Industrial Revolution Power Point #2


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Industrial Revolution Power Point #2

  1. 1. The Industrial Revolution<br />By: Anna Yike<br />
  2. 2. Questions to Ponder<br />Why do we define this historical period as revolutionary?<br />How did life change as the result of invention?<br />What were the consequences of the Industrial Revolution?<br />How were people’s lives affected by the Industrial Revolution?<br />
  3. 3. What is the Industrial Revolution?<br />The Industrialization refers to a process that transformed agrarian and handicraft-centered economies into economies distinguished by industry and machine manufacture.<br />2 Part division of the Industrial Revolution<br />To 1860 (Primarily Great Britain)<br />1860 through World War I (rest of the West)<br />
  4. 4. The Spread of Industrialization<br />Industrialization and the technological, organizational, and social transformations that accompanied it might have originated in parts of the world where abundant craft skills, agricultural production, and investment capital could support the process.<br />For awhile, industrialization took place only in Great Britain.<br />Industrialization in Western Europe<br />By the mid-19th century, industrialization had spread to France, Germany, and Belgium.<br />The French revolution and the Napoleonic wars helped set the stage by abolishing internal trade barriers and dismantling guilds that discouraged technological innovation and restricted the movement of laborers.<br />Industrialization in North America<br />Like Western Europe, industrialization had spread to the region by the mid-19th century.<br />The United States possessed abundant land and natural resources, but few laborers and little money to invest in business enterprises.<br />Both labor and investment capital came largely from Europe. Migrants crossed the Atlantic to seek opportunities to invest in businesses that made use of American natural resources.<br />
  5. 5. Industrial Capitalism<br />Mass Production<br />With refined manufacturing processes, factories could mass-produce standardized articles<br />Big Business<br />Continuing the development of capitalist business organization<br />Entrepreneurs formed private businesses in hope of profiting from market-oriented production and trade.<br />The Corporation<br />The most common form of business organization in industrial societies.<br />Monopolies, Trusts, and Cartels<br />To protect their investments, some big businesses sought to not only outperform their competitors in the capitalist marketplace, but to eliminate competition.<br />Trusts and cartels shared a common goal: to control the supply of a product and hence its price in the marketplace.<br />Some monopolists sought to control industries through vertical organization, by which they would dominate all facets of a single industry.<br />
  6. 6. The Socialist Challenge<br />Socialists were among the most vocal and influential critics of early industrial society.<br />They worked to alleviate the social and economic problems generated by capitalism and industrialization.<br />Early socialists sought to expand the Enlightenment understanding of equality: understanding equality to have an economic as well as political, legal, and social dimension, and they looked to the future establishment of a just and equitable society.<br />They had different views on the best way to establish and maintain an ideal socialist society.<br />
  7. 7. Steam Engine and Steam Boat<br />Steam Engine<br /><ul><li>Invented and perfected by James Watt
  8. 8. Invented in 1775
  9. 9. Helped transport American goods faster and made transporting large shipments easier.</li></ul>Steam Boat<br /><ul><li>Invented by John Fitch in 1787
  10. 10. 1st successful trial of a 45-foot steamboat on the Delaware river
  11. 11. Robert Fulton contributed with commercial success
  12. 12. August 1807 made 150-mile trip taking 32 hours and an average speed of 5mph</li></li></ul><li>Mechanical Reaper and the Cotton Gin<br />Mechanical Reaper<br /><ul><li>Invented by Cyrus McCormick
  13. 13. Invented in 1847
  14. 14. Cut the standing grain and, with a revolving real, swept it onto a platform from which it was raked off into piles by a man walking alongside</li></ul>Cotton Gin<br /><ul><li>Invented by Eli Whitney
  15. 15. April 1973
  16. 16. A machine that automated the separation of cottonseed from the short-staple cotton fiber.</li></li></ul><li>