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Ds lab handouts


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Ds lab handouts

  1. 1. Data Structures CSC-206 Lab Manual Instructor Mr. Adeel M.
  2. 2. Contents Lab 1: C++ Review Lab 2: Implementation of Stack Lab 3: Recursion Lab 4: Implementation of Queue Lab 5: Implementation of Priority Queue Lab 6: Implementation of Linked List Lab 7: Application of Linked List Lab 8: Implementation of Binary Tree Lab 9: Implementation of Binary Search Tree Lab 10: Implementation of Graph Lab 11: Application of Graph Lab 12-13: Using Standard Template Library Lab 14-15: Implementation of Sorting Techniques Lab 16: Implementation of Searching TechniquesData Structures Lab Handouts 2
  3. 3. Lab 1 C++ ReviewFundamental Data Types Category Available data types Boolean bool Character char signed char unsigned char Signed integer short int long Unsigned integer unsigned short unsigned unsigned long Floating point float double long doubleNamed ConstantsCannot be changed during program execution C style constants: #define zero 0 C++ style constants: const int zero = 0; const float PI = 3.14159;Type Aliases typedef float real; “real” may now be used in place of “float” If more precision (i.e. more digits) needed, can replace this one statement by typedef double real;Data Structures Lab Handouts 3
  4. 4. Arithmetic Expressions Binary operators: , , *, /, % Unary operators: +, , ++, Usual precedence rules apply Unary operators are right-associative: ++ X means ++ (X ) Binary operators are left-associative: A / B * C means (A / B) * CRelational Logical Expressions Relational operators: , , =, = Equality operators: = =, != Logical operators: Unary: ! Binary: , | | Examples: (5 = = 4) (a b) // false, since 5 != 4 (5 = = 5) | | (a b) // true, since 5 = = 5Conditional Expressions expression ? expression : expression Executed like if else statement, but has a value Example: larger = (A B) ? A : B;Data Structures Lab Handouts 4
  5. 5. Functions int max1( int X, int Y ) { return (X Y) ? X : Y; // result returned as function value } void max2( int X, int Y, int Larger ) { Larger = (X Y) ? X : Y; // result returned by reference } void max3( int X, int Y, int *Larger ) { *Larger = (X Y) ? X : Y; // result returned by pointer } Structures struct Student { char name[30]; int section; float total_points; }; Student class[30]; Student *ptr = class; class[0].name is the same as ptr- name Initialization: Student Ali = {“Ali Ahmed”, 8, 592.5}; Structures may be copied with “=” Structures may be passed to functions by value Structures may be returned from functions Structures may be nested Arrays of structures may be definedData Structures Lab Handouts 5
  6. 6. C++ Classes The class is the capsule that is used to encapsulate an abstract data type. x A class defines a new data type. You can create many objects of this type. x A class is composed of one or more members. x Members are: o data items (members) o functions (member functions) x Class definition usually placed in an include (.h) file for ease of use. A Complex Number Class #include iostream #include math.h using namespace std; class Complex { private: float re; float im; public: Complex(float r,float i) {re = r; im = i;} Complex(float r) {re = r; im = 0.0;} ~Complex() {}; double Magnitude() // calculate magnitude { return sqrt(re*re + Imag()*Imag()); } float Real() {return re;} // return real part float Imag() {return im;} // return imaginary part Complex operator+(Complex b) {return Complex(re +, im +;} Complex operator=(Complex b) {re =;im =; return *this;} };Data Structures Lab Handouts 6
  7. 7. int main() { Complex a(1.0,1.0); Complex *b = new Complex(5.0); Complex c(0,0); cout a real = a.Real() “ a imaginary = “ a.Imag() endl; cout b real = b-Real() “ b imaginary = “ b-Imag() endl; c = a + (*b); cout c real = c.Real() “ c imaginary = “ c.Imag() endl; delete b; return 0; } Exercise: Add a function to multiply two complex numbers using operator overloading.Data Structures Lab Handouts 7
  8. 8. Function TemplatesFunction templates are special functions that can operate with generic types. This allowsus to create a function template whose functionality can be adapted to more than one typewithout repeating the entire code for each type.In C++ this can be achieved using template parameters. A template parameter is a specialkind of parameter that can be used to pass a type as argument: just like regular functionparameters can be used to pass values to a function, template parameters allow to pass alsotypes to a function. These function templates can use these parameters as if they were anyother regular type.The format for declaring function templates with type parameters is:template class identifier function_declaration;Example:// function template#include iostreamusing namespace std;template class TT GetMax (T a, T b){ T result; result = (ab)? a : b; return (result);}int main () { int i=5, j=6, k; long l=10, m=5, n; k=GetMaxint(i, j); n=GetMaxlong(l, m); cout k endl; cout n endl; return 0;}Data Structures Lab Handouts 8
  9. 9. Class TemplatesWe also have the possibility to write class templates, so that a class can have members thatuse template parameters as types. For example:template class Tclass mypair{ T values [2]; public: mypair (T first, T second) { values[0]=first; values[1]=second; }};This class serves to store two elements of any valid type. For example, if we wanted todeclare an object of this class to store two integer values of type int with the values 115and 36 we would write:mypairint myobject (115, 36);this same class would also be used to create an object to store any other type:mypairdouble myfloats (3.0, 2.18);Data Structures Lab Handouts 9
  10. 10. Class Template Example 1#include iostreamusing namespace std;template class Tclass mypair{ T a, b; public: mypair (T first, T second) {a=first; b=second;} T getmax ();};template class TT mypairT::getmax (){ T retval; retval = ab? a : b; return retval;}int main (){ mypair int myobject (100, 75); cout myobject.getmax(); return 0;}Exercise:Add a function to compute minimum of two numbers in the above class.Data Structures Lab Handouts 10
  11. 11. Class Template Example 2#include iostreamusing namespace std;template class T, int Nclass mysequence{ T memblock [N]; public: void setmember (int x, T value); T getmember (int x);};template class T, int Nvoid mysequenceT,N::setmember (int x, T value){ memblock[x]=value;}template class T, int NT mysequenceT, N::getmember (int x){ return memblock[x];}int main (){ mysequence int,5 myints; mysequence double,5 myfloats; myints.setmember (0,100); myfloats.setmember (3, 3.1416); cout myints.getmember(0) n; cout myfloats.getmember(3) n; return 0;}Data Structures Lab Handouts 11
  12. 12. File Input/Output #include fstream // C++ file I/O Files are classified as containing either text (i.e. characters) or binary data May read and write numbers from/to text files: C++ does the necessary translations Character Input with fstream #include fstream ifstream infile; // define infile “MyData” ); // open “MyData” file if( !infile ) cout “Can’t open ” “MyData” endl; infile chr; // read character from “MyData” file into chr infile.close( ); // close “MyData” file Useful Functions for Character Input infile.ignore( n ); // skip next n input characters chr = infile.get( ); // same as infile chr while( infile.get( ) != ‘n’ ) ... // loop until end of line while( infile.get( ) != EOF ) ... // loop until end of file while( infile chr ) ... // loop until end of fileData Structures Lab Handouts 12
  13. 13. Character Output with fstream #include fstream ofstream outfile( “MyOut” ); // define open outfile outfile chr; // write chr to “MyOut” file outfile.put( chr ); // same as outfile chr outfile.close( ); // close “MyOut” file Numeric I/O with Text File and fstream If numeric data is read to/written from a variable of numeric type, then translates the data into the appropriate numeric representation Example: If “MyData” file contains 5280 2.718 3.141592653 Then int ftPerMile; float e; double pi; infile ftPerMile e pi; stores input as int, float, and doubleData Structures Lab Handouts 13
  14. 14. Example: To count number of characters in a text file. #include iostream #include fstream using namespace std; int main(void) { ofstream outFile;; ifstream inFile(fin.txt); char ch; int count = 0; while(inFile.get(ch)) { outFile ch; count++; } outFile nn Character count = count endl; inFile.close(); outFile.close(); return 0; }Data Structures Lab Handouts 14
  15. 15. Lab Exercise 1.1a) Declare a class named House for a real estate locator service. The following informationshould be included: Owner: (a string of up to 20 characters) Address: (a string of up to 20 characters) Bedrooms: (an integer) Price (floating point)b) Declare available to be an array of 100 objects of class House.c) Write a function to read values into the members of an object of House.d) Write a driver program to test the data structures and the functions you have developed.The driver program should read in house entries into the available array. After the codefor entering the data, you should write code to output the data that you have entered toverify that it is correct. Your program should look like this: Enter Owner : M. Khan Enter Address : G-9, Islamabad Number of Bedrooms ? : 4 Price : 4500000 Enter another house? N The output should look like: Owner Address Bedrooms Price M. Khan G-9, Islamabad 4 4500000Data Structures Lab Handouts 15
  16. 16. Extra Credit:The real estate company is very happy with the program that was developed in the earlierto track their listings. Now they want to add some features to the processing.Additional features:- Search for a house that meets a potential buyers specifications for the following: x The price is not more than a specified amount x The size is not less than a specified number of bedrooms x The house with lowest price x The largest house (with maximum number of bedrooms) x In a given city x With best ratio price/size x The user may enter a ? to indicate no preference.- Print all the entries that meet the buyer’s need.Data Structures Lab Handouts 16
  17. 17. Lab Exercise 1.2Assume that a file contains the midterm1, midterm2 and final exam scores and names ofstudents of a class. Write a C++ program to read the input file and produce an output filecontaining the original and average scores for each student. Suppose that the weights ofthe exams are as follows:midterm1 – 25%midterm2 – 25%final – 50%.The average score of a student is calculated using the formula: 0.25 MT 1 0.25 MT 2 0.5 FINSolution: #include iostream #include fstream using namespace std; int main ( ) { char name[10]; float mt1, mt2, final, avg; ifstream fin ; //Create file input stream object ofstream fout ; //Create file output stream object ( input.dat) ; //Open input file ( output.dat); //Open output file while (!fin.eof()) //Read data from input file { fin name mt1 mt2 final; avg = 0.25*mt1 + 0.25*mt2 + 0.5*final ; fout name t avg endl ; //Write result to output file } fin.close ( ) ; //Close input file fout.close ( ) ; //Close output file}Data Structures Lab Handouts 17
  18. 18. Exercise 1.3You will write a student grades database program. It will read data of students from afile and will let the user perform various operations on the data. You will have to store thestudent data in an array of objects.Input:The input file will look like:43Hassan Khan 99 87 90Sara Nazir 90 98 99Ali Zaidi 55 43 0Raza Ahmad 100 100 100That is:number of studentsnumber of grades (per student)Student name grade grade ... gradeStudent name grade grade ... gradeData structure:You will store all the information in an array of student objects. You may use thefollowing class definition:class student {private: char name[30]; int lab[10]; float average;public:...};Data Structures Lab Handouts 18
  19. 19. Your program should work as follows: x Ask the user for the filename and open the file. x Read in the input from the file and store it in the student array. x Compute and store an average for every student. x Go into a menu loop giving the user the following options: 1. Print all user names, all grades, and averages. 2. Find a student and print his/her information. 3. Quit. x For option 1 the user doesnt have to give you any extra information. x For option 2, finding a student, your program must ask the user for the name of the student he/she wishes to find; read in the name; perform a sequential search for that name; and if found, print all that students info.Data Structures Lab Handouts 19
  20. 20. Lab 2 Implementation of StackStack ADT OperationsInitialize -- Sets stack to an empty state.IsEmpty -- Determines whether the stack is currently empty.IsFull -- Determines whether the stack is currently full.Push (ItemType newItem) -- Adds newItem to the top of the stack.Pop (ItemType item) -- Removes the item at the top of the stack and returns it in item.Implementation of Stack Using Static Array//----------------------------------------------------------// SPECIFICATION FILE (stack.h)//----------------------------------------------------------#define MAX_ITEMS 100typedef int ItemType;class Stack {public: Stack ( ); // Default constructor. int IsEmpty( ) const; int IsFull( ) const; void Push( ItemType newItem ); void Pop( ItemType item ); // item is a copy of removed element.private: int top; ItemType items[MAX_ITEMS]; // array of ItemType};Data Structures Lab Handouts 20
  21. 21. //-------------------------------------------------------// IMPLEMENTATION FILE (stack.cpp)//------------------------------------------------------// Private data members of class:// int top;// ItemType items[MAX_ITEMS];//-------------------------------------------------------#include “stack.h”Stack::Stack ( ) // Default Constructor{ top = -1;}//----------------------------------------------------------int Stack::IsEmpty( ) const{ return ( top == -1 );}//----------------------------------------------------------int Stack::IsFull( ) const{ return ( top == MAX_ITEMS-1 );}//----------------------------------------------------------void Stack::Push ( ItemType newItem ){ if (IsFull()) { cout “Stack Overflow” endl; exit(1); } top++; items[top] = newItem;}Data Structures Lab Handouts 21
  22. 22. //----------------------------------------------------------void Stack::Pop ( ItemType item ){ if (IsEmpty()) { cout “Stack Underflow” endl; exit(1); } item = items[top]; top--;}//----------------------------------------------------------// DRIVER FILE (driver.cpp)//----------------------------------------------------------#include iostream#include stdlib.h#include “stack.cpp”using namespace std;int main(){ Stack s; int item; for (int i = 0; i 20; i++) s.Push(i); for (i = 0; i 20; i++) { s.Pop(item); cout item endl; } return 0;}Data Structures Lab Handouts 22
  23. 23. Dynamic Implementation of StackStack Using Class Template and Dynamic Arrayx The construct that allows us to create a class of undetermined type is called a template.x A class template allows the compiler to generate multiple versions of a class type by using type parameters.x The formal parameter appears in the class template definition, and the actual parameter appears in the client code. Both are enclosed in pointed brackets, .templateclass ItemTypeclass Stack {public: Stack ( ); Stack ( int max ); // PARAMETERIZED CONSTRUCTOR ~Stack ( ) ; // DESTRUCTOR . . . int IsEmpty( ) const; int IsFull( ) const; void Push( ItemType newItem ); void Pop( ItemType item );private: int top; int maxStack; ItemType* items; // DYNAMIC ARRAY IMPLEMENTATION};Data Structures Lab Handouts 23
  24. 24. //-----------------------------------------------------------------------------// CLASS TEMPLATE IMPLEMENTATION FILE (stack.cpp)//-------------------------------------------------------------------------------#include “stack.h”templateclass ItemTypeStackItemType::Stack( ) //DEFAULT CONSTRUCTOR{ maxStack = 500; top = -1; items = new ItemType[500]; // dynamically allocates array}templateclass ItemTypeStackItemType::Stack( int max ) // PARAMETERIZED{ maxStack = max; top = -1; items = new ItemType[max]; // dynamically allocates array}templateclass ItemTypeStackItemType::~Stack( ){ delete [ ] items; // deallocates array} templateclass ItemTypeint StackItemType::IsEmpty( ){ return (top == - 1);}templateclass ItemTypeint StackItemType::IsFull( ){ return (top == maxStack - 1);}Data Structures Lab Handouts 24
  25. 25. template class ItemTypevoid StackItemType::Push (ItemType newItem ){ if (IsFull()) { cout “Stack Overflow” endl; exit(1); } top++; items[top] = newItem;}templateclass ItemTypevoid StackItemType::Pop (ItemType item ){ if (IsEmpty()) { cout “Stack Underflow” endl; exit(1); } item = items[top]; top--;}//----------------Driver Program ------Using Class Template--------------------------------#include iostream#include “stack.cpp”using namespace std;int main (){ Stackint IntStack; Stackfloat FloatStack; int data; float val; IntStack.Push(35); FloatStack.Push(3.1415927); IntStack.Pop(data); cout data endl; FloatStack.Pop(val); cout val endl; return 0; }Data Structures Lab Handouts 25
  26. 26. Exercise 2Use the Stack class to solve the following problems:Infix to Postfix Conversion The input for this problem is an infix expression (with or without parenthesis). The operand should be single letter digits and valid operators are +, -, * and /. The output is the postfix version of the expression.Postfix Evaluation Evaluate a valid postfix expression and display the result.Data Structures Lab Handouts 26
  27. 27. Lab 3 RecursionRecursive FunctionsA recursive function is one that calls itself.Example 1: Calculating a FactorialFactorials are often used in statistical calculations. The factorial of n, written as n! is equalto the product of n(n-1)(n-2)...(1). For example 4! is equal to 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 24. There isan obvious way to do this calculation using a loop, but we can also do it recursively.Lets consider the definition of a factorial in a slightly different way: x if n = 0, n! is equal to 1. x if n 0, n! is equal to n × ((n-1)!)An implementation of recursive factorial function#include iostream#include conio.husing namespace std;int fact(int n){ if (n == 0) return 1; else return n * fact(n - 1);}int main( ){ cout fact(5) endl; getch(); return 0;}Data Structures Lab Handouts 27
  28. 28. Example 2: Reversing the StringThis function takes a series of characters and outputs them in reverse order.#include iostream#include conio.husing namespace std;void rev( ){ char ch; cin.get(ch); if (ch != n) { rev(); cout.put(ch); }}int main( ){ rev(); getch(); return 0;}Example 3: Computing the Powerint Power(int X, int N){ if( N == 0 ) return 1; else return Power( X, N-1) * X;}Data Structures Lab Handouts 28
  29. 29. Example 4: Computing the Ackermann Functionint Ackermann(int m, int n){ if(m==0) return n+1; else if (m0 n==0) return Ackermann(m-1,1); else if (m0 n0) return Ackermann( m-1, Ackermann(m, n-1));}Exercise 3: o Write a function in C++ using Recursion to print numbers from n to 0. o Write a function in C++ using Recursion to compute binomial coefficients C(n, k) using the recursive definition: C(n,n) = 1 C(n,0) = 1 C(n,k) = C(n-1, k-1) + C(n-1,k) for (0kn) and n1 o Write a function in C++ using Recursion to check if a number n is prime. (You have to check whether n is divisible by any number below n)Data Structures Lab Handouts 29
  30. 30. Lab 4 Implementation of QueueQueue ADT Operations- Initialize -- Sets queue to an empty state.- IsEmpty -- Determines whether the queue is currently empty.- IsFull -- Determines whether the queue is currently full.- Insert (ItemType newItem) -- Adds newItem to the rear of the queue.- Remove (ItemType item) -- Removes the item at the front of the queue and returns it in item.Implementation of Queue Using Circular ArraysGivenx an array Items[0:N-1] consisting of N itemsx two indices Front and Rear, that designate positions in the Items arrayWe can use the following assignments to increment the indices so that they always wraparound after falling off the high end of the array. front = (front + 1) % N rear = (rear + 1) % N//--------------------------------------------------------// CLASS DEFINITION FOR QUEUE//--------------------------------------------------------#define maxQue 100typedef int ItemType;class Queue{ private: ItemType items[maxQue]; int front, rear, count; public: Queue (); int IsEmpty (); int IsFull (); void Insert (ItemType newItem); void Remove (ItemType item);};Data Structures Lab Handouts 30
  31. 31. Queue::Queue (){ count = 0; front = 0; rear = 0;}int Queue::IsEmpty (){ return (count == 0);}int Queue::IsFull (){ return (count == maxQue);}void Queue::Insert (ItemType newItem){ if (IsFull()) cout Over Flow; else { items[rear] = newItem; rear = (rear + 1) % maxQue; ++count; }}void Queue::Remove (ItemType item){ if (IsEmpty()) cout Under Flow; else { item = Items[front]; front = (front + 1) % maxQue; --count; }}Exercise:Write a driver program to insert 10 numbers in a queue and then remove and print thenumbers.Data Structures Lab Handouts 31
  32. 32. Dynamic Implementation of QueueQueue Using Template and Dynamic Array//-----------------------------------------------------------------------// CLASS TEMPLATE DEFINITION FOR QUEUE//-----------------------------------------------------------------------templateclass ItemTypeclass Que {public: Que( ); Que( int max ); // PARAMETERIZED CONSTRUCTOR ~Que( ) ; // DESTRUCTOR . . . int IsFull( ) const; int IsEmpty( ) const; void Insert( ItemType newItem ); void Remove( ItemType item );privat int front; int rear; int maxQue; int count; ItemType* items; // DYNAMIC ARRAY IMPLEMENTATION};//-----------------------------------------------------------------------// CLASS TEMPLATE IMPLEMENTATION//-----------------------------------------------------------------------templateclass ItemTypeQueItemType::Que() // Default Constructor{ maxQue = 501; front = 0; rear = 0; count = 0; items = new ItemType[maxQue]; // dynamically allocates}Data Structures Lab Handouts 32
  33. 33. templateclass ItemTypeQueItemType::Que( int max )// PARAMETERIZED Constructor{ maxQue = max + 1; front = 0; rear = 0; count = 0; items = new ItemType[maxQue]; // dynamically allocates}templateclass ItemTypeQueItemType::~Que( ){ delete [ ] items; // deallocates array}templateclass ItemTypeint QueItemType::IsEmpty( ) const{ return (count == 0);}templateclass ItemTypeint QueItemType::IsFull( ) const{ return ( count == maxQue );}templateclass ItemTypevoid QueItemType::Insert( ItemType newItem ){ if (IsFull()) cout Over Flow; else { items[rear] = newItem; rear = (rear + 1) % maxQue; ++count; }}Data Structures Lab Handouts 33
  34. 34. templateclass ItemTypevoid QueItemType::Remove( ItemType item ){ if (IsEmpty()) cout Under Flow; else { item = items[front]; front = (front + 1) % maxQue; --count; }}Write a driver program to insert 10 numbers in a queue and then remove and print thenumbers.Exercise 4Suppose a deque is represented by an array of N elements. The two ends of the deque aredenoted as left and right and elements always extend from left to right. Using this model ofa deque write four routines insertLeft, removeLeft, insertRight and removeRight toinsert/remove an element to/from the deque from left and right ends. Make sure to checkfor overflow and underflow conditions.Data Structures Lab Handouts 34
  35. 35. Lab 5 Implementation of Priority QueueSometimes it is not enough just do FIFO ordering. We may want to give some items ahigher priority than other items. These should be serviced before lower priority even ifthey arrived later. Such a data structure is called a priority Queue.Two major ways to implement a priority queue are: –insert items in a sorted order and always remove the front –insert in unordered order and search list on remove –either way, time is same •either adding data takes time and removing is quick, or •adding data is quick and removing takes timeUse the Queue class to implement the following Priority Queue ADT to handle 10different priority levels.The Priority Queue ADTA Priority Queue, PQ, is a finite collection of items of type T on which followingoperations are defined:1. Initialize the priority queue, PQ, to be the empty priority queue.2. Determine whether or not the priority queue, PQ, is empty.3. Determine whether or not the priority queue, PQ, is full.4. If PQ is not full, insert a new item, X, into the priority queue, PQ, according to its priority level.5. If PQ is not empty, remove from the priority queue, PQ, an item, X, of highest priority in PQ.Data Structures Lab Handouts 35
  36. 36. Lab 6 Implementation of Linked List//-----------------------------------------------------------------------// CLASS TEMPLATE DEFINITION FOR LINKED LIST//---------------------------------------------------------------------#include iostream#includeconio.husing namespace std;templateclass ItemTypeclass List{ protected: struct node { ItemType info; struct node *next; }; typedef struct node *NODEPTR; NODEPTR listptr; public: List(); ~List(); ItemType emptyList(); void insertafter(ItemType oldvalue, ItemType newvalue); void deleteItem(ItemType oldvalue); void push(ItemType newvalue); ItemType pop();};Data Structures Lab Handouts 36
  37. 37. //--------------------------------------------------------// CLASS TEMPLATE IMPLEMENTATION//--------------------------------------------------------// Default Constructor that initializes a newly created list to empty list.templateclass ItemTypeListItemType::List(){ listptr = 0;}// Destructor traverses the nodes of a list, freeing them one by one.templateclass ItemTypeListItemType::~List(){ NODEPTR p, q; if (emptyList()) exit(0); for (p = listptr, q = p-next; p!=0; p = q, q = p-next) delete p;}// searches for the first occurance of oldvalue in the list and inserts a new node with valuenewvalue following the node containing oldvalue.templateclass ItemTypevoid ListItemType::insertafter(ItemType oldvalue, ItemType newvalue){ NODEPTR p, q; for (p = listptr; p != 0 p-info != oldvalue; p = p-next) ; if (p == 0) { cout ERROR: value sought is not in the list.; exit(1); } q = new node; q-info = newvalue; q-next = p-next; p-next = q;}Data Structures Lab Handouts 37
  38. 38. // Determines if the list is empty.templateclass ItemTypeItemType ListItemType::emptyList(){ return (listptr == 0);}// push(newvalue) adds a new node with a given value to the front of the list.//templateclass ItemTypevoid ListItemType::push(ItemType newvalue){ NODEPTR p; p = new node; p-info = newvalue; p-next = listptr; listptr = p;}// deletes the first node containing the value oldvalue from the list.templateclass ItemTypevoid ListItemType::deleteItem(ItemType oldvalue){ NODEPTR p, q; for (q = 0, p = listptr; p != 0 p-info != oldvalue; q = p, p = p-next) ; if (p == 0) { cout ERROR: value sought is not in the list.; exit(1); } if (q == 0) listptr = p-next; else q-next = p-next; delete p;}Data Structures Lab Handouts 38
  39. 39. // pop deletes the first node of the list and returns its contents. //templateclass ItemTypeItemType ListItemType::pop(){ NODEPTR p; ItemType x; if (emptyList()) { cout ERROR: the list is empty.; exit(1); } p = listptr; listptr = p-next; x = p-info; delete p; return x;}int main(){ Listint l; l.push(87); cout l.pop()endl; getch(); return 0;}Exercise 6.1Write a menu driven program to test the linked list class.Data Structures Lab Handouts 39
  40. 40. Exercise 6.2Assume the following specifications of a node of linked structure and the class struct Node { int info; Node* next; };class LinkedStr{private: Node* ptr;public: // Constructor. Initiallize ptr to NULL. LinkedStr(); // Destructor. Remove all the nodes from dynamic memory ~LinkedStr(); // Create a linked structure of length len pointed to by ptr. // The values of the info part are input from the keyboard void makeStr(int len); // Display all the elements of the linked structure pointed to by ptr on the screen. void displayStr(); // Remove the first element of the linked structure pointed to by ptr. // If the structure is empty, do nothing void removeFirst(); // Remove the first element of the linked structure pointed to by ptr. // If the structure is empty, do nothing void removeLast(); // Remove the first element of the linked structure with an info field equal to k. // If no such element or the list is empty, do nothing void remove(int k);};Write the implementation of the class LinkedStr. Write a driver program to test theimplementation.Data Structures Lab Handouts 40
  41. 41. Lab 7 Application of Linked ListPolynomial may be represented as a linked list as follows: for every term in thepolynomial there is one entry in the linked list consisting of the terms coefficient anddegree. The entries are ordered according to ASCENDING values of degree; zero-coefficient terms are not stored. For example, the following polynomial (the symbol ^ isused to mean raised to the power): 4x^5 - 2x^3 + 2x +3 can be represented as the linkedlist of terms: (3,0) - (2,1) - (-2,3) - (4,5) where each term is a (coefficient, degree)pair. Write a C++ class called Polynomial with the following functionality: x Read the polynomials from a file. x Addition of two polynomials. x Multiplication of two polynomials. x Evaluation of a polynomial at a given point.Sample Output: Enter the name of the polynomial file = ptest1 4.0x^5 + -2.0x^3 + 2.0x + 3.0 1. ADD polynomial 2. MULTIPLY polynomial 3. EVALUATE polynomial 4. QUIT Enter choice # = 1 Enter the file containing the polynomial to add = ptest2 8.0x^4 + 4.0x^3 + -3.0x + 9.0 Sum: 4.0x^5 + 8.0x^4 + 2.0x^3 + -1.0x + 12.0 1. ADD polynomial 2. MULTIPLY polynomial 3. EVALUATE polynomial 4. QUIT Enter choice # = 2 Enter the file containing the polynomial to multiply = ptest2 8.0x^4 + 4.0x^3 + -3.0x + 9.0 Product: 32.0x^9 + 16.0x^8 + -16.0x^7 + -20.0x^6 + 52.0x^5 + 38.0x^4 + -6.0x^3 + - 6.0x^2 + 9.0x + 27.0Data Structures Lab Handouts 41
  42. 42. Lab 8 Implementation of Binary TreesADT of Binary TreeADT BinaryTree{ Objects: A finite set of nodes either empty or consisting of a root node, left BinaryTree and right BinaryTree. Operations: BinaryTree (); // Creates an empty BinaryTree BinaryTree (ElementType info); // Creates a single node BinaryTree with information info BinaryTree (BinaryTree lbt, ElementType info, BinaryTree rbt); // Creates a Binarytree whose left subtree is lbt, whose right subtree is rbt, // and whose root node contain info. Boolean IsEmpty(); // If number of elements in the BinaryTree is 0 return TRUE, // otherwise return FALSE. BinaryTree LChild(); // If IsEmpty(), return error, else return left subtree of *this ElementType Data(); // If IsEmpty(), return error, else return data in the root node of *this BinaryTree RChild(); // If IsEmpty(), return error, else return right subtree of *this};Data Structures Lab Handouts 42
  43. 43. Implicit Static Array RepresentaionThe n nodes of an almost complete binary tree can be numbered from 1 to n, so that thenumber assigned to a left son is twice the number assigned to its father, and numberassigned to a right son is one more than twice the number assigned to its father.In C++, arrays start from 0; therefore well number the nodes from 0 to n-1. The left son ofnode at position p is at position 2p+1 and right son is at 2p+2. The root of the tree is atposition 0.Node Representation # define NUMNODES 500 struct TreeNode { int info; int left, right, father; }; TreeNode BT[NUMNODES];Data Structures Lab Handouts 43
  44. 44. Dynamic Representation struct Tree Node { int info; TeeNode *left, *right, *father; }; typedef TreeNode *NODEPTR;If a tree is always traversed from top to bottom, father field is unnecessary.The maketree() function, which allocates a node and sets it as the root of a single-nodebinary tree may be written as: NODEPTR maketree (int x) { NODEPTR p =new TreeNode; p o info = x; p o left = NULL; p o right = NULL; return (p); } The function setleft (p,x) sets a node with contents x as the left son of node(p). void setleft (NODEPTR p, int x) { if (p == NULL) cout “Void Insertion”; else if (p o left != NULL) cout “Invalid Insertion”; else p o left = maketree (x); }Data Structures Lab Handouts 44
  45. 45. Binary Tree Traversals in C++Three C++ routines pretrav, intrav, and posttrav are given below. The parameter to eachroutine is the pointer to the root node of a binary tree. void pretrav (NODEPTR tree) { if (tree != NULL) { cout tree o info; /* visit the root */ pretrav (tree o left); pretrav (tree o right); } } void intrav (NODEPTR tree) { if (tree != NULL) { intrav (tree o left); cout tree o info; intrav (tree o right); } } void posttrav (NODEPTR tree) { if (tree != NULL) { posttrav (tree o left); posttrav (tree o right); cout tree o info; } }Data Structures Lab Handouts 45
  46. 46. Lab 9 Implementation of Binary Search Trees#include fstreamusing namespace std;template class ItemType struct TreeNode { ItemType info; // Data member TreeNodeItemType* left; // Pointer to left child TreeNodeItemType* right; // Pointer to right child};template class ItemType // BINARY SEARCH TREE SPECIFICATIONclass TreeType {public: TreeType ( ); // constructor ~TreeType ( ); // destructor bool IsEmpty ( ) const; bool IsFull ( ) const; int NumberOfNodes ( ) const; void InsertItem ( ItemType item ); void DeleteItem (ItemType item ); void RetrieveItem ( ItemType item, bool found ); void PrintTree (ofstream outFile) ; void PrintHelper ( TreeNodeItemType* ptr, ofstream outFile ) ; void InsertHelper ( TreeNodeItemType* ptr, ItemType item ) ; void RetrieveHelper ( TreeNodeItemType* ptr, ItemType item, bool found ) ; void DestroyHelper ( TreeNodeItemType* ptr ) ;private: TreeNodeItemType* root;};Data Structures Lab Handouts 46
  47. 47. // BINARY SEARCH TREE IMPLEMENTATION// OF MEMBER FUNCTIONS AND THEIR HELPER FUNCTIONS// - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - template class ItemType TreeTypeItemType :: TreeType ( ) // constructor{ root = NULL ;}template class ItemType bool TreeTypeItemType :: IsEmpty( ) const{ return ( root == NULL ) ;}template class ItemType void TreeTypeItemType :: RetrieveItem ( ItemType item, bool found ){ RetrieveHelper ( root, item, found ) ;}template class ItemType void TreeTypeItemType :: RetrieveHelper ( TreeNodeItemType* ptr,ItemType item, bool found){ if ( ptr == NULL ) found = false ; else if ( item ptr-info ) // GO LEFT RetrieveHelper( ptr-left , item, found ) ; else if ( item ptr-info ) // GO RIGHT RetrieveHelper( ptr-right , item, found ) ; else { item = ptr-info ; found = true ; }}template class ItemType void TreeTypeItemType :: InsertItem ( ItemType item ){ InsertHelper ( root, item ) ;}Data Structures Lab Handouts 47
  48. 48. template class ItemType void TreeTypeItemType :: InsertHelper ( TreeNodeItemType* ptr, ItemTypeitem ){ if ( ptr == NULL ) { // INSERT item HERE AS LEAF ptr = new TreeNodeItemType ; ptr-right = NULL ; ptr-left = NULL ; ptr-info = item ; } else if ( item ptr-info ) // GO LEFT InsertHelper( ptr-left , item ) ; else if ( item ptr-info ) // GO RIGHT InsertHelper( ptr-right , item ) ;}template class ItemType void TreeTypeItemType :: PrintTree ( ofstream outFile ){ PrintHelper ( root, outFile ) ;}template class ItemType void TreeTypeItemType :: PrintHelper ( TreeNodeItemType* ptr, ofstreamoutFile ){ if ( ptr != NULL ) { PrintHelper( ptr-left , outFile ) ; // Print left subtree outFile ptr-info ; PrintHelper( ptr-right, outFile ) ; // Print right subtree }}template class ItemType TreeTypeItemType :: ~TreeType ( ) // DESTRUCTOR{ DestroyHelper ( root ) ;}Data Structures Lab Handouts 48
  49. 49. template class ItemType void TreeTypeItemType :: DestroyHelper ( TreeNodeItemType* ptr )// Post: All nodes of the tree pointed to by ptr are deallocated.{ if ( ptr != NULL ) { DestroyHelper ( ptr-left ) ; DestroyHelper ( ptr-right ) ; delete ptr ; }}// Driver Programint main (){ TreeType int tree; ofstream out(tree.txt); int item = 1; bool flag = false; for(int i = 0; i 10; i++) tree.InsertItem(i); tree.PrintTree(out); tree.RetrieveItem(item, flag); cout flag endl; return 0;}Data Structures Lab Handouts 49
  50. 50. Lab 10 Implementation of GraphsC++ Representation of Graphs Suppose that the number of vertices in the graph is constant: that is, edges may be added or deleted but vertices may not. x A graph with 50 vertices could then be declared as follows: #define MAXVERTEXS 50 struct vertex { /* information associated with each vertex */ }; struct edge { int adj; /* information associated with each edge */ }; class Graph { private: struct vertex vertices[MAXVERTEXS]; struct edge edges[MAXVERTEXS][MAXVERTEXS]; …… ……. }; Graph g;Data Structures Lab Handouts 50
  51. 51. x Each vertex of the graph is represented by an integer between 0 and MAXVERTEXS-1 and the array field vertices represents the appropriate information assigned to each vertex.x The array field edges is a two-dimensional array representing every possible ordered pair of vertices.x The value of g.edges[i][j].adj is either TRUE or FALSE depending on whether or not vertex j is adjacent to vertex i.x The two-dimensional array g.edges[][].adj is called an adjacency matrix. In the case of a weighted graph, each edge can also be assigned information.x Frequently the vertices of a graph are numbered from 0 to MAXVERTEXS-1 and no information is assigned to them. Also, we may be interested in the existence of edges but not in any weights or other information about them. In such cases the graph could be declared simply by int adj[MAXVERTEXS][MAXVERTEXS];x In effect, the graph is totally described by its adjacency matrix. We present the code for the primitive operations just described in the case where a graph is described by its adjacency matrix. join (int adj[][MAXVERTEXS], int vertex1, int vertex2) { /* add an edge from vertex1 to vertex2 */ adj[vertex1][vertex2] = TRUE; } remv (int adj[][MAXVERTEXS], int vertex1, int vertex2) { /* delete edge from vertex1 to vertex2 if one exists */ adj[vertex1][vertex2] = FALSE; } adjacent (int adj[][MAXVERTEXS], int vertex1, int vertex2) { return ((adj[vertex1][vertex2]==TRUE) ? TRUE : FALSE); }Data Structures Lab Handouts 51
  52. 52. C++ Representation of Weighted GraphsA weighted graph with a fixed number of vertices may be declared by struct edge { int adj; int weight; }; struct edge g[MAXVERTEXS][MAXVERTEXS]; x The routine joinwt, which adds an edge from vertex1 to vertex2 with a given weight wt, may be coded as follows: void joinwt (struct edge g[] [MAXVERTEXS], int vertex1, int vertex2, int wt) { g[vertex1][vertex2].adj = TRUE; g[vertex1][vertex2].weight = wt; }Exercise 10:Implement in C++ a class for a Weighted Graph using adjacency matrix representation.Data Structures Lab Handouts 52
  53. 53. Lab 11 Application of GraphsExercise 11: Implement Breadth-First and Depth-First search algorithms for a graph.Depth-First Searchx We begin by visiting the start vertex v. Next an unvisited vertex w adjacent to v is selected, and a depth-first search from w is initiated.x When a vertex u is reached such that all its adjacent vertices have been visited, we back up to the last vertex visited that has an unvisited w adjacent to it and initiates a depth- first search from w. Depth-First-Search { Boolean visited[n]; // initially, no vertex has been visited for (i = 0; i n; i++) visited[i] = FALSE; // start search at vertex 0 DFS (0); } DFS (v) // Visit all previously unvisited vertices that are reachable from vertex v { visited[v] = TRUE; for (each vertex w adjacent to v) if ( !visited[w]) DFS(w); }Data Structures Lab Handouts 53
  54. 54. Breadth-First Searchx In a breadth-first search, we begin by visiting the start vertex v. Next all unvisited vertices adjacent to v are visited.x Unvisited vertices adjacent to these newly visited vertices are then visited, and so on. BFS(v) // A BFS of the graph is carried out starting at vertex v. // visited[i] is set to TRUE when v is visited. The algorithm uses a queue. { Boolean visited[n]; Queue q; // initially, no vertex has been visited for (i = 0; i n; i++) visited[i] = FALSE; visited[v] = TRUE; q.insert(v); // add vertex v to the queue while (!q.IsEmpty()) { v = q.delete(); for (all vertex w adjacent to v) { if ( !visited[w]) { q.insert(w); visited[w] = TRUE; } } } }Exercise 11:Implement the Dijkstra’s Shortest Path Algorithm to generate shortest paths for a givendirected graph.Data Structures Lab Handouts 54
  55. 55. Lab 12-13 Using Standard Template Library (STL)OverviewThe Standard Library is a fundamental part of the C++ Standard. It provides C++programmers with a comprehensive set of efficiently implemented tools and facilities thatcan be used for most types of applications.The Standard Template Library, or STL, is a C++ library of container classes, algorithms,and iterators; it provides many of the basic algorithms and data structures of computerscience.The STL is a generic library, meaning that its components are heavily parameterized:almost every component in the STL is a template.1 - GETTING STARTEDThere are three components that make up STL. These are containers, algorithms, anditerators. Each will be discussed below. 1. Containers. Containers embody the data structures supported by STL. It accomplishes this by defining a template class for each of these data structures There are functions in the classes that allow the efficient manipulation of its elements. The following is a list of the containers. 1. vector - allows us to define dynamic arrays. 2. deque - doubly ended queues. 3. queue - supports a queue. Officially not a container - it is an adapter, but we can think of it as a container. 4. list - allows us to create linked lists. 5. stack - implements a pushdown stack. 6. maps and multimaps - allows us to create sorted tree structures. This gives us quick access to data stored in table form. The data may be accessed using a key.Data Structures Lab Handouts 55
  56. 56. 7. set and multi-set - allows us to organize a set of data in a tree structure. Note: Most often used are vectors and maps. 2. Algorithms. There are a set of algorithms supplied to manipulate data in containers. Sort, lower bound (a binary search) and replace are examples of algorithms. A good rule: if the container contains a function that does the same thing as a function in the algorithms, use the function in the container class. 3. Iterators. Iterators are a fancy word for pointers. They are pointers relative to containers. Because of the structure of the various containers they are not always as powerful as the standard C++ pointers.Example 1:Lets consider a simple example, one where we wish to create a set of integers and thenshuffle them into random order: #include vector #include algorithm #include iostream #include conio.h using namespace std; int main() { vectorint v; for (int i = 0; i 25; i++) v.push_back(i); random_shuffle(v.begin(), v.end()); for (int j = 0; j 25; j++) cout v[j] ; cout endl; getch(); return 0; }When run, this program produces output like: 6 11 9 23 18 12 17 24 20 15 4 22 10 5 1 19 13 3 14 16 0 8 21 2 7Data Structures Lab Handouts 56
  57. 57. 2 - VECTORS, LISTS, DEQUES, STACKSTL has different types of containers that are available for holding data, namely vectors,lists, and deques.x A vector is like a smart array. You can use [] to efficiently access any element in the vector, and the vector grows on demand. But inserting into the middle of a vector is expensive, because elements must be moved down, and growing the vector is costly because it must be copied to another vector internally.x A list is like a doubly-linked list that youve used before. Insertion or splicing of subsequences is very efficient at any point in the list, and the list doesnt have to be copied out. But looking up an arbitrary element is slow.x A deque classically stands for double-ended queue, but in STL means a combination of a vector and a list. Indexing of arbitrary elements is supported, as are list operations like efficiently popping the front item off a list.Example 2.1: #include list #include algorithm #include iostream #include conio.h using namespace std; int main() { listint v; for (int i = 0; i 25; i++) v.push_back(i); for (int j = 0; j 25; j++) { cout v.front() ; v.pop_front(); } cout endl; getch(); return 0; }Data Structures Lab Handouts 57
  58. 58. Example 2.2: #include algorithm #include iostream #include deque #include conio.h using namespace std; int main() { dequeint v; for (int i = 0; i 25; i++) v.push_back(i); random_shuffle(v.begin(), v.end()); for (int j = 0; j 25; j++) { cout v.front() ; v.pop_front(); } cout endl; getch(); return 0; }Data Structures Lab Handouts 58
  59. 59. Example 2.3:One more worth mentioning data structure is stack. In STL a stack is based on a vector,deque, or list. An example of stack usage is: #include iostream #include stack #include list #include conio.h using namespace std; int main() { stackint, listint stk; for (int i = 1; i = 10; i++) stk.push(i); while (!stk.empty()) { cout endl; stk.pop(); } getch(); return 0; }We declare the stack, specifying the underlying type (int), and the sort of list used torepresent the stack (listint).Data Structures Lab Handouts 59
  60. 60. 3 - BIT SETSAnother STL data structure is bit sets, offering space-efficient support for sets of bits.Example 3: #include iostream #include bitset #include conio.h using namespace std; int main() { bitset16 b1(1011011110001011); bitset16 b2; b2 = ~b1; for (int i = b2.size() - 1; i = 0; i--) cout b2[i]; cout endl; getch(); return 0; }Data Structures Lab Handouts 60
  61. 61. 4 – ITERATORSIterators in STL are mechanisms for accessing data elements in containers and for cyclingthrough lists of elements.Example 4: #include algorithm #include vector #include iostream #include conio.h using namespace std; const int N = 100; int main() { vectorint iv(N); iv[50] = 37; vectorint::iterator iter = find(iv.begin(), iv.end(), 37); if (iter == iv.end()) cout not foundn; else cout found at iter - iv.begin() n; getch(); return 0; }Data Structures Lab Handouts 61
  62. 62. 5 - OPERATING ON SETSSTL also contains some algorithms for operating on ordered sets of data, illustrated by asimple example:Example 5: #include iostream #include algorithm #include vector #include conio.h using namespace std; int set1[] = {1, 2, 3}; int set2[] = {2, 3, 4}; vectorint set3(10); int main() { vectorint::iterator first = set3.begin(); vectorint::iterator last = set_union(set1, set1 + 3, set2, set2 + 3, first); while (first != last) { cout *first ; first++; } cout endl; getch(); return 0; }Data Structures Lab Handouts 62
  63. 63. 6 – FILLINGThe fill() function fills a data structure with a specified value:Example 6: #include algorithm #include iostream #include conio.h using namespace std; int vec1[10]; int vec2[10]; int main() { fill(vec1, vec1 + 10, -1); for (int i = 0; i 10; i++) cout vec1[i] ; cout endl; fill_n(vec2, 5, -1); for (int j = 0; j 10; j++) cout vec2[j] ; cout endl; getch(); return 0; }fill() fills according to the specified iterator range, while fill_n() fills a specified number oflocations based on a starting iterator and a count. The results of running this program are: -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 0 0 0 0 0Data Structures Lab Handouts 63
  64. 64. 7 – ACCUMULATINGAnother simple algorithm that STL makes available is accumulation, for examplesumming a set of numeric values. An example of this would be:Example 7: #include iostream #include numeric #include conio.h using namespace std; int vec[] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}; int main() { int sum = accumulate(vec, vec + 5, 0); cout sum endl; int prod = accumulate(vec, vec + 5, 1, timesint()); cout prod endl; getch(); return 0; }In this example, we specify iterators for a vector of integers, along with an initial value (0)for doing the summation.By default, the + operator is applied to the values in turn. Other operators can be used,for example * in the second example. In this case the starting value is 1 rather than 0.Data Structures Lab Handouts 64
  65. 65. Lab 14-15 Implementation of Sorting TechniquesThe main objective of this lab is to compare the efficiency of different sortingtechniques we have studied in the course.Implement the following sorting techniques and count number of comparisons andexchanges. 1) Bubble Sort 2) Selection Sort 3) Insertion Sort 4) Heap Sortx Run all the above techniques for the following values of N. Generate input data randomly and vary the input size N as below: N = 10, 100, 1000, 5000, 10000, 20000, 50000x Present your results in tabular and graphical (line graph) form. The tabulated output should have the following form: N Bubble Sort Selection Sort Insertion Sort Heap Sort Comp. Exch. Comp. Comp Exch. Exch. Comp. Exch. . 10 100 1000 5000 10000 20000 50000Extra Credit Task: Compute the actual execution time by reading the system clock.Data Structures Lab Handouts 65
  66. 66. Bubble Sortvoid Bubble( int x[], int n){ int hold, j, pass; int switched = TRUE; for (pass = 0; pass n-1 switched == TRUE; pass++) { // outer loop controls the number of passes switched = FALSE; for ( j = 0; j n-pass-1; j++) { // inner loop controls each individual pass if (x[j] x [j+1]) // elements out of order { switched = TRUE; hold = x[j]; // interchange j and j+1 x[j] = x [j+1]; x[j+1] = hold; } // end if } // end inner for loop } // end outer for loop} // end BubbleData Structures Lab Handouts 66
  67. 67. Insertion Sort insertionsort (int x[], int n) { int j, k, y; /* initially x[0] may be thought of as a sorted file of one element. After each repetition of the following loop, the elements x[0] through x[k] are in order */ for (k=1; kn; k++) { /* insert x[k] into sorted file */ y = x[k]; /* move down all elements greater than y */ for (j=k-1; j=0 yx[j]; j++) x[j+1] = x[j]; /* insert y at proper position */ x[j+1] = y; } }Selection Sortvoid Selectionsort(int x[], int n){ int key; for(int a=0; a n; a++) { key=a; for(int b=a+1; b n; b++) { if(x[b] x[key]) key=b; } if (key a) { int temp = x[a]; x[a] = x[key]; x[key] = temp; } }}Heap SortUse STL to implement Heap sort.Data Structures Lab Handouts 67
  68. 68. Sorting using STLWe will now start discussing some of the actual STL algorithms that can be applied to datastructures. One of these is sorting.Example:Consider a simple example of a String class, and a vector of Strings: #include vector #include algorithm #include iostream #include assert #include string #include conio.h using namespace std; class String { char* str; public: String() { str = 0; } String(char* s) { str = strdup(s); assert(str); } int operator(const String s) const { return strcmp(str, s.str) 0; } operator char*() { return str; } };Data Structures Lab Handouts 68
  69. 69. char* list[] = {epsilon, omega, theta, rho, alpha, beta, phi, gamma, delta}; const int N = sizeof(list) / sizeof(char*); int main() { int i, j; vectorString v; for (i = 0; i N; i++) v.push_back(String(list[i])); random_shuffle(v.begin(), v.end()); for (j = 0; j N; j++) cout v[j] ; cout endl; sort(v.begin(), v.end()); for (j = 0; j N; j++) cout v[j] ; cout endl; getch(); return 0; }Output looks like: phi delta beta theta omega alpha rho gamma epsilon alpha beta delta epsilon gamma omega phi rho thetaData Structures Lab Handouts 69
  70. 70. Computing Execution Time#include iostream#include time.h#include conio.husing namespace std;int main (){ time_t start,end; char szInput [25]; double dif; time (start); cout Please, enter your name: ; cin szInput; time (end); dif = difftime (end,start); cout Hi szInput ; cout It took you dif seconds to type your name. endl; getch(); return 0;}Data Structures Lab Handouts 70
  71. 71. Lab 16 Implementation of Searching TechniquesThe main objective of this lab is to compare the efficiency of different searchingtechniques we have studied in the course.Implement the following searching techniques and count number of comparisons forsuccessful and unsuccessful search. 1. Sequential Search 2. Binary Search N Sequential Search Binary Search Successful Unsuccessful Successful Unsuccessful 10 100 1000 5000 10000 20000 50000Sequential Search int Sequential( int x[], n, key) { for (int i = 0; i n; i++) if (key == x[i]) return (i); return (-1); }Data Structures Lab Handouts 71
  72. 72. Binary Search int Binary( int x[], n, key) { int low = 0; int hi = n-1; while (low = hi) { int mid = (low + hi) / 2; if (key == x[mid]) return (mid); if (key x[mid]) hi = mid – 1; else low = mid + 1; } return –1; }Data Structures Lab Handouts 72
  73. 73. Searching using STL: MAPSA map is something like an associative array or hash table, in that each element consists ofa key and an associated value. A map must have unique keys, whereas with a multimapkeys may be duplicated.Example:To see how maps work, lets look at a simple application that counts word frequency.Words are input one per line and the total count of each is output. #include iostream #include string #include map #include conio.h using namespace std; int main() { typedef mapstring, long, lessstring MAP; MAP counter; char buf[256]; while (cin buf) counter[buf]++; MAP::iterator it = counter.begin(); while (it != counter.end()) { cout (*it).first (*it).second endl; it++; } getch(); return 0; }Data Structures Lab Handouts 73