Farouq Ayiworoh Ethics in Qualitative Research


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  • Thanks a lot for this. I will use this as reference for my lecture in Ethics in Business Research
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  • Thank you Steve! Considering that we have slide shares on ethical and privacy considerations in using Facebook for research, ethical considerations in online research, and ethical considerations in a rural context, I decided to briefly define qualitative research and touch on some major qualitative designs. Thanks.
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  • This is a big topic, and you did a good job summarizing it - I especially liked the points raised in the conclusions slide.
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  • Thanks Joel and good point, I did not think about the comic being taken a bit out of context. I would add text and move it to the end! Good point.
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  • I am wondering if the comic on slide 10, is actually talking about consent being taken to the extreme and not related to research ethics specifically. It seems that it might be taken a bit out of context. Just wondering if it should be placed somewhere else in the presentation or prefaced in some way?
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Farouq Ayiworoh Ethics in Qualitative Research

  2. 2. LEARNING OUTCOME • Brief Overview of Qualitative Research• Know key Unethical Qualitative Researches Conducted• Understand key Ethical Issues & Principles in Qualitative Research
  3. 3. HANCOCK (1998) ARGUES THAT QUALITATIVE RESEARCH INVOLVES THE FOLLOWING • Understanding opinions, experiences, feelings of individuals or communities to produce subjective data to make generalizations • Exploring social phenomenon or issues by examining people or communities in their natural settings• Describing cultures, social stratifications and social groups in their natural settings• Exploring relationships between individuals or communities, cultural norms, and economic and political ideas
  4. 4. MAJOR TYPES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS • Phenomenology - literally, the study of phenomena; describing situations or something that exists as part of our world• Ethnography - the scientific study of human social phenomena and communities, involves the descriptive study of culture and people, traditions and norms as they are in specific geographical locations • Grounded theory - using empirical data without preconceived theories, involves the development of new theories by collecting and analysis of data about a phenomenon• Case study - in-depth study of a particular situation or an intensive analysis of an individual unit (Hancock, 1998)
  5. 5. CORE RESEARCH ETHICAL PRINCIPLES & ISSUESCore ethical principles and issues of qualitative research include respect to persons, concern for welfare, informed consent process, confidentiality and anonymity, and privacy (Orb, Eisenhauer & Wynaden, 2001; Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans, 2010)
  6. 6. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ETHICAL PRINCIPLES & ISSUES • Informed • Confidentiality Consent Process Respect Beneficence for Persons Concern for Justice Welfare • Privacy • Anonymity
  7. 7. ACCORDING TO ORB, EISENHAUER & WYNADEN (2001)Ethics in qualitative research involves avoiding harmin research. Qualitative researchers are responsible for ensuring that they adhere to the guidelines of ethical principles and issues of their research
  8. 8. SOME KEY UNETHICAL ISSUES IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH HISTORY• Tuskegee Syphilis Study of 1932 to 1972 (Orb, Eisenhauer & Wynaden, 2001)• Nuremberg Code of 1946 to 1949 (Fouka & Mantzorou, 2011) • Milgram’s Obedience Experiment; 1963
  9. 9. RESPECT FOR PEOPLE OR PARTICIPANTS • Recognition and ensuring participants right to informed consent, consent may be given in written format, verbally and audio-taped, or videotaped • Informed Consent is a procedure by which participants choose whether or not to participate in a research, consent is ongoing, can be revoked at any time during the research or study• Consent is direct when the agreement is obtained directly from the participants. It is indirect or third party when it is given by someone other than the person to be involved in the research study (Orb, Eisenhauer & Wynaden, 2001)
  10. 10. ELEMENTS OF CONSENT; CAPACITY, INFORMATION, AND VOLUNTARINESS (FOUKA & MANTZOROU, 2011)• Capacity: participants ability to acquire, retain, and evaluate information; participants are deemed competent or incompetent based on their capacity• Information: effectively communicated to participants, both substance and manner. Consent must be written in the language that participants can understand• Voluntariness: participants ability to exercise the free power of choice without the intervention of force, fraud, deceit, duress, or other forms of constraint or coercion; any undue influence would violate the principle of voluntariness
  11. 11. BENEFICENCE & CONCERN FOR WELFARE OF PARTICIPANTS• Beneficence as an ethical principle in qualitative research means preventing harm and doing good for others in research (Orb, Eisenhauer & Wynaden (2001) • Beneficence and Welfare of participants include issues such as the impact of the research on participants physically, psychological, spiritually, economic, and socially (Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans, 2010)
  12. 12. PRIVACY, CONFIDENTIALITY, & ANONYMITY• Privacy, confidentiality, and anonymity issues are closely connected with concern for welfare of participants• Privacy, confidentiality, and anonymity have become an increasingly valued right in qualitative research (Richards & Schwartz, 2002)
  13. 13. DEALING WITH PRIVACY, CONFIDENTIALITY, & ANONYMITY• Maintaining the principle of beneficence and concern for welfare of participants means that researchers must be aware of the potential consequences of revealing participants’ identities• The use of pseudonyms is recommended when dealing with confidentiality and anonymity• Total privacy is virtually nonexistent so participants are required on occasion to yield a certain amount of privacy for one reason or another
  14. 14. FAIRNESS & EQUITY IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH• Researchers shall not exclude participants in a qualitative research on the basis of their ethnicity, gender, race, culture, age, or sexual orientation • Qualitative researchers are required to address the fair inclusion or exclusion of individuals and equitable treatment of participants(Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans, 2010)
  15. 15. COMMENTS ON QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ETHICS • Qualitative researchers need to handle capacity, a key component of informed consent carefully because the age of majority depends on where the research is being done. For example the age of majority in Canada is different from other countries. In Ontario the legal age of driving a motor vehicle is lower in rural communities• You are doing a study on teenage pregnancies in Congo, Africa. You find that many of the young women you interview bring up stories of sexual trauma they have experienced, including rape. There are instances that the interview became upsetting to both you and the participant. Your research ethics board has already approved your informed consent form to talks about the risk of feeling uncomfortable with some of the questions. But the responses are overwhelming than you expected. What do you do? Should you stop the interviews and revise your consent form or should you report this to the research ethics board?
  16. 16. CONCLUSION • Power and relationship issues between researchers and participants are primary to consider in qualitative research • Qualitative researchers are responsible for ethical principles and issues of their research • Qualitative researchers need to know their participants, know what risk are involved and how to minimize them• Key qualitative research principles and issues are intertwined; if you are in doubt contact your research ethics board (REB)• Key qualitative ethical principles and issue include Respect for Persons, Concern for Welfare, Beneficence, Justice, Informed consent, Privacy and Anonymity, and Confidentiality
  17. 17. REFERENCESCanadian Institutes of Health Research, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, andSocial Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct forResearch Involving Humans. (December 2010)Hancock, B. (1998). Trent Focus for Research and Development in Primary Health Care: An Introduction toQualitative Research. Trent FocusGeorgia Fouka, G., Mantzorou, M. (2011).What are the Major Ethical Issues in Conducting Research? Is there aConflict between the Research Ethics and the Nature of Nursing? Health Science Journal Volume 5, Issue 1.pp:3-14 E-ISSN:1791-809XOrb, A., Eisenhauer, L., Wynaden, D. (2001). Ethics in Qualitative Research: Journal of Nursing Scholarship.33:1, 93-96Richards, H.M,. Schwartz, L.J. (2002). Ethics in qualitative research: are there special issues for health careservices research? Family practice; Volume 19. No. 2. pp. 135 – 139How important are ethics in our society image retrieved from:http://www.mdsg.umd.edu/programs/research/reu/ethics/index.htmlJoy of tech image, code of ethics logo, ethical research logo from: https://www.google.ca: Google images