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Cancer

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Types of Cancer

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Cancer

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  2. 2. CONTENT • What is cancer? • Origin of cancer • Common cancer types • Symptoms of cancer • Type of cancer treatments • The 10 step anti-cancer program, • The top anti-cancer foods • Foods to consider avoiding • Healthy recipes
  3. 3. What is Cancer? Defining Cancer Cancer is a term used for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and are able to invade other tissues. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start - for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer; cancer that begins in basal cells of the skin is called basal cell carcinoma. Cancer types can be grouped into broader categories. The main categories of cancer include: • Carcinoma - cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs. • Sarcoma - cancer that begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. • Leukemia - cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. • Lymphoma and myeloma - cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. • Central nervous system cancers - cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord. Cancel Cell
  4. 4. Origins of Cancer • All cancers begin in cells, the body's basic unit of life. To understand cancer, it's helpful to know what happens when normal cells become cancer cells. • The body is made up of many types of cells. These cells grow and divide in a controlled way to produce more cells as they are needed to keep the body healthy. When cells become old or damaged, they die and are replaced with new cells. • However, sometimes this orderly process goes wrong. The genetic material (DNA) of a cell can become damaged or changed, producing mutations that affect normal cell growth and division. When this happens, cells do not die when they should and new cells form when the body does not need them. The extra cells may form a mass of tissue called a tumor.
  5. 5. Common Cancer Types • Bladder Breast Cancer • Melanoma • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma • Colon and Rectal Cancer • Pancreatic Cancer • Endometrial Cancer • Prostate Cancer • Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer • Skin Cancer (Nonmelanoma) • Leukemia • Thyroid Cancer • Lung Cancer
  6. 6. Symptoms of Cancer Cancer is a broad term that encompasses over one hundred different types of cancer. Although each type has its own set of characteristics, there are some cancer symptoms that occur in many types of cancer. It is important to note that some types of cancer do not present any symptoms until they are in advanced stages. This is why cancer screening and risk assessment are vital for cancer prevention and early detection. Symptoms of Cancer A broad spectrum of non-specific cancer symptoms may include: Persistent Fatigue: Fatigue is one of the most commonly experienced cancer symptoms. It is usually more common when the cancer is advanced, but still occurs in the early stages of some cancers. Anemia is commonly the culprit -- a condition that is associated with many types of cancer, especially types affecting the bowel. Fatigue is a symptom of both malignant and non-malignant conditions and should be evaluated by a physician. Unintentional Weight Loss: While it may be a welcome surprise to lose weight without trying, it can be a red flag for many illnesses, including cancer. Losing 10 pounds or more unintentionally definitely warrants a visit to the doctor. This type of weight loss can occur with or without loss of appetite. Remember, weight loss can be a symptom of cancer, but is also a symptom of many other illnesses, too. • Pain Typically, pain is not an early symptom of cancer, except in some cancer types like those that spread to the bone. Pain generally occurs when cancer spreads and begins to affect other organs and nerves. - Lower pack pain is cancer symptom that is associated with ovarian cancer and colon cancer. Shoulder pain can also be a symptom of lung cancer. Pain in the form of headaches can be associated with brain tumors (malignant and benign). - Stomach pains can be related to types of cancer, like stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer, and many others. Stomach pain can be a very vague symptom because so many illnesses can cause stomach pain. • Fever: A fever is a very non-specific symptom of many mild to severe conditions, including cancer. In relation to cancer, a fever that is persistent or one that comes and goes frequently can signal stress on the immune system. Fevers are commonly associated with types of cancer that affects the blood, like leukemia and lymphoma, but are also common in people whose cancer has spread. Bowel Changes: If you experience constipation, diarrhea, blood in the stools, gas, thinner stools, or just a general overall change in bowel habits, see your doctor. These symptoms are most commonly associated with colon cancer, but are also related to other cancer types. Chronic Cough: A persistent, new cough or a cough that won't go away or becomes worse needs to be evaluated by a doctor. Blood and/or mucus may accompany the cough and can be caused many conditions. In relation to cancer, a chronic cough with blood or mucus can be symptom of lung cancer.
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  8. 8. Type of Cancer Treatments Cancer Treatment Information Information about cancer treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, clinical trials, proton therapy, complementary medicine, and cutting edge technologies. • Biologic Therapy • Bone Marrow Transplants • Chemotherapy • Clinical Trials • Complementary Medicine • Gene Therapy • General Treatment Concerns • Hormone Therapy • PDT Center • Proton Therapy • Radiation Oncology • Surgical Oncology • Targeted Therapies • Vaccine Therapies
  9. 9. THE 10-STEP ANTI-CANCER PROGRAM • Reduce stress. • Stay lean. • Increase exercise. • Limit dietary fat to 20 percent of total calories, with less than 10 percent of total calories as saturated fats. Eliminate hydrogenated fats. • Increase fiber to between 25 and 35 grams a day. • Eat lots of fresh fruits and vegetables. • Eat foods high in the antioxidants beta carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E. • Switch from red meat to seafood and soy products. • Eat foods high in calcium. • Consider daily supplements of the following: – Vitamin C, 500 mg. – Calcium, 500 mg. – Flaxseed meal (ground flaxseed), 30 grams – Acidophilus powder, 1 teaspoon – Vitamin E, 200 IU – Selenium, 100 mcg.
  10. 10. THE TOP ANTI-CANCER FOODS Anti-cancer vegetables: • broccoli • brussel sprouts • cabbage • carrots • cauliflower • eggplant • green beans • kale • onions (red) • peppers • radishes • soy • squash • sweet potatoes • tomatoes • Yams Anti-cancer fruits: • apricots • blueberries • grapefruit • grapes • lemons • mangoes • oranges • papayas • peaches • persimmons • strawberries, organic • tangerines
  11. 11. Foods to consider avoiding • 1%, 2% and whole milk • Meats with 96% fat or less Red meats Hydrogenated oils, such as stick margarine. • Or foods that list hydrogenated oils in their ingredients Food with high butter fat and other animal fats such as whole milk or creams such as cheese, full fat yogurt, butter, sauces. They feed the cancers and can interfere with caroteniods absorption Deep-fried foods.
  12. 12. Healthy recipes Easy lemon chicken Preparation and cooking time: 35 minutes Per serving: Calories: 380kcal Fat: 10g Salt: 0.3g 5 A DAY: 1.5 Ingredients (serves 2) 2 small (200g/8oz) chicken breasts, skin removed Zest and juice of 1 large lemon 1 dessertspoon olive oil 1 clove garlic, crushed 100g/4oz wholegrain brown rice 300g/12oz broccoli spears Method Measure the olive oil into a small dish that can go both on the Hob and in the oven. Add the crushed garlic and cook gently over a low heat for 2 minutes. Wipe the two chicken breasts across the dish to give them a Light coating of oil. Then pour the juice of the lemons over the Chicken breasts and sprinkle the zest over the top. Place the dish in the middle of a preheated oven at 150ºC/325ºF/Gas Mark 4, and cook for 30 minutes. Meanwhile, cook the wholegrain brown rice according to the instructions on the packet, and lightly steam or boil the broccoli. Serve the chicken breast on a warmed plate with the rice and drained broccoli and spoon some of the lemon juice over the Top to add extra flavour. Cabbage and carrot coleslaw with roasted peanuts Preparation and cooking time: 10 minutes Per serving: Calories: 215kcal Fat: 14g Salt: 0.4g 5 A DAY: 2 Ingredients (serves 2) •2 tablespoons rice vinegar, or to taste 1 tablespoon toasted sesame oil 1 teaspoon honey 1 teaspoon reduced-salt soy sauce 150g/5oz coarsely grated carrots 150g/5oz coarsely shredded cabbage 25g/1oz chopped unsalted dry-roasted peanuts Method 1.In a large bowl, whisk together the vinegar, sesame oil, honey and soy sauce. 2.Add the carrots and cabbage and toss to blend. 3.Sprinkle the peanuts on top and serve at room temperature.
  13. 13. Lead healthy lifestyle to reduce risk of cancer (Published on Monday, March 1, 2010 – The Brunei Times) BRUNEIANS have been urged to lead a healthy lifestyle to reduce the risk of cancer and advised to seek treatment as soon as possible. Dr Hj Muhd Syafiq Abdullah, oncology specialist at the National Cancer Centre said that cancer can be prevented if treated early, adding that if a person who came in during stage one, there is still high chances of survival. "From 2004 to 2008, cancer has been the number one killer next to heart disease. We can reduce the risk of cancer by a change of lifestyle," he said in his presentation"Cancer Prevention". He added: “Be good to yourself, take healthy diets and do a lot of exercises, don’t smoke, those who drink alcohol should do so in moderation and reduce exposure to the sun as this can also cause skin cancer.” Head of Research and Evaluation Section of the Health Promotion Centre Dr Pg Hishamuddin Pg Hj Dato Paduka Badaruddin said that cancer has always been pictured as suffering, but it could still be prevented. Useful links http://www.bt.com.bn/en/news-national/2010/03/01/lead-healthy-lifestyle-r http://www.bt.com.bn/en/news-national/2010/03/01/lead-healthy-lifestyle-reedduuccee-r-irsiskk-c-caanncceerr hhttttpp:/:///wwwwww.m.moohh.g.goovv.b.bnn//hheeaaltlthhpprroommoottioionnss//hheeaaltlthhttooppicicss.h.httmm World Cancer Day - RTB News | Brunei News | Breaking News | Asian ... 4 Feb 2010 ... The theme is in line with the effort of the Ministry of Health to raise public ... To further improve treatment and health care services, ... to an any loss or damage caused by use of information from this web site. … www.rtbnews.rtb.gov.bn/?c=newsDetail&news_id=5213 World Cancer Day - RTB News | Brunei News | Breaking News | Asian ... 4 Feb 2010 ... The theme is in line with the effort of the Ministry of Health to raise public ... To further improve treatment and health care services, ... to an any loss or damage caused by use of information from this web site. … www.rtbnews.rtb.gov.bn/?c=newsDetail&news_id=5213
  14. 14. Quiz 1. Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally a) True . b) False 2. Standard treatments for cancer include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. a) True . b) False 3. People undergoing cancer treatment have fewer side effects when they eat a well-balanced diet. a) True . b) False 4. During chemotherapy, everyone loses their hair. a) True b) False . 5. Smoking cigars does not cause lung cancer. a) True b) False . 6. Eating five or more servings of fruits and vegetables each day may reduce your risk for certain types of cancer. a) True. b) False 7. Eating high-fat animal foods such as red meat won't increase your cancer risk. a) True b) False. 8. Drinking red wine or other alcoholic beverages can reduce your cancer risk. a) True b) False. 9. Studies suggest that people who consume lots of antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin A and carotenoids) from food sources have a lower cancer risk. a) True. b) False 10. Limiting your intake of preserved meats may reduce your cancer risk. a) True. b) False 11. Eating lots of cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and cabbage) may reduce your cancer risk. a) True. b) False CCaanncceerr c ceellll
  15. 15. Quiz Answers 1. Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally a) True . b) False 2. Standard treatments for cancer include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. a) True . b) False 3. People undergoing cancer treatment have fewer side effects when they eat a well-balanced diet. a) True . b) False 4. During chemotherapy, everyone loses their hair. a) True b) False . 5. Smoking cigars does not cause lung cancer. a) True b) False . 6. Eating five or more servings of fruits and vegetables each day may reduce your risk for certain types of cancer. a) True. b) False 7. Eating high-fat animal foods such as red meat won't increase your cancer risk. a) True b) False. 8. Drinking red wine or other alcoholic beverages can reduce your cancer risk. a) True b) False. 9. Studies suggest that people who consume lots of antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin A and carotenoids) from food sources have a lower cancer risk. a) True. b) False 10. Limiting your intake of preserved meats may reduce your cancer risk. a) True. b) False 11. Eating lots of cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and cabbage) may reduce your cancer risk. a) True. b) False

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