A. ANNAPOORANI, CONCEPT OF SAMSKARA AND MATRA VIRUDDHATWA OF MADHUAN ANALYTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN AYURVEDA SIDDHANTA, GOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGE, MYSORE. 2009
i “CONCEPT OF SAMSKARA AND MATRA VIRUDDHATWA OF MADHU-AN ANALYTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY”ByDr. A. ANNAPOORANI, B.A.M.S.,Dissertation submitted to theRajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalorein partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree ofDOCTOR OF MEDICINE (AYURVEDA)inAYURVEDA SIDDHANTAUnder the Guidance ofDr. N. ANJANEYA MURTHY, M.D. (Ayu)Former Professor & H.O.D,Department of Post-Graduate Studies in Ayurveda SiddhantaG.A.M.C, Mysore.CO-GuidesDr. K. VENKAT SHIVUDU, M.D. (Ayu)H.O.D,Department Of Basic Principles,J. S. S. Ayurveda Medical College, Mysore.&Dr. ANAND KATTI, M.D. (Ayu)LecturerDepartment of Post-Graduate Studies in Ayurveda SiddhantaGOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGEMYSORE.2009
ii RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKADEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES INAYURVEDA SIDDHANTAGOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGEMYSORE.DECLARATIONI hereby declare that this Dissertation “CONCEPT OF SAMSKARA AND MATRAVIRUDDHATWA OF MADHU-AN ANALYTICAL AND EXPERIMENTALSTUDY” is a bonafide and genuine research work carried out by me under the guidanceof Dr. N. Anjaneya Murthy, Former Professor & H.O.D, Department of Post GraduateStudies in Ayurveda Siddhanta, Government Ayurveda Medical College, Mysore.Date : Signature of the CandidatePlace : Mysore Dr. A. Annapoorani
iii RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKADEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES INAYURVEDA SIDDHANTAGOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGEMYSORE.CERTIFICATE BY THE GUIDEThis is to certify that the dissertation entitled “CONCEPT OF SAMSKARA AND MATRAVIRUDDHATWA OF MADHU-AN ANALYTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY” is abonafide research work done by Dr. A. Annapoorani in partial fulfillment of therequirement for the degree of Doctor of Medicine (Ayurveda).Date : Signature of the GuidePlace : Mysore Dr. N. Anjaneya Murthy, M.D. (Ayu)Former Professor & H.O.D,Department of P. G. Studiesin Ayurveda Siddhanta,Government Ayurveda MedicalCollege, Mysore.
iv RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKADEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES INAYURVEDA SIDDHANTAGOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGEMYSORE.CERTIFICATE BY THE CO-GUIDEThis is to certify that the dissertation entitled “CONCEPT OF SAMSKARA ANDMATRA VIRUDDHATWA OF MADHU-AN ANALYTICAL ANDEXPERIMENTAL STUDY” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. A. Annapooraniin partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Medicine(Ayurveda).Date : Signature of the Co-GuidePlace : Mysore Dr. K. Venkat Shivudu, M.D (Ayu)H.O.D,Department of Basic Principles,J. S. S. Ayurveda MedicalCollege, Mysore.
v RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKADEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES INAYURVEDA SIDDHANTAGOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGEMYSORE.CERTIFICATE BY THE CO-GUIDEThis is to certify that the dissertation entitled “CONCEPT OF SAMSKARA ANDMATRA VIRUDDHATWA OF MADHU-AN ANALYTICAL ANDEXPERIMENTAL STUDY” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. A. Annapooraniin partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Medicine(Ayurveda).Date : Signature of the Co-GuidePlace : Mysore Dr. Anand Katti, M.D (Ayu)Lecturer,Department of P. G. studiesIn Ayurveda SiddhantaGovernment Ayurveda MedicalCollege, Mysore.
vi RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKADEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES INAYURVEDA SIDDHANTAGOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGEMYSORE.ENDORSEMENT BY THE HOD, PRINCIPAL/HEAD OF THE INSTITUTIONThis is to certify that the dissertation entitled “CONCEPT OF SAMSKARAAND MATRA VIRUDDHATWA OF MADHU-AN ANALYTICAL ANDEXPERIMENTAL STUDY” is a bonafide research work done byDr. A. Annapoorani under the guidance of Dr. N. Anjaneya Murthy M.D. (Ayu), Professor& H.O.D, Department of Post Graduate Studies in Ayurveda Siddhanta, GovernmentAyurveda Medical College, Mysore.Seal & Signature of the HOD Seal & Signature of the PrincipalDate : Date :Place : Mysore Place : Mysore
viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTAt this moment of submitting this dissertation, I bow my head to the Almighty for hisblessings and all the spiritual teachers who guided me in accomplishing this study.I express my heartfelt sense of gratitude to Dr. Shakuntala G. N. Professor andHOD, Department of PG Studies in Ayurveda Siddhanta, GAMC, Mysore, for her constantguidance, continuous supervision and help at every stage of this study.I feel it an honour to express a special thanks to my guide, former HOD,Dr. N. Anjaneya. Murthy, M.D (Ayu), Joint Director of AYUSH, Govt of Karnataka, for hisinspiration, unstinted support, continuous scrutiny, guidance and immense help at everystage of this study.I express my sincere thanks with accolades to Dr.KR.Anilakumar, Scientist ‘D’,for his incessant encouragement, scholarly guidance and pin-point suggestions to carryout the analytical and experimental study at Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore.I am grateful to my co-guide Dr. K.Venkat Shivudu, HOD, Dept. of BasicPrinciples, JSSAMC, Mysore, for his constant support, time to time guidance andinspiration in carrying out the study.I express my gratitude to my co-guide Dr.Anand Katti, Lecturer, Department ofPG studies in Ayurveda Siddhanta, GAMC, Mysore, for his immense support, time totime guidance and encouragement during the course of this work.I am also thankful to Dr. Ashok D. Satpute, Principal, GAMC, Mysore, for hisguidance, and support that he had provided during the period of my study.I owe my sincere gratitude and thanks to Dr.A.S.Bawa, Director, DFRL, Mysoreand Dr. Farahat Khanum, H.O.D, Biochemistry and Nutrition Discipline, DFRL,Mysore, who provided the valuable opportunity to carry out the part of dissertation workin the esteemed institution.
ix I am thankful to Dr. Srinivasa Prasad, Associate Professor, Dept. of PathologyMysore Medical college, for providing the histopathological report.I am very much thankful to Vidwan Gangadhar Bhat, Professor, TarkaVibhaga,Maharaja Sanskrit College, Mysore who has given Sanskrit grammatical correctionsfor this study.I thank Dr. Lancy D’Souza for helping in statistical analysis and interpretation.I wish to place my sincere gratitude to Dr. K. Naseema Akhtar, Dr. ShantalaPriyadarshini, Dr. Shrivatsa and Dr Vasudev A Chate for their inspiration and constantguidance at every stage of my study.I would like to place on record my deep sense of gratitude to my beloved teachers,Dr. T. D. Ksheersagar, Dr. Chandramouli, Dr. D. L. Balakrishna, Dr. V. Rajendra,Dr. Shantaram, Dr. Gopinath, Dr. R. C. Mythreyi and Dr. Adarsh for their inspirationduring my P.G. studies.I would like to thank Dr. Nagamani, H.O.D, dept of Dravya Guna, Dr.P.SudhakarReddy, H.O.D, dept of Swastha vrutta, Dr.Anil Kumar, Asst. Professor, dept of Kayachikitsa, and Dr.Satish Pai, lecturer in JSSAMC, Mysore, for their help and guidance in thestudy.I would like to acknowledge with thanks the help rendered by Dr.R.K.Sharma,principal, JSSAMC, Mysore for permitting me to utilize the library facilities and to discusswith the eminent scholars f the college.I express my sincere thanks to Dr.Jayashree.M.N. M.D (Ay.Sid), and Dr. Prakash inDept. of Agada tantra, G.A.M.C, Trivandrum for their support and help in collection ofliterary data.
x I bow my head to my teacher Dr. S. Varalakshmi. M.D. (Ayu), for her incessantguidance and immense support, without whom I could not have joined Post graduationcourse.I convey my special thanks to my UG lecturers Dr. Vijaya Seshadri, Dr.SriramaKrishnan, Dr.Giridhara Krishna, Dr.Sampath, Dr. Rangaprasad Bhat, Dr. Hema,Ms.Rama and Dr.Sriman Narayana for their encouragement and guidance.I express my gratefulness to Dr. P.L.T.Girija and Mr.Mukundan for imparting inme an unquenchable thirst for knowledge in Ayurveda.I express my thanks to Dr. D. Arun kumar, Mrs. Shrimati Arun Kumar andSushruta for their kindness and support during the times of my frustration and foroffering valuable suggestions and inspiration. I would also like to thankDr.A.S.Chandrashekar for his support and guidance.I would like to thank all my colleagues Dr. Aparna K, Dr. Triveni, Dr. SidramGuled, Dr. Shivanand, Dr. Chitralatha, Dr. Mahesh Hiremath, and Dr. Akarshini whomade my stay in college very joyful and educative.I convey my thanks to my seniors Dr.H.D.Vijayalakshmi, Dr.Soubhagya,Dr.Savita Shenoy, Dr.Kedar Sharma and Dr.Yogesh for their help during the time ofsynopsis and also at the commencement of this research work.I also convey my wishes and thanks to juniors Dr. Geetha.P, Dr.Ramesh Kumar,Dr.Ranjith kumar Shetty, Dr. Kalyani Bhusane and Dr.Kavitha.S of Ayurveda Siddhantaand all junior PGs of Kayachikitsa dept. for their overall help.I express my gratitude and thanks to Ms.Saritha.V,SRF and Ms.Bhawya,Research fellow, for extending their help and moral support to conduct the work inBiochemistry Lab, DFRL, Mysore.I am indebted and thankful to Mr.K. Manjunath and Smt.R.Sridevi, ‘SriGurudutt pharmaceutical distributors’ and Sneha for their love, kindness and co-operation during my stay in Mysore.
xi I express my immense thanks to Mr. Shekhar B. S. and Smt. Mangala for theirextreme support throughout my stay at Mysore.It is a great pleasure to express my deep sense of gratitude to my brother,Dr.Rajesh.M. Bhat; my cousin, Dr. Aparna. J, M.D. (Paed) for their valuable suggestions and immense support throughout my PG studies.I express my sense of gratitude for my friends Mrs. AkilaShankar andDr.Alarmel Mangai for their love, kindness and support.I am ever thankful to my parents, my uncles, aunts, my brothers, sisters and allmy family members who patiently bear my pains and supported me for the successfulcompletion of this work.I extend my regards to our dept attender Annaiachar and librarians Mr. VenkataSubbaiah, Smt. Varalakshmi, Mr. Somasundar, Mr. Basavaraju and Mr. Raju GAMC,Mysore.I also extend my regards to Mr. Naveen, librarian of J. S. S. Ayurveda MedicalCollege, Mysore for their generous help during the course of my work.I am extremely grateful to the computer technicians Mr.Mahesh, Mr.Shrikanthand Mr.Raju, Manish enterprises, Mysore for their technical support.I am ever grateful to all those who have helped me directly and indirectly incompletion of this project work successfully.Dr.A.Annapoorani
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental study Dr. A. Annapoorani 1 ABSTRACTBackground and Objectives-Food is a powerful source of energy for all human activities. It undergoesdeterioration due to the contradictory qualities, unsuitable combination and opposedprocessing procedures thereby results in incompatibility. Honey and ghee are the twofood substances used widely in our diet. The commercial honey is heat-processed; honeyand ghee are mixed and served for food at times that absolutely contradicts the Ayurvedicconcept. Hence a detailed study has been aimed in order to analyze the physico-chemicalproperties and to evaluate the toxic and deleterious effects, if any; on consumption of a)heated honey b) honey mixed with equal amount of ghee and c) heated honey mixed withheated ghee in animal models.Methods-1) Analytical study-The following physico-chemical properties of honey and ghee samples arestudied- Ash value, Acid Insoluble ash, pH, Specific gravity, Organolepticcharacteristics, HMF, Browning index, Total phenolic compounds, Flavonoids, TotalAntioxidant activity, Peroxide value, FFA, TBA value and Saturated to unsaturated fattyacid ratio.2) Experimental study-The acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies were carried on Wistar strain albinorats. The biochemical study on serum, organ weights and histo-pathology readings wereconducted to evaluate the gross and microscopic changes. The results were analyzedstatistically.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental study Dr. A. Annapoorani 2 Results- On heating HMF content, browning and antioxidant activity of honey werefound to be increased significantly. There was a significant raise in ALP, GST,Conjugated dienes and GGT of rats fed with honey mixed ghee and heated- honey mixedghee. Serum total proteins showed significant increase in rats fed with heated honey,Honey mixed ghee and heated- honey mixed ghee.Interpretation & ConclusionIt is evident from the analytical and sub-chronic toxicity study that Ushna Madhu(heated honey -140۫ C for more than 15sec) and Sama Ghruta Madhu (honey mixed ghee)produced early signs of hepato-toxicity in Wistar strain albino rats.Keywords-Incompatibility, HMF, Antioxidant activity, Phenols, Flavonoids, Peroxide,Browning, FFA, TBA, Conjugated dienes.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental study Dr. A. Annapoorani 3 CONTENTSParticulars Page no.Acknowledgement viiiAbbreviations xiiAbstract xiiiList of Tables xviiList of Flow charts and Figures xviii INTRODUCTION 1-2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 3-69I. REVIEW ON VIRUDDHA Historical Review 3-6 Derivation 7 Definition 7 Lakshanas 7 Synonym 8 Terms related to Viruddha ahara 9-11 Types of Viruddha and its detail review 11-26 Review on Matra Viruddha 17-18 Review on Samskara Viruddha 19-21 Effects of Viruddha ahara 26-28 Factors that nullify the effects 28 Treatment principles 29-30 Modern Review 31-34
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental study Dr. A. Annapoorani 4 II. REVIEW ON MADHU 35-56 Derivation 35 Definition 35 Synonyms 35-36 Regional names 37 Types of Madhu 37-45 Instructions for the intake of Madhu 45-46 Qualities of different kinds of Madhu 47 Modern Review on honey 48-56III. REVIEW ON GHRUTA 57-69 Derivation 57 Definition 57 Synonyms 58 Regional names 59 Classification of Ghruta 59-60 Qualities of Ghruta in general 61-62 Review on Go-ghruta 63-65 Modern Review on ghee 66-69 MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY 70-92 OBSERVATIONS 93-106 DISCUSSION 107-127 CONCLUSION 128-129 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY 130 SUMMARY 131-132 BIBLIOGRAPHY 133-142
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental study Dr. A. Annapoorani 5 LIST OF TABLESS.N Tables Page No1. Synonyms of Viruddha 82. Ahita Ahara and Viruddhatwa related to it 93. Types of Viruddha according to different Acharyas 134. Viruddha aharas for different seasons 145. Viruddha aharas for different Agni of individuals 156. Matra viruddhata according to different Acharyas 187. Viruddha Ahara janya rogas 278. Synonyms of Madhu 369. Types of Madhu based on types of honey bees 3710. Colour of different kinds of honey 4011. Colour of different kinds of honey bees 4012. Properties of different kinds of honey 4713. Synonyms of Ghruta 5814. General properties of Ghruta 6115. Properties of different kinds of Ghruta 6416. Biochemical parameters adopted to study the samples 8217. Physical characteristics of honey and ghee samples 9618. Physico- chemical characteristics of honey samples 9819. Physico- Chemical characteristics of ghee samples 9920. Effects of feeding of honey and ghee on rat SGOT, SGPT, creatinine,total proteins, albumin and globulin10021. Effects of feeding of honey and ghee on rat serum alkalinephosphatase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL101
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental study Dr. A. Annapoorani 6 22. Effects of feeding of honey and ghee on rat serum urea- B, uric acid,total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and glucose10223. Effects of feeding of honey and ghee on hepatic lipid peroxides 10324. Effects of feeding of honey and ghee on detoxifying enzyme of liver 10425. Effects of feeding honey and ghee on liver enzymes 10526. Showing Viruddha sevanajanya Sroto dushti 114 LISTS OF FLOW CHARTS Pg No.1. Viruddha Aharajanya Roga Chikitsa 302. Method of Ghee preparation 67 LISTS OF FIGURES Pg No.1. Food intake of rats 932. Weight gain of rats 933. Effects of feeding of honey and ghee on relative weight of rat liver 934. Effects of feeding of honey and ghee on relative weight of rat kidney 945. Effects of feeding of honey and ghee on relative weight of rat heart 946. Effects of feeding of honey and ghee on relative weight of rat spleen 95
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental study Dr. A. Annapoorani 7 INTRODUCTIONWhen a human being is in harmony with laws of nature, no problem is unsolvable,irrespective of how strong and disturbing the so-called symptoms. – Faw HardyFood is the basic requirement for man and is the source of nutrients. It providesthe energy required for all activities of a human, such as growth, repair of the damagedtissues, reproduction and sustenance.When food is consumed according to the dieteticlaws, it bestows health. Similarly when the laws of dietetic regimens are broken it leadsto numerous diseases. Food related diseases include nutritional deficiency, foodcontamination, food intolerance and also food incompatibility.According to Ayurvedic definition, the incompatible foods i.e. Viruddha ahara arethose which causes derangement in equilibrium of the doshas and remain antagonistic tothe tissues.Honey and ghee are the two substances used in regular foods since ancient time.Certain precautionary measures that are emphasized for the intake of honey are notstrictly followed in present scenario. It is said that Ushnam cha Samaghrutam Madhumarayati || i.e heated and equal quantity of ghee mixed honey causes hazardous effectsthat eventually end in death. So the incompatibility involved in their usage needs a properinsight.Hence to re-establish the truth and to expand our knowledge by funding withnewer comments and fresh examples, this study has been undertaken.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental study Dr. A. Annapoorani 8 RELEVANCE OF THE STUDYLife on the earth is undergoing change at each & every fraction of time. Thescientific era is demanding evidences for the classical concepts. Viruddha ahara/Incompatible foods remain as a silent cause for many diseases; hence a rationalassessment is made to understand the concept in newer dimension.OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY1. To review and compile the literature on Madhu.2. To study in detail about the Samskara and Matra Viruddhatwa of Madhu.3. To analyze the physico-chemical properties of unprocessed, processed andheated honey and also equal quantity of ghee mixed honey.4. To assess the probable toxicity on Wister Strain albino rats after administeringthe unprocessed, heated and equal quantity of ghee mixed honey.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental study Dr. A. Annapoorani 9 REVIEW OF LITERATUREIntroduction-Food is an indispensable part of our life. Our wrong notions regarding it havemade Viruddha Aharas, a part and parcel of our life. The effect of Viruddha Ahara isslow and spread over a long time that we fail to notice its effects in the body. The basictreatment principle of Ayurveda is identification and removal of cause and curtailing theprogression of disease. As it is rightly quoted that “Ahara sambhavam vastu RogastuAhara sambhavaha ||” The man made out of food also suffers from the disease due to thederangement in the dietic patterns. Hence to identify the cause of a disease, knowledge ofViruddha Ahara is most essential that explains about the Viruddhas originating fromSamyoga, Samskara, Kala, Desha, Matra etc., Identification of a particular Viruddha indietic habits of a patient helps the physician to give better treatment.Historical Review-A clear idea about the concept of Viruddha in different time periods andaccording to different Acharyas explains about the relevance and importance of it in thesociety.The prevalence of concept of Viruddha in different kala (time period) has beengiven in detail as follows-There are no direct references of Viruddha ahara in the Veda, Upanishads andPurana kala. But the concepts of Annarakshana vidhi, Ahara upayogi vidhi whichindirectly refer to the avoidance of Krama Viruddha, Vidhi Viruddha, Sampat Viruddhaetc., are seen in those days. The concept was well established only during Samhita kala,the details of which are given below-
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental study Dr. A. Annapoorani 10 Samhita kala- Charaka Samhita- Acharya Charaka has explained the concept of Viruddha inSutrasthana-Atreyabhadrakapyeeya Adhyaya, after the explaination ofRasapanchaka.Under the heading Viruddha Ahara, Acharya mentioned thedefinition, different factors responsible for Viruddha, types of Viruddha with abrief explanation and illustrations, the effects i.e diseases that are produced byViruddhanna sevana, treatment principles to be adopted and also the factors thatnullify the effect of Viruddha sevana.1While explaining the concept ofMadhvaama, Upachara Viruddha has been explained.2 Sushruta Samhita- Acharya Sushruta explained the concept of Viruddha inSutrasthana- Hitaahiteeya adhyaya. In which he explained the three types of dietregimens Viz., Atyanta hita, Atyanta ahita and Hitahita. Acharya is of the opinionthat no substance in the world can be absolutely hita or ahita and it is the Vaidyawho decides according to the svasthyata of the individual. After this, there is adirect explanation of few types of Viruddha, its harmful effects, prophylaxis andcounteraction.3 Bhela Samhita- In Sutrasthana- Atreyakhandakapyeeya adhyaaya, Acharya Bhelaexplained the rasa varga, after which the explanation of different Viruddha aharais seen. Here the specific diseases that arise out of certain types of Viruddha havebeen mentioned. In another context Acharya emphasizes to prohibit Viruddhaanna sevana in samashanaparighaneeya adhyaya which is the previous chapter.4 Kashyapa Samhita- In Kalpasthana- Bhojanakalpa Adhyaya, while answering thedisciples for beneficial manner of dietic regimen, effects of excess and less food
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental study Dr. A. Annapoorani 11 intake etc., Acharya has explained the concept of Ahita sevana and its effects.While quoting he gave due importance for the Agni and mentioned that the personeating for a long time, repeatedly, irregularly, excessively and contrary foods(Viruddhahara) etc., will develop Agnimandya that results in many diseases likeJwara etc.5Sangrahakala- Ashtanga Sangraha- Acharya Vagbhatta has dedicated a chapter on Viruddha, i.e.,Viruddhanna vijnaniya adhyaya in Sutrasthana. Here which he explaineddefinition, different kinds of Viruddha ahara, bad effects of it, treatment and thefactors that nullify the effects. He also mentioned that the Viruddha ahara can actlike a Pathya i.e medicine in certain conditions. For example, Visha in Udara.6 Ashtanga Hrudaya- In Sutrasthana- Annaraksha adhyayathe concept of Viruddhaahara has been dealt in detail.7Adhunika kala- Some of the text books like Bhavaprakasha, Yogaratnakara and Bhaishajyaratnavali has explained Viruddhashana in the context of nidana for variousdiseases like jwara, Krimi etc., Anandakanda have mentioned the concept ofViruddha in brief.8 According to modern parlance, the concept of food incompatibility, foodintolerance and hypersensitivity reactions to certain foods etc., can be matchedwith the concept of Viruddha.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental study Dr. A. Annapoorani 12 Previous Research works- Shobhana.M.C- A study on the role of Viruddha ahara in the occurrence ofdiseases-Dept. of Swasthavrutta- Trivandrum-2002 Inderkumar Parvani- A conceptual and applied study of Viruddha ahara withparticular reference to Eka Kushta- Dept. of Basic Principles- IPGT&R,Jamnagar-2003 Aparna Deshpande- A study of Viruddha Ahara w.s.r. to Samyog Viruddha andVirya Viruddha Ahara- Dept. of Ayurveda Siddhanta- Pune- 2004. Rasmi.P.R.- Experimental evaluation of toxic effect of Ghruta and Madhu inequal quantity on oral administration w.s.r. to Matra Viruddha concept inAyurveda- Dept. of Agada Tantra- Trivandrum-2007
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental study Dr. A. Annapoorani 13 Derivation-“Vi + Rudh+ Kta- Virodha Vishishta”|| (SKD)The term Viruddha is formed from the the root ‘Rudhir’ ‘Avarane’ added with aprefix ‘Vi’ and a suffix ‘Kta’ which means “Virodha Vishesha” i.e. contrast or oppositionin particular.Definition- Virodha yukte | (Vachas)That which resists or hinders is known as Viruddha. Viruddham- Deshakaalaprakruti samyoga vipareete | (V.S.S)Act in contrary to the place, time, nature and combination is Viruddha.9Lakshanas- That which acts antagonistic to the deha dhatus (tissues of the body) is known asViruddha.10 The substances that cause vitiation of Doshas in the body but do not expel themare known as Viruddha and so they remain antagonistic to the dhatus.11 The drugs and diets that dislodge the doshas but do not expel them from the bodyare regarded as unwholesome.12 Drugs and diets which are unwholesome for the normal dhatus and doshas of thebody, are infact opposed to their proper growth wherein some act due to theirmutually contradictory qualities; some by combination; some by the method of
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental study Dr. A. Annapoorani 14 preparation; some by the virtue of place, time and dose and some others by theirinherent nature.11 No substances in this world can entirely be wholesome or unwholesome. Because,a substance which is compatible for Vata dosha will be antagonistic to Pittadosha. The articles in their natural form or in combinations may be either of thesethree- 1. Atyanta Hita (Always beneficial) Eg- Jala, Ghruta, Ksheera etc., beingcongenial by nature is always beneficial to human beings. 2. Atyanta Ahita(Always non- beneficial) Eg- Agni, Kshara and Visha that does Dahana, Pachanaand Marana respectively, are always non- beneficial 3. Hitaahita (Mixed values)some other substances though wholesome may become equivalent to poisons,when used in various combinations.13Table.1. Synonyms of Viruddha14S.N Synonyms Meanings1 ÌuÉÂ®: Incompatible, Antagonistic2 ÌuÉmÉUÏiÉ: Adverse or acting contrary3 ÌuÉsÉ¤ÉhÉ: Act of distinguishing4 ÌuÉxÉ…¡ûiÉ: Peculiar to the group5 ArÉÉåarÉ: Unsuitable6 AxÉ…¡ûiÉ: Unpreferred7 AxÉÇpÉÉurÉ: Incomprehensible8 AxÉÇpÉuÉ: Impropreity9 AxÉÇÎxjÉiÉ: Wrongcombination/ Inconsistence10 AlÉÑmÉrÉÑ£ü: Unsuitable for use11 mÉUxmÉU ÌuÉÂ®: Mutually contradictory12 MÉëirÉlÉÏMü Antagonistic
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental study Dr. A. Annapoorani 15 Various English equivalents for the term ‘Viruddha’-Opposed, Hindered, Incompatible, Inconsistent with, Contrary, Contradictory,Adverse, Unfavourable, Prohibited.Terms related to Viruddhahara-Some of the classical terminologies can be considered under the concept ofViruddha ahara. They are- Ahita Ahara (Unwholesome food) - Acharyas has listed down some of the foodarticles which are unwholesome by nature and it has to be avoided by the people.Eg-Yavaka, Masha etc., which can be considered as Swabhava Viruddha.Table. 2. Ahita Ahara and Viruddhatwa related to itS.N Type of Food articles Ahita Ahara Viruddhatva1 Shooka dhanya Yavaka Swabhava2 Shami dhanya Masha Guna3 Jalavarga River water in rainy season Kala4 Lavana Ushara lavana Desha5 Shaka Sarshapa Swabhava6 Mruga mamsa Go mamsa Swabhava7 Pakshi mamsa Kapota mamsa Swabhava8 Matsya Chilichima Swabhava9 Meats of animals living in hole(Bhileshaya)Frog meat Swabhava10 Ghruta Avikam sarpi Swabhava11 Ksheeram Avikam Swabhava12 Vegetable fats (Sthavara sneha) Kusumbha sneha Swabhava13 Fats of Marshy land (Anupa vasa) Mahisha vasa Swabhava
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental study Dr. A. Annapoorani 16 14 Fats of aquatic animals (Matsyavasa)Kumbheeravasa (crocodilefat)Swabhava15 Fats of aquatic animals (Jalacharavihanga vasa)Kakamadgu (fat of waterfoul)Swabhava16 Fats of gallinecious birds (Vishkirashakuni vasa)Chataka (sparrow) Swabhava17 Fats of herbivorous animals(Shakada medas)Elephant fat Swabhava18 Fruits (Phala) Nikucha Swabhava19 Rhizomes and roots (Khanda) Aluka Swabhava20 Sugarcane preparations (IkshuVikara)Phanita Samskara Mityahara (Improper food)- Intake of diet abiding the rules i.e ‘AshtaaharavidhiVishesha ayatanas’ is regarded as Mitya Ahara sevana. The eight factors thatshould be considered for beneficial effects of food are- Prakruti, Karana,Samyoga, Rashi, Kala, Upayoga Samsta and Upabhokta. Habitual intake of foodin a proper way will be more useful but food taken in improper manner is alwaysharmful. So it should be avoided. Samashana-Intake of wholesome and unwholesome food at a time in a meal isSamashana. Eg- Raktashali + Yavakanna Adhyashana- Intake of food before the digestion of previous meal is Adhyashana.If proper time is not given for digestion of previous meal and stomach stilloccupied with previous food, the food taken in such conditions mixes with thepartially digested food produces Amavisha. There will be disturbance in thesecretion of gastric juices and peristalsis.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental study Dr. A. Annapoorani 17 Vishamashana- Taking food in improper quantity (too much or too little), atirregular times (either too early or too late) is Vishamashana. Above three types-Samashana, Adhyashana and Vishamashana produces Hikka, Shwasa and Kasaand also lead to detrimental diseass ending in death. Atyashana- Intake of excess quantity of food is known as Atyashana. It producesAma and Agni mandya. Apathyas- These are Aharas specific to the roga and the rogi. This can beinterpreted as Avastha Viruddha.Types of Viruddha-Acharyas have classified Viruddha Aharas into different types based on manyfactors.Acharya Charaka has classified Viruddha Aharas into 18 types Viz.,1. Desha Viruddha2. Kala Viruddha3. Agni Viruddha4. Matra Viruddha5. Satmya Viruddha6. Dosha Viruddha7. Samskara Viruddha8. Veerya Viruddha9. Koshta Viruddha10. Avastha Viruddha11. Krama Viruddha12. Parihara Viruddha13. Upachara Viruddha14. Paka Viruddha15. Samyoga Viruddha16. Hrudaya Viruddha17. Sampat Viruddha18. Vidhi Viruddha
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental study Dr. A. Annapoorani 18 Apart from these eighteen types, Acharya Charaka has also mentioned aboutParasparaguna Viruddha (eg- Matsya+ Milk) and Swabhava Viruddha (eg- Visha).Acharya Chakrapani has included Shareera Viruddha under Desha Viruddha.Acharya Sushruta classifies Viruddha in to 6 types-1. Samyoga Viruddha2. Karma Viruddha3. Maana Viruddha4. Rasa Viruddha5. Veerya Viruddha6. VipakaViruddhaAccording to Ashtanga Sangraha, Viruddha can be classified as follows-1. Asadrushat Viruddha2. Sadrushat Viruddha3. Ubhaya Viruddha4. Samskara Viruddha5. Matra Viruddha6. Desha Viruddha7. Kala Viruddha8. Samyoga Viruddha9. SwabhavaViruddha
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 20 Detail review on types of Viruddha-1. Desha Viruddha (Incompatibility in context to habitat) – The diet which has similar properties as those of the geographical region of theresidence is antagonistic in context with desha (habitat).Eg- a) Intake of rooksha (dry), teekshna (sharp) and other substances that aggravate Vatain arid region and unctuous, cold and other substances that aggravate Kapha in marshyregion b) Ashes and dusts also cause unwholesomeness to diets and drugs. c) Lavanafrom Ushara desha The diet that is incompatible to a person i.e deha desha considered as ShareeraViruddha also can be included here. Eg- Honey is unwholesome when used by aperson whose body is afflicted by heat.2. Kala Viruddha (Seasonal / Time Incompatibility)-Food substances having similar quality as that of the season/ Rtu is considered asKala Viruddha.Table.4. Viruddha aharas for different seasonsS.N Seasons Viruddha Ahara1 Shishira Katu, Tikta, Kashaya,Laghu, Sheeta,Vatavardhaka Ahara2 Vasanta Amla, Madhura,Guru,Snigdha Ahara3 Greeshma Lavana,Amla, Katu, Ushna Ahara4 Varsha Udamantham, Nadhi jalam,5 Sharad Vasa, Taila, Avashyayam , Audaka, Anoopa mamsa, Ksharam,Dadhi6 Hemanta Laghu, Vatala Ahara
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 21
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 22 3. Agni Viruddha (Incompatible to the power of digestion) -Based on the Prakruti, Agni is of four kinds Viz., Mandagni, Teekshnagni,Vishamagni and Samagni for Kapha, Pitta, Vata and Sama Prakruti respectively. Oneshould always take food after considering the four types of Agni, if not it will lead tomany diseases due to Agni Viruddhata.Table.5. Viruddha ahara according to different Agni of individualsS.N Type of Agni Viruddha Ahara Rogotpatti1 Mandagni Guru, Snigdha, Madhura Ahara Grahani, Udara2 Teekshna Laghu, Teekshna, Katu Ahara Bhasmaka roga3 Vishama Rooksha, Laghu, Ushna, Snigdha,guru, Sheeta Ahara at varianceVibandha, Adhmana,Udavarta4 Sama Atimatra, Alpamatra, Vishamakala,Vishama desha without followingAhara vidhiAama doshas-(Alasaka,Visoochika)4. Matra Viruddha (Incompatible in quantity)-For positive maintenance of health, one should take food in proper quantity. Thequantity of food again depends upon the power of digestion and metabolism (Agnibala).The amount of food which without disturbing the equilibrium of doshas and dhatus, getsdigested and metabolized in proper time is regarded as Matravat Ahara. It certainly helpsthe individual in bringing about strength, complexion, happiness and longevity. InAharamatra, total quantity as well as quantity of different items is considered. The formeris known as Sarvagraha (consideration of the food as a whole) and the latter as“Parigraha” (consideration item-wise). This is very important from the view of the
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 23 concept of “balanced diet” because each item is considered with regard to therequirement of the body.It is not possible to decide in general the specific quantity of food to be consumedby an individual as the quantity of food intake again depends on Agni (MatraAgnimapekshaya).Considering these points, some guidelines to decide appropriatequantity of food that is sufficient for a person’s good health has been explained. Stomachis imagined to be divided into three equal parts and the food items should be takenaccordingly. One part filled with solid food, the second part with liquids and third partshould be left for Tridosha sanchara (movement of doshas).15Symptoms of Samyak Matra (Appropriate quantity)-1. No pressure on the stomach2. No interference in the proper functioning of heart3. No excessive heaviness in the lateral side of chest4. No excessive heaviness in the abdomen5. Proper nourishment of the senses6. Relief from hunger and thirst7. Feeling of comfort in all functions like standing, sleeping, walking and talking8. Food taken in the morning should be digested by the evening and that of eveningshould be digested by the next morning
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 24 Review on Matra Viruddha-Food taken in improper quantity is considered as Matra or Mana Viruddha. It maybe of four kinds. They are-1. Sarvagraha hina matra (deficient quantity of food as a whole)2. Parigraha hina matra (deficient in the quantity of ingredients)3. Sarvagraha atimatra (excessive quantity of food as a whole) and4. Parigraha atimatra (excessive quantity of ingredients)General symptoms of Amatravat Ahara are as follows-Symptoms of Hinamatra sevana (Inadequate quantity of food)-Impairment of the strength and complexion; Unable to have feeling of satiety;Causing Udavarta; Impairment of longevity, virility and ojas; Affliction of body, mind,intellect, senses; Impairment of the excellence of Dhatus; Causing inauspiciousconditions; Cause of eighty types of Vatavyadhis; Feeling of dissatisfaction;Symptoms of Adhika Matra (Excess quantity of food)-Adhika Matra (type of Matra Viruddhahara) aggravates all the Doshas, producingdifferent types of diseases Viz., Vata- Colicky pain, distension of abdomen, body ache, dryness of mouth,giddiness, agnivikriti, various types of pains etc. Pitta- Jwara, Atisara, Antardaha, thirst, giddiness and delirium. Kapha- Vomiting, anorexia, cold, fever, laziness and heaviness in the body.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 25 Table.6. Matra Viruddhata according to different AcharyasS.N Examples CS16SS17AS18AH191 Honey + Ghee in equal quantity + + + +2 Honey + rain water in equal quantity + - - -3 Honey + seed of the east Indian lotus + - - -4 Honey + water in equal quantity - + + -5 Honey + Oily foods in equal quantity - + - +6 Honey + Oil + Ghee + muscle fat - - - +7 Honey + Oily foods + rain water - + + -8 Honey + Ghee + muscle fat - - - +9 Honey + muscle fat - - - +10 Honey + Oil - - - +11 Water + any oily foods in equal quantity - + - -5. Satmya Viruddha- (Incompatibility in context with suitability)Satmya means substances of pleasure to one self. A substance conductive to anindividual is called “Satmya” and the use of such substances result in the well being ofthat individual. Satmya Viruddha is intake of food against homologation. Intake of sweetand cold substances by a person accustomed to pungent and hot substances.Eg – Diet with hot, penetrating, oily and non-vegetarian articles along with alcohol iscontraindicated for a person suited to sweet, soft and vegetarian diet. This type ofunsuited food will produce even allergic disorders.6. Dosha Viruddha (Incompatibility in context with humours)-Utilization of drugs, diets and regimens having similar qualities with doshas but atvariance with the habit of the individual causes Dosha Viruddha.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 26 Eg – A person of Vataja constitution, or in whom there is increase of Vata dosha, dry, hotand spicy food is regarded as Dosha Viruddha.7. Samskara Viruddha (Incompatibility in context with processing)Samskara means processing the food items to change its qualities. Samskara is asynonym of Karana. Karana (preparation) is one of the eight factors of dietetics codesknown as “Ashta aharavidhi viseshaayatana.” Karana (Preparation) is the processperformed to modify the natural properties of substances i.e., establish new properties bydestroying the natural properties of those dravya/substances.“Samskaro Gunantaradaanamuchyate | Te Gunaastoyaagnisannikarsha ShouchaManthana Desha Kaala Vaasana Bhaavanaadibhi KalaprakarshaBhajanadibhishcaadheeyante ||” (Cha. Vi.1/21)The process is that which radically transforms the properties of substances. Thistransformation is effected by Dilution, Application of heat, Clarification, Emulsification,Storing, Maturing, Flavouring, Impregnation, Preservation and Container.20For eg- When rice is prepared by cleansing and applying heat, it attains lightness. Curd by nature aggravates oedema, when churned it turns into buttermilk andthereby it alleviates oedema. This illustrates the transformation of attributes bychurning. On storing Amalaki (Emblica officinalis) along with other drugs inside the heap ofash transforms the quality of Amalaki. Kala is the time for maturation or the time prescribed for preservation of aparticular substance.Ingredients of Duralabhasava are required to be kept in a jar
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 27 smeared with ghee for fifteen days before use. This illustrates the transformationby preservation. A container also brings transformation of attributes, eg- Triphala Rasayana is to beprepared in a new iron container smeared with the paste of Amalaki; At the timeof eating, one should keep Yusha, Vyanjana and Mamsarasa in silver vessels;milk in golden vessel; buttermilk in bronze vessel; ghee in iron vessels; cookedmilk in copper vessels and, drinking water and boiled rice in mud etc. Samskara Viruddha- The incompatibility of preparation is that where food/foodsubstance is converted in to poison during the course of preparation. Variousmethods of preparation are used for processing of diet / food substances to getmore qualitative properties, but when these method, are not according to rules andregulations of dietetics, one cannot get more qualitative properties but instead getthe harmful effect of food substances. So this type of Samskara (preparation) iscalled Samskara Viruddha due to harmful effects it produces on the body tissues.Eg :- Curd or honey on heating becomes harmful to the body. Madya and Bhallataka in a hot state. Meat of harita bird held in a Daruharidra (Berberis aristata) stick or the same meatcooked inside hot ash and sand along with honey. Meat of peacock roasted on castor spit. Meat of pigeon fried in mustard oil.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 28 Meat of Godha, Lava, Tittiri, Mayura and Kapinjala cooked in castor oil usingcastor plant or Daruharidra (Berberis aristata) wood as fuel. Meat of Balaaka fried with fat of pig along with cocconut. Meat of Bhaasa cooked on an iron rod. Meat of Kapota processed in milk produces Majja Vyapat. Haridraka (a kind of tuber used as a vegetable) fried in mustard oil causeprofound increase of Pitta. Upodika (Basella alba) cooked with paste of tila. Kampillaka (Mallotus philiphinensis) prepared with butter milk. Pippali (Piper longum) processed in oil used for frying fish. Kakamachi (Solanum nigrum) cooked in a pot in which fish or ginger hasalready been cooked. Leaves of Pushkara (Inula racemosa) and Rohinika fried in mustard oil. Intake of ghee stored in bronze vessel more than ten days8. Paka Viruddha (Culinary incompatibility)-Preparation of food with a bad or rotten fuel and under-cooking, over-cookingduring the process of preparation are all considered as Paka Viruddha. The effect ofMrudupaka, Madhyamapaka, Kharapaka, Aamapaka and Dagdha Paka has beenmentioned in the context of Sneha paka.9. Veerya Viruddha (Incompatible in potency)-Substances having cold potency in combination with those of hot potency isregarded as Veerya Viruddha. Example- A food item prepared by using milk or fish
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 29 together becomes antagonistic as milk is of Sheeta veerya while fish is Ushna veerya.Apart from this, the following combinations of Rasas produce Veerya Viruddha.Madhura + Amla/ Lavana/ Katu; Amla + Tikta/ Kashaya; Lavana + Tikta/ Kashaya andKatu rasa+ Tikta/ Kashaya10. Koshta Viruddha-It is the incompatibility in context with bowel. For example- Administration of a mild purgative in a small dose for a person of Krura Koshta. Administration of a strong purgative in higher doses for Mrudu Koshta person.11. Avastha Viruddha (Incompatibility in context with state of a person)-Incompatibility with reference to stage or condition of a person is known asAvastha Viruddha. Intake of Vata aggravating food by a person after exhaustion, sexual act, andphysical exercise. Intake of Kapha aggravating food by a person after sleep or drowsiness. In old age a light dry and cold diet is antagonistic as the age dominated by Vatadosha. Kashaya rasa Viruddha in Nava jwara Uccha bhashana in Bastidana kala.12.Krama Viruddha- (Contrary to the method or manner)Incompatibility in context with the sequence. When a person takes hismeal without relieving himself of faeces and urine or eats without the feeling ofhunger or does not eat in spite of severe hunger then it turns out to be KramaViruddha.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 30 13.Parihara Viruddha- (Incompatibility of the rules of Prohibition)This is incompatibility of the rules of prohibition, where a person takes hot (food)substances after a meal of the flesh of a boar and similar animals. ‘Parihara’ means ‘thefood substances which are to be avoided according to the condition. This condition maybe healthy or unhealthy. In diseased condition, intake of food substances, which arementioned as Apathya (unwholesome) in that particular disease is called PariharaViruddha. Eg- Intake of hot things after taking pork.14.Upachara Viruddha- (Incompatibility of the rules of prescription)Upachara word is derived from Upachaarya" that means- 1. Practice of medicine2. Treatment 3. Chikitsa (Apte’s dictionary).Hence Upachara Viruddha is the act incontrary to treatment /incompatibility of the rules of ingestion. Eg given as follows- Intake of cold things after taking ghee. Payasa (milk pudding) followed by mantha (solution of flour and sugar) isincompatable and causes profound increase of Kapha. Honey and ghee of unequal proportion along with rain water taken as afterdrink.15.Samyoga Viruddha (Incompatibility due to combination)-Substances that are non- beneficial when used in combination are as follows- Intake of Sheeta+Ushna/ Nava+Purana/ Aama+Pakwa food articles Intake of Sour fruits or any sour things + Milk Meat of the domestic, swampy, aquatic animals+ newly germinated paddy/ fat/honey/milk/ jaggery/ Masha Leaves of Rohinika, Pushkara and Jatuka taken with milk and honey
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 31 Meat of balaaka with wine or gruel Kakamachi+ Piper longum/Piper nigrum/Madhu/Guda Honey and seeds of Pushkara Pilu + Kareera Bisa (Lotus stalk) + Germinated grains Sharkara (wine prepared with sugar) + Maireya (wine prepared with dates) +Honey Chilicima fish + Milk RaktaVyapatti, Mrutyu Pork + Meat of dog + Milk Shankha roga, Galagraha and Sadyomrutyu Wild roots and fruits+ Pork + Meat of dog+ Milk Shankha roga, Galagraha andSadyomrutyu Lakucha fruit + Madhu/Milk Aandhya, Badirya and Mrutyu Lakucha fruit+ Dadhi/Guda/Madhu/Ghee/Soup of Masha Kadali phala+ Dadhi/ Takra/ Talaphala16. Hrudaya Viruddha- (Incompatibility of palatibility)This is the incompatibility of palatability where an article or substances of food isunpleasant in taste. Here by term “Hrudaya” one should take “Manas” Any substanceswhich are not pleasant in taste. One should not take a food item for which the person hasapathy, when he is not in a good mood and so does not want to eat.17. Sampat Viruddha- (Incompatibility with reference to the richness of quality)-This is incompatibility with reference to richness of quality. For example- Intakeof substance that is not matured or over matured or putrified.Intake of food articles whichare not having edible qualities can be considered as Sampat Viruddha.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 32 Over stale and over ripened fruits, meat of diseased animal, substances that are artificiallyproduced (by chemical manures) and of cross bred variety agricultural, poultry or cattleproducts are prohibited. (Encyclopedia)18. Vidhi Viruddha- (Contrary to the rules of dietetics)One should take food substances / diet according to Upayoga Samstha mentionedin the eight factors of diet and dietetics (Ashta aharavidhi Visesayatana). One should eatfood, which is hot, unctuous, non-antagonistic in potency and in due measure, after fulldigestion of the previous meal, in a congenial place, provided with all the accessories,neither too hurriedly, nor too leisurely, without talking or laughing with fullconcentration and having proper regard to oneself. If a person is not following the rules,then it is considered as Vidhi Viruddha. That is incompatibility of the rules of eating.Eg- Food taken in a solitary place or in public.Apart from these eighteen types explained by Acharya Charaka, Some more typesof Viruddha are added by Acharya Sushruta. They are as follows- Rasa Viruddha (Incompatibility due to taste)-Intake of food having contradictory tastes act contrary to the tissues andconsidered as Rasa Viruddha.Eg:- Madhura rasa taken along with Amla, Lavana, Kashaya, Katu and Tikta rasa. Amla rasa taken along with Lavana, Katu, Tikta, and Kashaya rasa. Lavana dravyas with Katu, Tikta and Kashaya rasa. Katu rasa dravyas with Tikta and Kashaya rasa. Tikta rasa dravyas along with Kashaya rasa.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 33 Vipaka Viruddha (Incompatibility due to rasa produced after digestion)-Intake of food having contradictory Vipakas are incompatible to the tissues of thebody. Following rasas produce contradictory Vipaka in the body- Madhura rasa with Katu, Tikta and Kashaya rasa. Amla rasa with Katu, Tikta and Kashaya rasa. Lavana rasa with Katu, Tikta and Kashaya rasa.Acharya Vagbhatta explained three more types which are different from the rest-a) Sadrushat Viruddha- i.e Even when the rasa, guna, veerya, vipaka aresimilar some drug acts antagonistically. For eg- Ksheera and Panasa bothpossess Madhura rasa, Madhura vipaka and sheeta veerya but when combinedproduces incompatibility.b) Asadrushat Viruddha- i.e Ksheera and Kulattha have contrary veerya andvipakas i.e Sheeta and Madhura, Ushna and Amla respectively. Hence theyproduce incompatibility.c) Ubhaya Viruddha- Ksheera and Matsya possess Madhura rasa and Madhuravipaka but Ksheera is sheeta and Matsya is ushna in veerya. It producesincompatibility.Effects of Viruddha Ahara-Viruddhahara is similar to Visha in terms of the effects it produces in the body. Aperson who regularly follows a diet which is marked by Viruddhashana, Adhyashana orAjeernashana ultimately reaches a stage of Aama visha which is as fatal as any otherVisham.21Visham acts in different way inside the body- Teekshna Visha causesimmediate death or toxic effects whereas Gara or Dooshivisha have a long term effects.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 34 The effect of Viruddhahara has to be studied in the lines of Visha i.e., it can causeimmediate death as that of teekshna visha or produce a devastating diseases as that ofGara and Dooshi visha. The Viruddha Aharajanya rogas has been classified based on thedhatus, srotas and rogamargas affected for clear understanding.Table.7.Showing Viruddha Ahara Janya rogasS.N Viruddha Aharajanya Rogas CS22SS23AS24BS251 Jwara + - - -2 Pandu + - - -3 Klaibya + - - -4 Agninasha - - + -5 Visarpa + - - -6 Visphotaka + - + -7 Rakta dushti - - - +8 Kilasa + - - -9 Kushta + - + -10 Raktapitta - - + -11 Gulma - - + -12 Galagraha + - - +13 Prameha - - + -14 Moorcha + - - -15 Majja Vyapat - - - +16 Vata vyadhi - - + -17 Shandyam - - -18 Santana Dosha - - -19 Balanasha - + -20 Moodagarbha - - + -21 Stanya roga + - - -22 Yakshma - - + -
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 35 23 Aadhmana + - - -24 Aama Visha + - - -25 Grahani + - + -26 Trushna + - - -27 Shotha + - + -28 Ashmari - - + -29 Smrutinasha - - + -30 Indriyanasha - + + -31 Chitta nasha - - + -32 Unmada + - - -33 Mada + - + -34 Arshas - - + -35 Vidradhi - - + -36 Shankha roga - - - +37 Bhagandara + - + -38 Aandhya + - - +39 Badhirya - - - +40 Peenasa + - - -41 Kasa + - - -42 Arshas - - + -43 Udakodara + - - -44 Krimija rogas - - - +Factors that nullify the effects of Viruddha AharaUnder certain conditions Viruddha ahara will remain harmless to the body and theeffects are nullified. If the incompatibility is homologous to the person and if he hasstrong Jataragni, it will not disturb the harmony of the tissues. The ill effects of Viruddhaahara will be nullified as long as the person is young, performs vyayama and take snigdhaahara regularly. The jataragni will be able to deal with the harmful effects to certain
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 36 extent if Viruddha ahara is of lesser quantity. If the quantity is more, it produces morbideffects.Viruddha Ahara which have become accustomed and which are in smallerquantity do not cause trouble to the body. Instead they even cure the diseases by causingvariations in the Doshas.Eg- 1) Curd +Milk given in certain morbid conditions.2) Sarpa visha in condition of Udara3) Sthavara visha as an antidote for Jhangama VishaTreatment principles in Viruddha AharaChoice of treatment in Viruddha Aharajanya roga is Shodhana followed by Shamana andAbhisamskruti.Shodhana-Depending on the nature of the disease, selection of shodhana can be done. Forexample Vamana in case of Kushta and Unmada, Virechana in case of Visarpa andUdara.Shamana-After Shodhana, Shamana is done by administering aushadas to the specific rogasproduced by Viruddha Ahara.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 37 Abhisamskruti-Abhisamskruti is the final step to strengthen the body in order to withstand theeffects of Viruddhahara which is achieved by Hitaharas including Rasayanas.Flow Chart.1. Viruddha Ahara janya Roga ChikitsaViruddhajanya rogaChikitsa sutra Shodhana Abhisamskruti Hitaharas & Rasayanas Shamana Aushadas specific to rogas
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 38 Modern concepts of Viruddha AharaWhen one look into the equivalent concepts to Viruddha Ahara, spectrum ofdisease ranging from food intolerance to food poisoning can be considered. Hence a briefdescription of relevant conditions has been dealt.Incompatibility-The term ‘Incompatible’ generally means ‘antagonistic in action.’ The quality ofnot being mixed without a chemical change, or without countering the action of the otheringredients in a compound is known as incompatibility.26Food intolerance-An abnormal non-immunological response to the ingested food is regarded asfood intolerance. The basis for intolerance may be pharmacological, enzymatic,metabolic or toxic.27Food allergy/ Food Hypersensitivity-It is an immunologic reaction to food to which a patient has become sensitized. Itrequires a first exposure (sensitization), which stimulates the production of IgEantibodies; subsequent exposure produce symptoms. Sensitivity to almost any food maydevelop but it develops most frequently to milk, egg, wheat, shellfish and chocolate.Food allergies are Type-I reactions, symptoms can appear within minutes. Mildsymptoms such as urticaria, eczema, abdominal cramps and GIT upset are most common,but food allergies also can cause life threatening systemic anaphylaxis.28
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 39 Milk-Protein allergy in infancy-It is also called as Cow’s Milk Protein Intolerance(CMPI) that manifest within theinitial few months of life, usually a few weeks after the initial exposure to cow’smilk.Clinical symptoms include diarrohea, vomiting, abdominal colic, irritability, failureto thrive and GIT haemorrhage. It generally subsides by second year of life.29Lactose intolerance-It is developed in children due to the deficiency of the enzyme lactase, a non-specific disaccharide in the intestinal mucosa. It is of three kinds Viz., (1) Congenitallactase deficiency occurring in new born. It can be compared to Dosha Viruddha. (2)Lactase deficiency associated with premature infants. It can be compared to AvasthaViruddha. (3) Acquired Lactase deficiency occurring in adults and children.29Sucrase and Isomaltase deficiency-Congenital sucrose- isomaltase deficiency has been reported to occur in somesubjects and they do not tolerate sucrose or isomaltose.Lathyrism-It is a crippling disease characterised by paralysis of the leg muscles occurring inadults consuming large quantities of the seeds of Lathyrus sativus or other Lathyrusspecies over long periods. The toxin present in lathyrus seed has been identified as -oxalyl amino alanine (BOAA) that produces neuro-lathyrism in humans and osteo-lathyrism in animals.30
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 40 Food Poisoning-It is acute gastro-enteritis caused by the ingestion of food or drink contaminatedwith either living bacteria or their toxins or inorganic substances and poisons derivedfrom plants and animals. The condition is characterized by (a) history of ingestion ofcommon food or in communal feeding (b) attack of many persons at a time (c) similarityof signs and symptoms in majority.Food additives-Food additives are non-nutritious substances which are added to food, generally insmall quantity, to improve its appearance, flavour, texture or storage properties.Uncontrolled or indiscriminate use of food additives may pose health hazards. Forexample, certain preservatives such as nitrites and nitrates lead to the production ofnitrosamines that have been implicated in cancer aetiology. According to PFA, any foodthat contains additives which are not permitted; if it exceeds the permissible limit then thefood is considered as adulterated.Foodborne diseases-It is defined as a disease, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by theagents that enter the body through the ingestion of food. Foodborne disease may developdue to (a) Foodborne intoxicants and (b) Foodborne infections.Epidemic dropsy-The outbreak of Epidemic dropsy is reported in India, due to the contaminationof mustard oil with argemone oil. Sanguinarine is a toxic alkaloid isolated from argemoneoil found to be the causative agent that interferes with the oxidation of pyruvic acid.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 41 Endemic ascites-In Madhya Pradesh the outbreak of ascites has been reported. Studies conductedby National institute of Nutrition, Hydrebad showed that the local population subsit onmillet which gets contaminated with the weed seeds of Crotalaria. On Chemical analysis,crotalaria seeds were found to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids which are hepato toxic.31
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 42 REVIEW ON MADHUMadhu is the natural sweetner used since ancient time. It is considered auspiciousand also recommended as a daily food especially in the rainy season. Madhu also hasmany medicinal properties and is used widely as adjuvants for many medicines. A detailreview of Madhu is given below-DerivationThe term Madhu is derived from the root word ‘Man’ ‘Avabodhane’ and suffix‘U’ i.e. “Mani +dha Madha + ‘U’nadi Madhu || (Siddhanta kaumudi)DefinitionManyante visheshena jananti janaa yasmin| (SKD)That which is honoured by the people specifically is Madhu.Manyateabhilashyate madhu pushparasaakhyam|| (Amarakosha)That which is known for its speciality is known as MadhuSynonyms of MadhuThe word ‘Madhu’ has many synonyms mentioned in various texts, theknowledge of which will be more beneficial in understanding different aspects of Madhu.The synonyms are listed below-
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 44 Regional names/ Vernacular names-39Sanskrit- MadhuHindi- ShahadKannada- JenutuppaTelugu- ThenaTamil- ThenMalayalam- ThenGujarati- MadhaMarathi- MadhaBengali- MadhuUrdu- ShahadArabic- AsalParsi- Shahad, AgaveenEnglish- HoneyLatin- MelTypes of Madhu-Madhu can be classified into different types based on the source (honey bee),storage time, method of collection and quality. A brief classification has been mentionedhere and the explanation will be given later.I. Based on the types of honey bees – Eight types viz. Makshikam,Bhramaram,Kshoudram, Pouttikam, Chaatram, Aarghyam, Auddhalakam andDalamTable. 9. Types of Madhu based on the types of honey bees 40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48S.No Types CS SS AS YR DN RN BN KN MN1 Makshikam + + + + + + + + +2 Bhramaram + + + + + + + + +3 Kshoudram + + + + + + + + +4 Pouttikam + + + + + + + + +5 Chatram - + - + + + + + -6 Aarghyam - + - + + + + + -7 Uddhalakam - + - + + + + + -8 Dalam - + - + + + + + -
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 38 II. Based on the duration of storage-Two types viz. a) Nava Madhu- Fresh honey b) Purana Madhu- Old/ Stored honeyIII. Based on the method of collection-45Two types viz.- i) a) Sadosha- Contaminated honey b) Nirdosha Madhu-Uncontaminated honey. ii) a) Aama- Unripened honey b) Pakwa Madhu- Ripened honeyIV. Based on the quality –45a) Dushta Madhu- Spoiled honey b) Shreshta Madhu- Pure honeyV. Based on the state in which it should be consumed-45a) Sheeta Madhu b)Ushna MadhuMadhu Varga according to different AcharyasMadhu one of the Jangama dravyas has been placed under different categories bydifferent Acharyas which has been listed below-Charaka Samhita (CS) - Ikshu varga; Vamanopaga ghana; Shonitasthapana ghana.Sushruta Samhita (SS) - Madhu vargaAshtanga Sangraha (AS) - Ikshu varga, Niruhopayogi; Shirovirechanopayogi;Sandhaneeya and Rudhira sthapana GhanaAshtanga Hridaya (AH) - Ikshu vargaDhanwantari Nighantu (DN) - Suvarnadi vargaRaja Nighantu (RN) - Paneeyadi vargaBhavaprakasha Nighantu (BN) - Madhu varga
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 39 Kaiyyadeva Nighantu (KN) - Oushadi vargaPriya Nighantu (PN) - Drava vargaMadhanapala Nighantu (MN) - Ikshu vargaSamanya Madhu gunas- General properties of MadhuMadhu (Honey) possesses the following properties in general. Acharya Charakaopines the qualities as follows- Rasa- Madhura; Anurasa- Kashaya; Guna- Guru,Rooksha, Sookshma, Vishada; Veerya- Sheeta; Doshakarma- Kaphapitta shamaka andVatala. Acharya Sushruta differs in his opinion that Madhu has Laghu guna; RookshaVeerya and Tridosha shamaka. The other properties of Madhu are- Deepana, Grahi,Lekhana, Balya, Sandhana, Srotovishodhana, Swarya, Varnya, Vrshya, Hrdya,Prasadajanaka, Soukumarya, Medhya and Ruchikaraka. It is good in alleivating theailments of Netra, Chardi, Visha, Hikka, Shwasa Kasa, Shosha, Atisara, Raktapitta,Krimi, Trshna, Moha, Medoroga, Kushta, Arshas, Kshata and Kshaya.Special quality of Madhu-Madhu has a unique property i.e. ‘Yogavahitwa’. It is the quality of Madhu thatenhances the potency of drug in unison and helps to reach towards the target organ.Qualities of different kinds of Madhu-The qualities of different kinds of Madhu- explaining different colours of thehoney, different colours of honey bees etc., are dealt in detail below-
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 41 I. Based on the types of honey bees-Madhu collected from different kinds of honey bees possesses differentqualities. Among all the types of Madu, Makshika Madhu is considered as thebest. The qualities of different Madhu are explained below.1. Makshika Madhu- The honey collected from reddishbrown coloured, big-sized,wild variety of honeybees that feed on different kinds of flowers is known asMakshika Madhu. It has Madhura rasa; Laghu, Rooksha guna; Sheeta veerya andacts as Vata Shamaka. Such honey is good in Netrarogas, Kamala, Arshas, Vrana,Kshaya and Shwasa rogas.2. Bhramara Madhu- The honey collected from collyrium coloured minute sizedhoney bees is known as Bhramara. It possesses Madhura rasa; Madhura vipaka;Guru, Rooksha, Picchila, Abhishyandi gunas and Sheeta veerya. It alleivatesRaktapitta, Mukhajadya, Mootrajadya and Atyantajadyahara.3. Kshoudra Madhu- It is the kind of honey collected from reddish coloured, smallersized honey bees. It has Laghu, Rooksha, Sookshma, Abhishyandi, Picchilagunas; Sheeta veerya; acts as Pitta Vata Shamaka and is lekhaneeya, pramehahara and netramayahara.4. Pouttika Madhu- It is the kind of honey collected from the poisonous honeybeeswhich are reddish brown, dark coloured, smaller in size resembling themosquitoes (mashaka). The bees generally reside in the hollow burrows of treesand feed on poisonous flowers and rice (anna). Such a honey is called Pouttika. Itpossess the following properties such as Laghu, Rooksha guna; Ushna veerya;
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 42 alleviates Kapha but aggravates Pitta and Vata thereby causes Raktapitta andDaha. It is indicated in Mootrakrchra,Granthi, Kshata and Shosha.5. Chatra Madhu- It is the kind of honey collected from the honeybees which arereddish in colour found in the Himalayan forests and their hives are of the shapeof umbrella. Such a honey has Madhura rasa; Madhura vipaka; Guru, Picchilaguna; Sheeta veerya; allievates Rakta, Pitta vikaras, Krimi, Shwitra and Pramehabut aggravates Vata dosha.6. Aarghya Madhu-The honey collected from the yellow coloured honey beeshaving sharp stings is called as Aarghya Madhu. It possess Kashaya, Tikta,Madhura rasa; Katu vipaka; alleviates Kapha and Pitta. It acts as Balapushtikarakaand Chakshushya.7. Auddalaka / Auddhala Madhu- The honey which is collected from the reddishbrown coloured bees that resides inside the soil near the ant-hills is known asAuddhala Madhu. It possess Kashaya,Amla, Tikta rasa; Katu vipaka; Ushnaveerya; aggravates Pitta. It is indicated in Kushta, Visha, Aruchi and also acts asSvarya.8. Dala Madhu- It is the kind of honey collected from the honey bees which are redor brown coloured, smaller in size and that reside inside the burrows of trees.Generally the honey is collected from the leaves of trees and is known as DalaMadhu. It possesses Katu, Amla, Madhura rasa; Kashaya anurasa; Vatala;Lekhaneeya. It is generally indicated in Chardi, Aruchi and Prameha.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 43 II. Based on the duration of storageMadhu differs in its qualities based on the duration of storage as storage has effecton the properties of Madhu.a) Nava Madhu/ Fresh honey-Nava Madhu or freshly collected honey has the following properties- Rasa-Madhura bhooyishta; Guna- Guru, Snigdha, Abhishyandi and Sara; Karma-NatiShleshmahara, Pushtikaraka, Sthoulyakara.b) Purana Madhu/ Stored honey-Purana Madhu or stored honey has Rooksha, Anabhishyandi, Grahi gunas; acts asAtilekhana, Medohara and Sthoulyagna. It also acts as Tridosha shamaka. Madhuattains puranatva after one year of collection.III. Based on the method of collectionMadhu should be collected in the prescribed manner as explained by Acharyas,failing which it leads to contamination.i) Sadosha and Nirdosha Madhu-The honey that is extracted by beating the bee- hives with a stick is considered tobe as effective as Rasayana and called as Nirdosha Madhu. It alleviates Hikka,Gudhankura, Trividha Shopha, Kapha and Vrana. The honey collected otherwise isconsidered as Sadosha Madhu.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 44 ii) Aama and Pakwa Madhu-Aama Madhu/Unripened honey aggravates Vata and Shosha but alleviatesAama, Gulma, Ruja, Pitta, Daha, Asradosha and Antravruddhi. Whereas PakwaMadhu/Ripened honey is Tridoshashamaka and alleviates Ruja, Jadya,Jihwaamaya. It acts as Ruchya, Balakaraka and Virya vruddhikaraka.IV. Based on the qualityDuring collection of honey due care should be given to avoid spoilage of Madhu.a) Dushta Madhu/ Spoiled honey-The honey which has not been strained; contains insects, dead bees, stingsand other parts of bees; that which has undergone fermentation due to prolongedstorage; that which is produced in home are all considered as Dushta Madhu and isnot good for health.b) Shreshta Madhu/ Pure honey-The honey which has the opposite qualities that of the Dushta Madhu isconsidered as Shreshta Madhu.V. Based on the state in which it should be consumeda) Sheeta Madhu-The honey generally is collected from the bees which feed on differentkinds of flowers including poisonous flowers and at times also from poisonoushoney bees, therefore it is advised by our Acharyas to consume honey in coldstate which bestows health.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 45 b) Ushna Madhu-When honey is heated or consumed with hot drugs, hot things, hotseasons, and hot region and administered in diseases which produce heat inthe body results in deleterious effects and may eventually lead to death.Instructions for the intake of Madhu- 49Certain rules and regulations are to be adopted while consuming Madhu as it is aproduct of nectar fromed from different flowers including poisonous flowers, collectedalso from the bees which may be poisonous or from poisonous region. Hence dueprecautions should be taken before administering Madhu.Madhu- Sevanayogyata- In natural state By Kapha prakruti persons People of Marshy land Children and Young persons In little quantityMadhu – Sevana Ayogyata- Heated honey Honey with equal ghee For Vata Prakruti People of arid land In Old age In large quantity
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 46 When consumed in Ayogya conditions it produces the following effects-When heated honey and honey with equal ghee is taken it results in Samskara andMatra Viruddhatwa respectively. When Madhu is taken by Vata Prakruti persons or inold age it aggravates Vata. If taken in large quantity, it causes Madhvama and alsoproduces emergency conditions of Vata rogas because of its rooksha guna and KashayaAnurasa.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 48 MODERN REVIEW ON HONEYDefinitionHoney is the food derived entirely from the work of bees operating upon thenectar of flowers and other sweet exudation of plants. The nectar and saccharineexudation of plants are gathered, modified and stored in the comb by honey bees. It isthen obtained by allowing the honey to drain from the comb or by submitting thehoneycomb to pressure or is prepared by melting the honey, allowing the scum to rise tothe surface and straining. It must be free from the foreign substances such as parts ofinsects, leaves etc., but may contain pollen grain.50Composition of honey-Honey contains various principle nutrients. A 100g of honey contains 20gmoisture, 79.7g carbohydrates, 0.1g of protein, 0.01g calcium, 0.02g phosphorous, 0.9mg iron, 0.01g vitamin B1,0.2mg nicotinic acid, 0.04mg of riboflavin, 0.01mg vitamin B6and 0.06mg pantothenic acid per 100g. There is no fat and vitamin A. One gm honeyproduces 320 KCal of energy.51The honey shall not contain more than 25% moisture,0.5% ash and 5% sucrose. It should contain 10% honey dew, 65% reducing sugar andfructose- glucose ratio shall not be less than 0.95%. 52Moisture-Moisture content is one of the most important characteristics of honey, as itinfluences the keeping quality, granulation and texture of honey. The natural moisture ofhoney in the comb is that remaining from the nectar after ripening. After extraction of thehoney from the comb its moisture content may change depending on the conditions of
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 49 storage. It may range between 13 and 25 percent. If honey has more than 25 percentmoisture and contains a sufficient number of yeast spores, it will ferment. Such honeyshould be pasteurized, that is, heated sufficiently to kill such organisms.Sugars-Honey is a carbohydrate material, with 95 to 99.9 % of the solids being sugars.Dextrose (glucose) and levulose (fructose) are the main sugars account for about 85 % ofthe solids in honey. Apart from those 25 others sugars have been found. All of thesesugars are more complex than the monosaccharides, dextrose and levulose. Twelvedissaccharides, ten trisaccharides and two more higher saccharides- isomaltotetraose andisomaltopentaose have been identified. Most of these sugars are present in quite smallquantities. The complex sugars do not occur in nectar, but are formed during the ripeningof honey.Proteins-In honey, 40 to 65 percent of the total nitrogen is in protein. The presence ofproteins causes honey to have a lower surface tension than it would have otherwise,which produces a marked tendency to foam and form scum and encourages formation offine air bubbles. The quantity of amino acids in honey is small and of no nutritionalsignificance. Amino acids are known to react slowly or more rapidly by heating, withsugars to produce yellow or brown materials. Part of the darkening of honey with age orheating may be due to this.Acids-The acids of honey are responsible for the stability against micro-organisms. It
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 50 account for less than 0.5 percent of the solids. Gluconic acid is the major one found inhoney. It arises from dextrose through the action of an enzyme called glucose oxidase.Minerals-When honey is dried and burned, a small residue of ash invariably remains, whichis the mineral content. In general, ash content is highly variable ranging from 0.02% toover 1%. Potassium accounts for about one-third of the total amount. The other mineralsin honey are sodium, calcium and magnesium. Less abundant elements found are iron,manganese, copper, chlorine, phosphorus, sulphur and silicon.Enzymes-One of the characteristics that set honey apart from all other sweetening agents isthe presence of enzymes. These conceivably arise from the honey bee and also fromtraces of plant enzymes. Those most prominent enzymes are added by the honey beesduring the conversion of nectar to honey. Some of the most important honey enzymes areα - glucosidase, β- glucosidase, glucose oxidase, catalase, acidphosphatase, and α-amylase and β- amylase.α-glucosidase- It is probably the most significant honey enzyme and is responsible forinversion of nectar disaccharide sucrose into its constituent monosaccharide.Glucose oxidase- It is responsible for the antibacterial property of honey. Thisantibacterial agent is produced by the action of glucose oxidase on its glucose substratei.e dextrose that produces hydrogen peroxide and gluconic acid. The acidity of this islargely responsible for the low pH of honey resulting in low water activity which helps tostabilize honey against fermentation.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 51 Catalase- It is responsible for converting hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.Diastase- It is added to nectar by bees during ripening and is a mixture of α- and β-amylase. The activity of honey diastase is known to be reduced upon heating and ismeasured to estimate the extent of heating to which a honey has been exposed.Properties of honey-53A. Physical PropertiesHoney is a thick, syrupy liquid, the colour of which varies from pale yellow,amber to darkish red and nearly black. The variations in colour are almost entirely due tothe plant source although the climate may modify the colour through the darkening actionof heat.Honey is translucent when fresh but becomes opaque and granular due to thecrystallization of dextrose. It has a characteristic odour and sweet, faintly acrid taste.Aroma and flavor of honey is ascribed to the various sugars, aminoacids, tannins andminor, non-volatile substances. The additional contribution to flavor is due to alkaloidcompounds specific to plant sources. The honey is levorotatory at 200º C slightly acid tolitmus paper. The specific gravity of honey is 1.35-1.36 at 20ºC.B. Physico-chemical PropertiesThe polyphenol compounds in honey causes astringency and also responsible for thedevelopment of final colour, taste and aroma. The oxidation of phenolic compounds inthe presence of polyphenolase enzymes result in brown discolouration.The heat induced browning reactions take place in two ways- Caramelization andMaillard reaction.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 52 Caramelization reactions-The sugars in dry state or in syrup when heated undergoreaction depending upon the temperature and the presence of catalyst. There will bereactions leading to the equilibrium of aanomeric and ring forms, inversion of sucrose,condensation reactions leading to the formation of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides,isomerisation, dehydration and fragmentation. All these lead to the formation unsaturatedpolymers with brown colour.Maillard reactions- It is a complex group of many reactions wherein carbonyl group ofacyclic sugars combine with basic amino group of proteins, peptides, aminoacids etc.,The sugar amines polymerize to form red brown to dark brown compounds.Granulation of honey is due to the dextrose which can spontaneously crystallize. Thegranulated honey becomes more susceptible to spoilage by fermentation andobjectionable to consumer. Honey that has granulated can be returned to liquid state bydirect or indirect heating. Stirring accelerates the dissolution of crystals.The honey is hygroscopic i.e. absorbs water from the surrounding. The honey haslower water activity as it is a saturated mixture of monosacharides – fructose and glucose.It create a poor environment for the growth of micro- organisms. pH of honey rangesbetween 3.2- 4.5. The range of pH is maintained by gluconolactone and gluconic acid init.C. Medicinal properties-i) Anti- bacterial activity-Honey act as bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal. It is not a suitable mediumfor bacteria for two reasons-i.e. it is fairly acid and has too high sugar content. The
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 53 killing of bacteria by high sugar content is due to the osmotic effect. The presence ofthe enzyme inhibine in honey is also responsible for its antibacterial activity. Usuallygram (+) ve strains are first affected followed by gram (-) ve strains which takes up to48 hrs.ii) Anti- fungal activity-Honey acts against yeast and some species of Aspergillus.iii) Antioxidant activity-Honey contains many phenolic and non- phenolic antioxidant moleculeswhich protects the cell from damage when consumed regularly.Production of honey-Honey bees ingest nectar and store it in their honey sac. The honey sac weighs 40-70mg when full and can account for more than 90% of the weight of the bee. Enzymesare secreted and mixed with the sac contents. Then the contents are passed to the housebees that carry out the ripening process.Ripening of honey-This consists of alternately expelling and ingesting the honey sac fluid for 15-20min. When the nectar has lost about half of its moisture, small droplets of this semi-ripened honey are deposited in the comb cells. In 1-3 days numerous enzyme- mediatedchanges occur and honey attains density. The cells are then capped with wax and thehoney stored as food. Compositional changes continue during ripening, the mostprominent result being the production of an increase in complex array of sugars due to
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 54 the continuous enzyme activity. Hydrogen peroxide is also formed by the enzymaticreactions in order to stabilize honey against micro- organisms.Processing of honey-The honeys that are available in the market are processed honey. The primaryobjectives of commercial honey processing include maintaining the desired texture, toreduce granulation and also keep it free from fermentation.Bee keepers remove the hive units and then remove the cappings by mechanicalslicing. The honey is then extracted by centrifugal separation. Raw honey containspollen, wax, sugar-tolerant yeast and often some crystals of glucose monohydrate.The methods that are well established and accomplished since many years forprocessing honey before large scale marketing are as follows-Pasteurization- The honey is generally heated at 70-75º C to destroy yeasts to dissolvesugar crystals.Pressure filtration- This process is used to produce liquid honey after controlled heating.Liquification- Central Bee Research and Training Institute in Pune have recentlydeveloped a honey liquefier which serves as a pre- heating unit for further honeyprocessing.The other commercial processes are straining, micro- filtration and vacuum evaporation.Generally the application of heat to honey requires careful control so that the colour,flavor and aroma of honey are not impaired.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 55 Quality deterioration of honey- 54The honey quality can be affected in number of ways. The common factors thatcontribute to quality deterioration includes- Fermentation, Thermal treatment andformation of Hydroxy Methyl Furfuraldehyde (HMF).Fermentation-Fermentation of honey is caused by the action of yeasts upon the sugars dextroseand levulose, resulting in the formation of ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. The alcoholin the presence of oxygen is broken down into acetic acid and water. As a result, honeythat has been fermented may taste sour. The yeasts responsible for fermentation occurnaturally in honey. It is osmophilic thus can germinate and grow at much higher sugars.Thus, the water content is one of the factors concerned in spoilage by fermentation. Theother factors that results in fermentation are yeast count, temperature of storage andgranulation.Thermal treatment-Honey processing frequently requires heating both to reduce viscosity, and toprevent crystallization or fermentation.55Honey heating is generally carried in two ways: (1) In air- ventilated chambers, at 45-50˚C for 4/7 days or (2) By immersion of honey drums in hot water. Although, the secondmethod is more efficient, the first is most common.56Effects of thermal treatmentThermal treatment applied to honey produces a non- enzymatic browning due tomaillard reaction. There will be formation of brown pigments and development of
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 56 antioxidant activity during the reaction. But heating honey may also result in the adverseeffects as follows- change in flavours and viscosity, melting of sugar crystals, change insugar compositions, destruction of vitamins and bionutrients, decrease in diastase activityand increase in hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) content.As heating produce severe quality loss, the boundary thermal treatment assumedas the most severe conditions able to produce a permissible quality loss was at 140 Cduring 15 sec in the transient stage and 30 sec in isothermal stage.Hydroxy Methyl Furfuraldehyde (HMF)-HMF is used as an indicator of heat and storage changes in honey. Heating ofhoney results in HMF, which is formed during acid-catalyzed dehydration of hexoses.Heat increases the rate of reaction. The increase in speed of the reaction is exponential tothe increasing heat. HMF occurs naturally in honeys and usually increases with the heattreatment of honey. The codex level of HMF must not exceed 80 mg/kg honey in tropicalcountries. The factors influencing HMF production in honey are (a) Temperature andtime of heating57(b) Storage conditions; use of metallic containers58(c) The chemicalproperties of honey from which floral source honey has been extracted- like pH, totalacidity and mineral contents.59
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 57 REVIEW ON GHRUTAGhruta, obtained from the class Mammalia of the animal kingdom (Jangamadravya) is an essential food. According to Ayurveda, it is one among the ‘NityaSevaniya Aharadravya’. Ghruta is a Shreshta sneha dravya as it is used from birth andis Satmya to all the people and for all age groups. It acts as Tridosha shamaka since italleviates Vata by its Snigdhata and Madhuryata, Pitta by Saumya guna and SheetaVeerya and Kapha by Samskara. Ghee is a clarified butter fat, considered as vehiclefor various medicines, as it increases the potency of medicine. It also acts as aMedhya dravya and increases intellectual power.Derivation-The term ghruta is derived from the root word ‘Ghru’ and added with the prefix‘kta’. The root word indicates ‘Ghru’‘Ksharana deeptyo’ and ‘Ghru’ ‘Prasravane’which means to scarify, to shine and to sprinkle respectively.60Definition-Navaneetaja Padartha:| (Amarakosha)Ghruta is the product of navaneeta (butter).Pakwa navaneetam | Pakwa navaneete sarpimshi cha | (SKD)Ghruta (ghee) is the one produced by heating the butter.Sarpirvileenam Ajyam tu Ghaneebhootam Ghrutam Bhavet| 61When it is in liquid state it is termed as ‘Sarpi’ and when in denser(semi solid) state called as ‘Ghruta’.
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental studyDr. A. Annapoorani 59 Regional Names or Vernacular Names-70Sanskrit – GhrutaHindi – GhiKannada – TuppaTamil – NeyiTelugu – NeyiMalayalam – NeyyuMarathi – TupGujarati – GheeThulu – NaiUrdu – GheeBengali – Ghee, GhrutaArabic – ShamanaLatin – Butarum deparatumEnglish – Clarified butter, GheeClassification of GhrutaClassification is grouping of drugs into different categories on the basis ofcertain criteria. Classification is mainly done on the basis of its source, consistencyand duration of storage.I. Based on the source- 71A) 1. Navaneetotha ghruta- Samanya ghruta preparedout of navaneeta 2. Ksheerottha ghruta- Prepared out of cream derivedfrom ksheera B) 1. Go ghruta 2. Maahisha ghruta 3. Aja ghruta 4. Oushtra ghruta 5.Avi/Aavika ghruta 6. Ashwa ghruta 7. Kharabha ghruta 8. Hastini ghruta9. Naari ghruta 10. Ekashapha ghruta 11. Vana Chaga ghruta(Among these Goghruta – Best; Avighruta - Worst)II. Based on the consistency-1. Sarpi- Liquid2. Ghruta- Semisolid
Viruddhatwa of Madhu – An Analytical and Experimental study Dr. A. Annapoorani 60 III.Based on duration of storage-“Older the ghruta more the beneficial effects.” Based on the duration ofstorage ghee has been classified as follows-721. Nootana ghruta - Fresh ghee2. Hyastana Dugdhotta ghruta- Ghee prepared out of one day old milk3. Purana ghruta- 1-10 yr old4. Prapurana ghruta- More than 10 yr old5. Koumbha ghruta- 11-100 yr old6. Maha ghruta- More than 100 yr oldGhruta gana vargeekarana -Ghruta is categorized under different vargas by different Acharyas. It has been listedbelow- Charaka Samhita (CS) – Go-rasa varga Sushruta Samhita (SS) - Ghruta varga Ashtanga Hridaya (AH)- Ksheera varga Ashtanga Sangraha (AS) - Ksheera varga Bhavaprakasha Nighantu (BN) – Ghruta varga Kaiyyadeva Nighantu (KN) – Ghruta varga Raja Nighantu (RN) – Ksheeraadi varga Dhanwantari Nighantu (DN) -Suvarnaadi varga Madhanapala Nighantu (MN) – Paneeyadi varga Priya Nighantu (PN)- Drava vargas