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  • 0647515

    1. 1. 0647515
    2. 2. <ul><li>Acts of terrorism recorded over 2000 years ago in Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Term “terrorism” coined during the French Revolution (1790s) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Educational Deterence Fear always springs from ignorance. Emerson, 1837
    5. 5. <ul><li>Terrorism actually comes from the Latin Word “Fear” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Unlawful Use of Force Against Persons or Property to Intimidate or Coerce a Government, the Civilian Population, or Segment Thereof, in the Furtherance of Political or Social Objectives.”(Source FBI) </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>In November 2004, a United Nations Security Council report described terrorism as any act &quot;intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non-combatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organization to do or abstain from doing any act&quot;. (Note that this report does not constitute international law). </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Terrorism has its own logic that links </li></ul><ul><li>–– Goals </li></ul><ul><li>–– Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>–– Strategy </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Political goals: </li></ul><ul><li>– To create a sense of vulnerability in larger target population </li></ul><ul><li>–– To publicize terrorists’ plight; gain recognition </li></ul><ul><li>–– To embolden their allies and supporters; gain support </li></ul><ul><li>–– To push adversary into self--constraining acts 􀂃 </li></ul><ul><li>–– To force policy change by adversary by public pressure </li></ul><ul><li>turn public wrath against authorities (why are we vulnerable?) </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Military Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Government Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Large Cities </li></ul><ul><li>International Airports </li></ul><ul><li>Public Gatherings </li></ul><ul><li>High-Profile Landmarks </li></ul>
    10. 10. Anatomy of a Terrorist Attack Preparation 5 years Execution 1 day Diagnosed case 3 days First Death Multiple deaths Terrorism takes much Time and planning
    11. 11. <ul><li>Terrorism is an ancient tactic. </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism is a mode of communication . </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism is a special type of violence and Asymmetrical warfare . </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism is used in times of peace, conflicts and war . </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism is designed to make a point, through psychological means, fear. </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism is a political act . </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Firearms </li></ul><ul><li>Explosive and Incendiary Devices(Arson 纵火 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Agents </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Agents </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Weapon </li></ul><ul><li>cyber </li></ul><ul><li>others </li></ul>
    13. 14. <ul><li>70% of Attacks Worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Maximizes Property Damage </li></ul><ul><li>Target Individuals (Letter or Package Bombs) </li></ul><ul><li>Destroy Building, Aircraft, Monuments, etc.. </li></ul><ul><li>Large Devices, Truck or Car Bombs </li></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>Nationalist </li></ul><ul><li>Religious </li></ul><ul><li>State-sponsored </li></ul><ul><li>Left-wing </li></ul><ul><li>Right-wing </li></ul><ul><li>Anarchist </li></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>Nationalist terrorists seek to form a separate state for their own national group, often by drawing attention to a fight for “national liberation” that they think the world has ignored. </li></ul><ul><li>Sundan </li></ul>
    16. 17. <ul><li>Religious terrorists seek to use violence to further what they see as divinely commanded purposes, often targeting broad categories of foes in an attempt to bring about sweeping changes. </li></ul>
    17. 18. <ul><li>State-sponsored terrorist groups are deliberately used by radical states as foreign policy tools—as Hoffman puts it, as “a cost-effective way of waging war covertly, through the use of surrogate warriors or ‘guns for hire.’” </li></ul>
    18. 19. <ul><li>Left-wing terrorists are out to destroy capitalism and replace it with a communist or socialist regime. </li></ul><ul><li>Because they see most civilians as suffering from capitalist exploitation, left-wing terrorists sometimes have limited their use of violence to avoid hurting the victims they say they want to save. </li></ul><ul><li>Left-wing terrorists sometimes focus instead on such tactics as kidnapping tycoons or bombing monuments. </li></ul><ul><li>Al—Qaida </li></ul>
    19. 20. <ul><li>Right-wing terrorists are among the least organized terrorists, often associated with neo-Nazi street rioting in Western Europe, especially in the early 1980s. These groups, often dominated by skinheads, seek to do away with liberal democratic governments and create fascist states in their place. </li></ul><ul><li>美国三 K 党 (Ku Klux Klan) ,种族主义极端组织 </li></ul>
    20. 21. <ul><li>From the 1870s until about 1920, anarchist terrorism was a major global phenomenon. Revolutionaries seeking to overthrow established governments launched a wave of bombings and assassinated a series of heads of state; one such victim was President William McKinley, killed in 1901 by a young Hungarian refugee influenced by anarchist sentiments. </li></ul><ul><li>Some experts see signs of a new interest in anarchist violence arising out of the recent wave of protests against globalization. </li></ul>
    21. 22. <ul><li>Al-Qaida(Afghanistan) </li></ul><ul><li>Armed Islamic Group (GIA)(Algiers) </li></ul><ul><li>Al-Jihad /Egyptian Islamic Jihad/Jihad Group, Islamic Jihad(Egypt) </li></ul><ul><li>Ku Klux Klan (KKK) </li></ul><ul><li>The Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement( 东突伊斯兰运动 ) </li></ul>
    22. 23. <ul><li>1983 U.S. Embassy & Marine Barracks, Lebanon </li></ul><ul><li>1989 LockerbenPA103 bombing </li></ul><ul><li>1993 World Trade Center </li></ul><ul><li>1996 Oklahoma City </li></ul><ul><li>1996 Khobar Towers, Saudi Arabia </li></ul><ul><li>1998 East Africa Embassy Bombings </li></ul><ul><li>2000 USS Cole (Yemen) </li></ul><ul><li>2001 WTC & Pentagon </li></ul>year killed wounded U.S. Embassy & Marine Barracks 1983 305 110 Pan Am 103 1988 189 —— World Trade Center 1993 6 1000 Nairobi &Dar es Slaam 1998 12 11,5000(non—U.S.) USS Cole 2000 17 39 WTC & Pentagon 2001 3350 ? Mumbai 2008 188 313
    23. 24. <ul><li>The photo earned the 1996 Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Photography. </li></ul>
    24. 26. <ul><li>Primary prevention: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the differences in cultures, religions, beliefs and human behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think of the peace, freedom and equality of all human beings, not just “my group of people” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate the root of terrorism </li></ul></ul>
    25. 27. <ul><li>Secondary prevention: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish surveillance and monitoring system on terrorism attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve protective system for citizens </li></ul></ul>
    26. 28. <ul><li>Tertiary prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early detection of the sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent the extension of impairments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rescue the survivors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Console the rest of the population </li></ul></ul>