatu.Bautik composition of Meda dhatu 100:qÉåSxrÉqoÉÑpÉÑuÉÉæ.. |Meda dhatu is mainly composed by Jala and Prutvi mahabhoota.Pramana of Meda Dhatu 101: The total quantity of meda is two anjali and the vasa is three anjali. Thus, totalmeda content of body is enumerated as 5 anjali and total measurable body elements arecounted as 56.5 anjali. From this proportion, it is evident that total meda content of bodyis 11 to 12% approximately. Modern physiology also mentioned the same amount of fat.This quantity may vary from person to person.Functions of Medadhatu 102, 103: According to Sushruta, sneha, sweda, dradhatva and asthipushti are the functionsof medadhatu. Again, netra and gatrasnigdhata are the additional functions of medamentioned by astang samgraha.qÉåSÈ xlÉåWûxuÉåSÉæ SèRûiuÉÇ mÉÑ̹qÉxjÉÉlÉÉÇ cÉ |Snehana: Sneha property helps to keep luster of skin, hairs and eyes etc.Swedas: Sweda is the mala of meda. Thus meda produces sweda and keeps skin moist.Asthi poshana: Asthi being its next dhatu, the meda nourishes asthidhatu.Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 39
  56. 56. Disease review…Drudatva: This is possible with the help of snayu the upadhatu of meda. Both snayu andsandhi are directly related to asthi dhatu. Snayu provides support to asthi and sandhihelps in joint formation.Meda protects internal organs by covering them all around allowing their free movementswithout injury.Netra and gaatrasnigdhata : These are the symptoms of sthoulya and may arise throughincreased snehana function of meda.Ashryashrayeebhava of Meda 104:Kapha dosha resides in meda dhatu.Thus kapha is ashrayee and meda is ashraya.Medovaha Srotasa: The internal transport system of the body is represented as Srotamsi. It has beengiven a place of fundamental importance in Ayurevda both in health and diseasecondition. Dhatus are nourished through their respective srotases and one srotas cannotprovide nourishment to another dhatu. The Meda dhatu gets nutrition from the precedingdhatu i.e. Mamsa (Poshaka) through its own srotas called Medovaha Srotas.Moola of Medovaha Srotas :Charaka 105 - Vrikka and VapavahanaSushruta 106 - Vrikka and KatiVagbhat 107 - Vrikka and MamsaThe three Acharyas have considered collectively that Vrikka as one of the moolaof Medovaha Srotas but vapavahana, kati and mamsa are mentioned as second moolaseparately.Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 40
  57. 57. Disease review…Vrikka:Vrikka, one of the kosthanga formed by the sara of rakta and meda dhatu. Charaka hasconsidered as “Moola” so these structures must be directly related with fat metabolism.But, there is no such exact evidence in Modern science as well as Ayurevdic Science. Ifwe take into the consideration of two structures situated above the two kidneys i.e. Supra-renal glands as vrikka that fulfils the all aspects of fat metabolism.Vapavahana:Vapavahan is also a kosthanga and second root of Medovaha Srotas. Chakrapani hasinterpreted it as Tailavartika while Dr. Ghanekar has considered it as omentum, where themaximum Meda is stored.Kati:Acharya Sushruta has given anatomical preference than the physiological point of view inconsidering kati as moola of medovaha srotas. Kati is the place where the fataccumulates.Mamsa:Vagbhat has considered mamsa as the moola of medovaha srotas. It is not easy to explaincorrectly. But we might have considered the Vasa (Mamsagata Sneha) below the skin andas such the entire skin may be considered as the moola of Medovaha Srotas 108.Pathophysiology of Medoroga 109:According to the principles of Ayurveda, rasa is the main factor for providingnourishment to the body and rest of the dhatus. rasa dhatu is also responsible for staulyaand karshya. Intake of fat and carbohydrate rich diet and lack of physical exercise givesrise to origin of agnimandya condition results the production of Ama. Ama increases theHypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 41
  58. 58. Disease review…meda dhatu and the medodhatu thus produced makes body sthoola.Etiology of Medo Roga 110, 111:According to most of the authors unbalanced diet and sedentary habits are the importantcauses of Medoroga. As per the description available in the Ayurvedic classics etiologicalfactors of Medoroga may be classified as follows –  Dietary Factors: These include atisampurna ahara (over eating), adhyashana (repeated eating), madhura-guru-sheeta dravya ahara, sleshmala-dravya ahara, ati meda sevana and ati madya sevana etc.  Behavioral Factors: Responsible behavioral factors for the obesity are diwaswapna (day sleep), achintana (lack of thinking), avyayama (lack of exercise) lack of meditation and self discipline.  Hereditary Factors: In addition to above factors hereditary factors also play an important role in development of medoroga.  Inadvertent Therapeutic Application: Injudicious use of some of the therapeutic measures i.e. Santarpana and Brimhana may also give rise to obesity.Etiopathogenesis of Medo Roga:Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 42
  59. 59. Disease review… Nidana sevana Mandaagni and production of ama Circulating ama Nourishement of medadhatu Conversion of madhura anna in to meda and sneha Meda dhatu increased in erxess due to over nourishement Srotoavarodha due to excessive accumulation of meda vata increses agni increses Medoroga increased appetiteSamprapti ghataka of Medoroga:On the basis of various references the Samprapti Ghataka of Medoroga are illustratedbelow:-  Dosha: Vata-Kapha pradhana tridoshaja Kapha:Adhika Vata (vyana & samaana)- Tama Pitta (Pachaka) – Tama  Dushya: Rasa, Meda, Majja, Shukra, Oja.  Agni: Jatharagni – Teekshna, Dhatvagni - mandyaHypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 43
  60. 60. Disease review…  Ama: Dhatvagnimandyajanya.  Srotasa: - Rasavaha, Medovaha, Mamsavaha, Udakavaha, Swedavaha.  Srotodushti: Sanga  Adhisthana: Medodhara kala, vapavaha  Udbhavasthana: Amashaya  Vyakta sthana: Sphik, stana, udara  Sanchara sthana: Rasayani  Swabhava: Chirakari Clinical features of Medoroga as mentioned by Charaka,Sushruta and Madhava112, 113, 114: Sl no Clinical features C.S. S.S M. N. 1. Chala Spik, Sthana, Udara + - + 2. Ayurhasa + - + 3. Javoparodha + - - 4. Krichravyavayata + + + 5. Dourbalya + - + 6. Dourghandhyata + + + 7. Swedadhikyata + + + 8. Atikshudha + + + 9. Atipipasa + + + 10. Atinidra - + + 11. Krathana - + + 12. Gadgadhatwa - + + 13. Soukumarata - - + Table 2.1 Clinical features of medoroga according to different authorsHypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 44
  61. 61. Disease review…Complications Medoroga 115, 116: Some of the common complications of Medo Roga are Prameha, Prameha, Pidika,Bhagandara, Pandu, Kamla, Kotha, Granthi, Galganda, Sotha, Mutra Krichchhra,Vidradhi, Visarpa, Jwara, Atisara, Arsha, Sleepada, Apachi, Madhumeha, Arbuda andseveral Vata vikaras. According to the concepts of Dalhana, the Vata vikara associated with Medorogaoccurs due to deposition of Meda in the Srotasa (Avritta marga). Such a phenomenon ofAvritta marga occurring in the circulatory system may be considered analogous toatherosclerosis which leads to several cardiovascular and cerebro-vascular diseases (VataVikara).Management of Medo Roga 117, 118:  Avoidance of causative factors.  Use of drugs which alleviates Vata, Kapha and Meda in the form of food.  Use of lekhana basti.  Use of drugs having rookshana and chhedana qualities such as Shilajatu, Guggul, gomutra, Triphala, Yavan, Madhu, Rasanjana, Mugda, Koradoshaka, Shyamaka, Uddalaka, Lauha Bhasma etc and  Change in the life style performance of Prajagarana, Vayama, may cause removal of Medo Roga.  These acts on the basis of reduction of formation and accumulation of Medo Dhatu.Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 45
  62. 62. Disease review… BASIC CONCEPT OF LIPIDS Lipids are substances, which are actual or potential esters of fatty acids and insoluble in water but soluble in hot alcohol, ether, benzene, petroleum ether and acetone119. Classification of lipids 120, 121: LIPIDS Simple lipids Compound lipids Derived lipidsTriglycerides Waxes Phospholipids Glycolipids Others Steroids Fatty acids Lecithin Cephalins Sphingomyelins Plasmogens I. Simple lipids: Esters of fatty acids with alcohols. (a) Triglycerides (Triacylglycerols): These are the esters of fatty acids with glycerol. Ex: Omental fat, adipose tissue fat, subcutaneous fat in man and animals, butter fat variable edible oils. (b) Waxes: These are the esters of fatty acids with alcohol other than glycerol. In human body commonest waxes are the cholesterol esters. They are most abundant in the blood, suprarenal glands, the gonads and the sebaceous glands of the skin. II. Compound lipids: These are compounds made up of alcohol, fatty acids and some other substances like phosphoric acids, choline etc. (a) Phospholipids: Esters containing phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base i.e. lecithin, cephalin. Hypolipidaemic effect of Chitraka 46

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