SEMANTICS Ayu Anita Yuhaesih Putri Fani Yasiroh 3AUniversity Of Mathla’ul Anwar
WHAT IS SEMANTICS ? Semantics is the branch of linguistics that deals with the study of meaning, changes in meaning, and the principles that govern the relationship between sentences or words and their meanings. (wikipedia.com) Semantics is the technical term used to refer to the study of meaning, and, since meaning is a part of language, semantics is a part of linguistics.
THE DIMENSIONS OF MEANING The meaning is linguistic forms that have to be mental concepts in the readers mind. (Language Write) The purpose is the original meaning of the speakers, only known by the speaker. (Languages Spoken) Ferdinand de Saussure, every linguistic sign consists of signifiant: be a sound signifie: his form or concept
In general, the meaning can be divided into four types, namely: Lexical meaning is the meaning that can be identified without connecting with other elements. Grammatical meaning is the meaning of linguistic units yangb only be identified after it joined forces with the other linguistic units.
Denotative meaning, is a component of the overall meaning beyond language referred to by a word. Example: Nani arms length 20 cm. Connotative meanings, is based on the meaning of emotive value contained in a form of language. Example: Beware of friends with Brandon because he long hand.
SHIFTING MEANING Widespread / generalization, ie the meaning of the word is now wider than the original meaning, eg, farmers, ranchers, sailing, mother, etc.. Narrowed / specialization, which are now a narrower meaning than the meaning of the word origin. Example: pastors, scholars, etc.. Improved / amelioratif, the meaning of which is now better than the original meaning of the word. Example: a woman, waitress, etc..
Deteriorated / pejorative, meaning that now is worse than the original meaning of the word. Example: chant, gangs, corrupt, etc Synesthesia, the meaning of which arise because of the different sensory feedback. Example: name fragrant. Association, the meanings of words that arise due to the nature of the equation. Example: Be careful speculator faces in cinema
MEANING RELATIONS Antonyms: relationship opposite meaning. example: Todays father suffered a great loss. Today dad had a big profit. Synonyms: a close relationship or the same meaning. example: Mansur looked at him. Ani saw it happen.
Polysemy: the meaning of the relationship and the other denotative meaning connotative meaning. example: Yesterday afternoon he fell from a mango tree. His business went bust caused his best friend. Hiponim: word association is more narrow (specific word). example: rose, jasmine, orchid is hiponim of interest
Hipernim: broader relationship words (common words). example: seeing is a common word from glancing, staring, peeking, looking Homonyms: words that have the same text and sound. example: can: be be: poison
Homophones: words that have the same sound. example: mass: the crowds time: time Homograph: words that have the same handwriting. Example in indonesian: apple: fruit Apel: compulsory reporting
SEMANTICS ROLE Historically two types of roles Very abstract like AGENT & PATIENT Verb specific like EATER and EATEN for “eat” FrameNet defines and intermediate, schematic representation of situations, with participants, props and conceptual roles.A frame being a situation description can be activated by multiple verbs or other constituents
Role Of Semantics analysis Following parsing, the next two phases of the "typical" compiler are semantic analysis (intermediate) code generation The principal job of the semantic analyzer is to enforce static semantic rules constructs a syntax tree (usually first) information gathered is needed by the code generator