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CBB 3024<br />PROCESS PLANT DESIGN<br />4 Credit-Hour Core Course<br />Semester May 2011<br />Lecturer :	Assoc. Prof. Dr. ...
PROGRAMME OUTCOMES – UTP CHEMICAL ENGINEERING<br />
COURSE OUTCOMES – CHEMICAL PLANT DESIGN<br />K – Knowledge<br />S – Skill<br />A – Attitude<br />
Course Content, Delivery & Assessment<br />
Assessment  :	Quizzes – 4  (5 %)	Assignments  -  3  (5%) 	 Projects  -  1 (10%)<br />		Tests  -  2  (20%)		Final Exam  -  ...
How to do so ?<br />Lecture 1. Introduction to Plant Design and Economics <br />The purpose of engineering is to create ma...
Raw Materials<br />+ Other Feeds<br />CHEMICAL <br />PROCESS<br />Products + Wastes<br />Energy<br />Energy<br />SO, A NUM...
Raw Materials<br />+ Other Feeds<br />CHEMICAL <br />PROCESS<br />Products + Wastes<br />Energy<br />Energy<br />PROCESS P...
Once the process concept has been designed which produces process flowsheet,<br />the equipment design then has to be perf...
The equipment design comprises of ;<br />Performance/Capacity Rating or Sizing<br />Vessel Mechanical Design<br />Equipmen...
The process safety and control strategy has to be devised;<br />Process Safety<br />Process Control Strategy<br /><ul><li>...
Risk Assessment</li></ul>HAZOP study<br />Risk Assessment Matrix<br /><ul><li>Material Control
Product Control</li></ul>Overall Plant and Equipment ….<br />
REACTOR<br />SEPARATION <br />& RECYCLE <br />SYSTEM<br />HEAT EXCHANGER<br />NETWORK<br />UTILITIES<br />And Waste Treatm...
Adjusting processes to minimise the generation of waste</li></li></ul><li>In finalising the process and equipment design, ...
Finally …..<br />
Lecture 2. Approaches and Stages of Process Plant Design<br />In the first stage, conceptual process design has to be cond...
……….and the target is to create the best possible feasible flowsheet for the process.<br />DEFINITION OF A FLOWSHEET.<br /...
A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH OR METHOD IS REQUIRED<br />The approach or method should be able to help in addressing these questio...
Now, what criteriashould be adopted besides economics during the design activities?<br />1. ADDRESS THE INDIVIDUAL <br />P...
Consider back the flowsheet !<br />RECYCLE<br />STEAM<br />FEED<br />REACTOR<br />PRODUCT 1<br />CW<br />PRODUCT 2<br />OP...
Consider the approaches/methods which have been introduced to deal with such complex optimisation ?<br />HEURISTIC METHOD<...
REACTOR<br />SEPARATION <br />& RECYCLE <br />SYSTEM<br />HEAT EXCHANGER<br />NETWORK<br />UTILITIES<br />HEURISTIC METHOD...
HEURISTIC METHOD – The Hierarchical Approach<br />The conceptual design is performed based on 5 different stages. The appr...
Semester July 2004<br />other process<br />alternatives<br />MATHEMATICAL METHOD – The Mixed Integer Linear/Nonlinear Prog...
From the conceptual process design, a flowsheet is generated for the process. The next stage would then be to address the ...
There are established methods for performing the design of these equipments ….<br />Reactor<br />Distillation<br />Heat Ex...
Given that each of the equipment will normally involved vessel operated at various pressure and temperature, the design of...
Health, Safety and Environment aspects are increasingly gaining attention in view of their importance. Therefore the desig...
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1 2 chem plantdesign-intro to plant design economics

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1 2 chem plantdesign-intro to plant design economics

  1. 1. CBB 3024<br />PROCESS PLANT DESIGN<br />4 Credit-Hour Core Course<br />Semester May 2011<br />Lecturer : Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohamed Ibrahim Abdul Mutalib<br /> Dr Mohanad El-Harbawi<br />Lecture Time : Mon 10 am – 12 noon ; Mon 1 – 3 pm<br /> : Thurs 11 am – 1 pm ; Fri 8 – 10 am<br />Location : LT D2 ; 21-01-04<br /> 17-02-06 21-02-07<br />
  2. 2. PROGRAMME OUTCOMES – UTP CHEMICAL ENGINEERING<br />
  3. 3. COURSE OUTCOMES – CHEMICAL PLANT DESIGN<br />K – Knowledge<br />S – Skill<br />A – Attitude<br />
  4. 4. Course Content, Delivery & Assessment<br />
  5. 5. Assessment : Quizzes – 4 (5 %) Assignments - 3 (5%) Projects - 1 (10%)<br /> Tests - 2 (20%) Final Exam - 1 (60%) <br />
  6. 6. How to do so ?<br />Lecture 1. Introduction to Plant Design and Economics <br />The purpose of engineering is to create material wealth – Douglas, Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes 1988.<br />The goal of the engineer is to design and produce artifacts and systems that are beneficial to mankind – Biegler, Grossman & Westerberg, Systematic Methods of Chemical Process Design 1997.<br />Energy<br />In<br />CHEMICAL <br />PROCESS<br />Raw Materials<br />+ Other Feeds<br />Products + Wastes<br />Energy Out<br />WHAT CAN YOU SAY ABOUT THE CHEMICAL PROCESS ?<br />In a chemical process, the transformation of raw materials into desired products usually cannot be achieved in a single step. Instead, the overall transformation is broken down into a number of steps that provide intermediate transformations. (Robin Smith, Chemical Process Design 1995)<br />
  7. 7. Raw Materials<br />+ Other Feeds<br />CHEMICAL <br />PROCESS<br />Products + Wastes<br />Energy<br />Energy<br />SO, A NUMBER OF PROCESSING STEPS MADE UP THE CHEMICAL PROCESS.<br />QUESTIONS?<br />- WHAT SORT OF PROCESSINGS ARE LOCATED IN THE CHEMICAL PROCESS? <br />- HOW DO WE SEQUENCE THE PROCESSING STEPS?<br />- TO WHAT EXTEND CAN WE EXPECT EACH OF THE PROCESSING STEP TO <br /> PERFORM AND WHAT FEATURES ARE REQUIRED? <br />- HOW MUCH ENERGY IS REQUIRED AND HOW MUCH IS PRODUCED?<br />- HOW MUCH FEEDS DO WE NEED AND HOW MUCH PRODUCTS ARE PRODUCED?<br />- HOW MUCH WASTES ARE GENERATED?<br /><ul><li>HOW MUCH PROFIT COULD BE DERIVED?</li></ul>HOW DO WE ADDRESS THIS?<br />Concept Design for Chemical Process<br />
  8. 8. Raw Materials<br />+ Other Feeds<br />CHEMICAL <br />PROCESS<br />Products + Wastes<br />Energy<br />Energy<br />PROCESS PLANT DESIGN IS THE NAME OF THE GAME HERE !<br />LITTLE OR LIMITED<br />INFORMATIONS ARE<br />AVAILABLE<br />BEFORE COMING UP WITH A COMPLETE PROCESS<br />But so many possibilities<br />or solutions !<br />Perhaps, the major features that distinguishes design problems from other types of engineering problems is that they are under defined; i.e., only a very small fraction of the information needed to define a design problem is available from the problem statement. <br />(Douglas, Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes 1988)<br />
  9. 9. Once the process concept has been designed which produces process flowsheet,<br />the equipment design then has to be performed…..<br />Distillation<br />
  10. 10. The equipment design comprises of ;<br />Performance/Capacity Rating or Sizing<br />Vessel Mechanical Design<br />Equipments’ Dimensions <br />– diameter& height<br />Heat Transfer Area Needed<br />No. of stages for contact<br />Internal Design<br />Wall thickness<br />Pipe fittings & Reinforcement<br />Support Design<br />
  11. 11. The process safety and control strategy has to be devised;<br />Process Safety<br />Process Control Strategy<br /><ul><li>Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP)
  12. 12. Risk Assessment</li></ul>HAZOP study<br />Risk Assessment Matrix<br /><ul><li>Material Control
  13. 13. Product Control</li></ul>Overall Plant and Equipment ….<br />
  14. 14. REACTOR<br />SEPARATION <br />& RECYCLE <br />SYSTEM<br />HEAT EXCHANGER<br />NETWORK<br />UTILITIES<br />And Waste Treatment/Minimisation need to also be addressed…<br />Waste Treatment (conventional)<br />Waste Minimisation (sustainability)<br /><ul><li>Suitable ‘end of pipe’ treatment on the effluent (gases & liquids)
  15. 15. Adjusting processes to minimise the generation of waste</li></li></ul><li>In finalising the process and equipment design, several stages of economic analysis could be conducted …<br />First step;<br />EP 1 = Revenue – Cost of Raw Material<br />Second Step (after mass balance developed)<br />EP 2 = Revenue – Cost of Raw Material - Utility<br />Third Step (after equipments designed)<br />EP 3 = Revenue – Cost of Raw Material – Utility – Annualised Cost of Equipment<br />The economics analysis continues with other costs (manpower, insurance etc) …. <br />Pay back time,<br />Return on Investment<br />Internal Rate of Return<br />with profitability analysis conducted at the end to assess project viability ……<br />
  16. 16. Finally …..<br />
  17. 17. Lecture 2. Approaches and Stages of Process Plant Design<br />In the first stage, conceptual process design has to be conducted.<br />In general conceptual process design has to address two major activities ….<br />1. ADDRESS THE INDIVIDUAL <br />PROCESS/TRANSFORMATION STEP<br />RECYCLE<br />STEAM<br />FEED<br />REACTOR<br />PRODUCT 1<br />CW<br />PRODUCT 2<br />2. ADDRESS THE REQUIRED <br />INTERCONNECTION BETWEEN THE STEPS<br />
  18. 18. ……….and the target is to create the best possible feasible flowsheet for the process.<br />DEFINITION OF A FLOWSHEET.<br />FLOWSHEET IS A DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE PROCESS <br />STEPS AND ITS INTERCONNECTIONS.<br />RECYCLE<br />STEAM<br />FEED<br />REACTOR<br />PRODUCT 1<br />CW<br />Str1<br />Str2<br />Str3<br />Str4<br />Str5<br />Str6<br />Str7<br />Str8<br />Str9<br />F<br />T<br />P<br />PRODUCT 2<br />x<br />H<br />THIS IS WHAT YOU WANT<br /> AT THE END OF THE STAGE !<br />WHAT OTHER INFORMATIONS SHOULD BE <br />AVAILABLE IN A FLOWSHEET ?<br />AND HOW DO YOU GET SUCH INFORMATION ?<br />
  19. 19. A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH OR METHOD IS REQUIRED<br />The approach or method should be able to help in addressing these questions … <br />Why is the unit operation selected ? <br />How are the unit operations connected ? <br />What are the utilities required and approximate amount ? <br />How will it be supplied to the process unit operations ? <br />What wastes will be generated? <br />However, as much as we would like to have a systematic approach or method, we must also recognised that process design is an art !<br />If we reflect on the nature of process synthesis and analysis, …. , we recognize that process design actually is an art, i.e., creative process. (Douglas, Conceptual Design of Chemical Processes 1988)<br />This course will develop the art to conduct process design !<br />
  20. 20. Now, what criteriashould be adopted besides economics during the design activities?<br />1. ADDRESS THE INDIVIDUAL <br />PROCESS/TRANSFORMATION STEP<br />RECYCLE<br />STEAM<br />FLOWSHEET<br />FEED<br />REACTOR<br />PRODUCT 1<br />CW<br />PRODUCT 2<br />2. ADDRESS THE REQUIRED <br />INTERCONNECTION BETWEEN THE STEPS<br />NON - QUANTIFIABLE <br />FACTOR !<br />QUANTIFIABLE <br />FACTOR !<br />VERSUS<br />HIGH SAFETY & INTEGRITY<br />MINIMISE COST<br />GOOD OPERATIONAL ASPECTS<br />MINIMISE WASTES GENERATION<br />MINIMISE ENERGY CONSUMPTION<br />..... BUT HOW TO OPTIMISE ?<br />
  21. 21. Consider back the flowsheet !<br />RECYCLE<br />STEAM<br />FEED<br />REACTOR<br />PRODUCT 1<br />CW<br />PRODUCT 2<br />OPTIMISING A SINGLE UNIT/STEP <br />IN THE PROCESS<br />EG. DISTILLATION COLUMN<br />OPTIMISING THE INTERCONNECTIONS<br />BETWEEN THE UNITS/STEPS IN THE PROCESS<br />MANY POSSIBLE CONNECTIONS WHICH LEAD<br />TO DIFFERENT STRUCTURES OF FLOWSHEET<br />THUS DIFFERENT ECONOMIC IMPACT EVEN TO THE<br />EXTENT OF THE INDIVIDUAL UNIT ITSELF!<br />RR --> ENERGY<br />TOTAL<br />COST<br />?<br />RR --> CAPITAL<br />RR<br />DIS-CONTINUOUS FUNCTION<br />CONTINUOUS FUNCTION<br />STRUCTURAL OPTIMISATION<br />PARAMETER OPTIMISATION<br />How do we tackle them ? <br />
  22. 22. Consider the approaches/methods which have been introduced to deal with such complex optimisation ?<br />HEURISTIC METHOD<br />MATHEMATICAL METHOD<br />MIXED INTEGER LINEAR/<br />NON-LINEAR PROGRAMMING<br />ONION MODEL<br />USE A SEQUENTIAL/HIERARCHICAL METHOD<br />ACCORDING TO FOLLOWING SEQUENCE ;<br />1. REACTOR<br />2. SEPARATION AND RECYCLE SYSTEM<br />3. HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK<br />4. UTILITIES<br />USE A MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMMING METHOD TO<br />SOLVE AND GIVE SOLUTION FOR THE PROCESS.<br />SIMULTANEOUS SOLUTION OF ALL THE SYSTEM. <br />DECISION ARE BASED ON SOLELY MATHEMATICAL <br />OPTIMISATION CRITERIA <br />DECISION ARE BASED ON ENGINEERING GUIDELINES<br />ESTABLISHED AND MATHEMATICAL OPTIMISATION <br />CONCEPT IS BASED ON<br />"CREATING AND OPTIMISING A REDUCIBLE <br />STRUCTURE"<br />CONCEPT IS BASED ON<br />"BUILDING AN IRREDUCIBLE STRUCTURE"<br />Grossman I. E, Comp. Chem. Eng., 9: 463, 1985<br />Smith R.,Chemical Process Design 1995<br />Biegler, Grossman & Westerberg, Systematic<br />Method of Chemical Process Design 1997<br />HIERARCHICAL APPROACH<br />USE A SEQUENTIAL/HIERARCHICAL METHOD<br />ACCORDING TO FOLLOWING SEQUENCE ;<br />1. BATCH VS CONTINUOUS<br />2. INPUT-OUTPUT STRUCTURE OF THE FLOWSHEET<br />3. RECYCLE STRUCTURE OF THE FLOWSHEET<br />4. GENERAL STRUCTURE OF SEPARATION SYSTEM<br />5. HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK<br />Douglas.,Conceptual Design of Chemical Process 1988<br />
  23. 23. REACTOR<br />SEPARATION <br />& RECYCLE <br />SYSTEM<br />HEAT EXCHANGER<br />NETWORK<br />UTILITIES<br />HEURISTIC METHOD – The Onion Model<br />- FOLLOWS ONION LOGIC<br />Design starts from the centre ( heart of process ) which is the reactor.<br />At each layer, decision has to be made to complete the design <br />requirement for the stage. As such, many best local optimal decisions <br />are made since the whole picture is incomplete. Unit/Equipment is <br />added only if it is economically justified based on the current available <br />information. This keeps the process (structure) irreducible and features <br />which are technically/economically redundant are not included.<br />What do you see are the advantages and disadvantages of this method ?<br />Disadvantages<br />Advantages<br />
  24. 24. HEURISTIC METHOD – The Hierarchical Approach<br />The conceptual design is performed based on 5 different stages. The approach is somewhat<br />different by tackling the 5 different level that are classified differently. The 5 levels are ;<br />Level 1 Decision : Batch vs Continuous<br />Level 2 Decision : Fixing the Input-Output Structure<br />Level 3 Decision : Determining the Recycle Structure for the Process<br />Level 4 Decision : Determining the Separation System<br />Level 5 Decision : Determining the Heat Exchanger Network<br />WHAT DO YOU NOTICE ON<br />THE STATEMENT CONTAIN WITHIN<br />THE SHADED BOX ?<br />At each level except level 1, alternatives have to be generated and assessed to see its economic and operational potential. Some level of process design has to be conducted on the units/process placed at every stages.<br />REACTOR<br />SEPARATION <br />& RECYCLE <br />SYSTEM<br />Compare these statements<br />to the onion model !<br />HEAT EXCHANGER<br />NETWORK<br />UTILITIES<br />
  25. 25. Semester July 2004<br />other process<br />alternatives<br />MATHEMATICAL METHOD – The Mixed Integer Linear/Nonlinear Programming<br />- CREATION OF SUPERSTRUCTURE/HYPERSTRUCTURE<br />A major (super) structure is created which embedded within it all feasible<br />process (including its operations) and all feasible interconnections that<br />are candidates for an optimal design. The method is completely automated<br />and depends only on the computer programming to solve it. The design <br />problem is formulated into sets of mathematical equations which has to be<br />solved by the mathematical programming. Started off with many redundant <br />features, the programming optimise and reduce the process (structure) <br />to an optimal solution.<br />What are the advantages and disadvantages of this method ?<br />Disadvantages<br />Advantages<br />
  26. 26. From the conceptual process design, a flowsheet is generated for the process. The next stage would then be to address the equipment design …<br />RECYCLE<br />STEAM<br />FEED<br />REACTOR<br />PRODUCT 1<br />CW<br />PRODUCT 2<br />Heat Exchanger<br />Reactor<br />Distillation<br />No of stages<br />Reflux Ratio<br />Feed Location<br />Vapour/Liquid Loading<br />Column Sizing<br />Internals<br />Column Temperature & Pressure<br />Type of Exchanger (Plate / Shell & Tube)<br />Heat Transfer Coefficient<br />Heat Transfer Area<br />Pressure Drop<br />Exchanger Configuration<br />Type of Reactor<br />Reaction Kinetics<br />Reaction Selectivity<br />Reactor Sizing<br />Reactor Temperature & Pressure<br />
  27. 27. There are established methods for performing the design of these equipments ….<br />Reactor<br />Distillation<br />Heat Exchanger<br />Kern’s method<br />Reactor<br />Rating calculation that will enable the sizing of the heat exchanger to be done<br />Fenske, Gilliland & Underwood<br />From the kinetics obtained from experiment, sizing of reactor could be done based on residence time.<br />No of stages calculation versus reflux ratio could be made and the feed location determined.<br />Results are then simulated in rigorous simulation model for actual design involving capacity calculation for internals.<br />
  28. 28. Given that each of the equipment will normally involved vessel operated at various pressure and temperature, the design of the pressure vessel has to be conducted. The design is to be done according to standards…..<br />Heat Exchanger<br />Pressure Vessel Dimension <br />Shell Thickness<br />Flanges Connection & Reinforcement<br />Support type and Design<br />Corrosion Allowance<br />Welding specification <br />Reactor<br />Distillation<br />American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)<br />Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.<br />ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) is a standard that provides rules for the design, fabrication, and inspection of boilers and pressure vessels. It is reviewed every three years.<br />
  29. 29. Health, Safety and Environment aspects are increasingly gaining attention in view of their importance. Therefore the design of process plant has to take into account of the HSE particularly the safety and environment aspects where it has to be integrated with the design activities ….<br />Inherent Safety<br />Remove or attenuate conditions that could lead to the 3 incidents such as high P and T …..<br />Hazard Analysis<br />EXPLOSION<br />TOXIC RELEASE<br />FIRE<br />HAZOP<br />Hazard and Operability Study.<br />Auto Ignition temp.<br />Flammability Limits<br />Flash Points<br />Minimum Oxygen concentration<br />Flammable liquids are more dangerous than flammable gas<br />Chemical Energy vs Physical Energy<br />Deflagration vs detonation<br />Confined vs Unconfined Explosions (VCE)<br />Time weighed exposure<br />Short term Exposure<br />Ceiling Exposure<br />LC50 & LD50<br />DOW Index<br />
  30. 30. Health, Safety and Environment aspects are increasingly gaining attention in view of their importance. Therefore the design of process plant has to take into account of the HSE particularly the safety and environment aspects where it has to be integrated with the design activities ….<br />Environment<br />Environment<br />Waste Treatment<br />Waste Minimisation<br />(Clean Process Technology)<br />Reactor<br />Increase conversion if selectivity is not an issue<br />Product removal for reversible reaction favoring product<br />Set T & P to improve selectivity<br />Distillation<br />Recycling waste stream to suppress by product reaction<br />Feed purification<br />Eliminate use of extraneous material for separation (entrainer)<br />Waste stream recovery<br />Improve heat recovery<br />Air Effluent<br />Particulate, CO2, CO, SOx, Nox<br />Gravity Settlers, Inertial Collectors, Scribbers, Filters, Electrostatic precipitators, catalytic reaction etc.<br />Water Effluent<br />Membrane, Adsorption, Absorption, thermal oxidation, biological treatment, membrane separation etc.<br />
  31. 31. Finally …..<br />You will develop the construction details for a process plant ….<br />

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