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Crowdsource Application A Pragmatic Approach for Participation in Healthcare Sector Using Web 3.0

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Retrieval and management of Web data is now a complex problem, due to huge amount of information, variety of the information sources, data formats, and developing expectations of users. Crowdsourcing is an online problem solving paradigm that is used to tap the intelligence of the crowd. This research covers the idea that the medical paradigm is leaving the traditional doctor-patient relationship and adopting the patient-patient relationship. Physician centered model is evolving towards a new de-centralized model where patients are given more responsibility for their health.

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Crowdsource Application A Pragmatic Approach for Participation in Healthcare Sector Using Web 3.0

  1. 1. ISSN: 2312-7694 Qurat-ul-Ain et al, / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE), Vol. 2 (2), 2015, 351-355 351 | P a g e © IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 02 No.02 April 2015 www.ijccse.com vgfhf Qurat-ul-Ain Abstract—Retrieval and management of Web data is now a complex problem, due to huge amount of information, variety of the information sources, data formats, and developing expectations of users. Crowdsourcing is an online problem solving paradigm that is used to tap the intelligence of the crowd. This research covers the idea that the medical paradigm is leaving the traditional doctor-patient relationship and adopting the patient-patient relationship. Physician centered model is evolving towards a new de-centralized model where patients are given more responsibility for their health. I. INTRODUCTION According to the latest survey1 more than 7 billion people use internet in the world. And mostly they accept and encourage changes and new trends in web. Around ten years ago, most of the websites were static i.e. The contents are provided only by the web authors and developers. Directly contact with them through email or phone is possible, people had no way to propose or make any changes to the site. Static sites feel and act like a printed brochure viewable through computer screens. After the introduction of Web 2.0 concept, the way people write websites changed a lot. Websites became dynamic, and people could add content to the site easily. One successful realization of Web 2.0 is the introduction of blogging service for people who don't know how to write websites, but want to make something viewable to others on the internet. After a while, the idea of crowdsourcing website emerged. In an article for Wired magazine in 2006, Jeff Howe defined “crowdsourcing” as “an idea of outsourcing a task that is traditionally performed by an employee to a large group of people in the form of an open call” [9]. 1 https://www.internetsociety.org/internet/global-internet- user-survey-2012 The difference between a blog and a crowdsourcing website is that the blog is mainly for users to post diary-like passages to share around on internet, where as crowdsourcing websites are developed to collect information and data from different users to form the collection of contents for the whole website. Crowdsource applications and techniques are now being applied to many websites content and developers of sites tend to focus on dynamicity of their sites. Trend of web 2.0 is at its peak and it attracts users throughout the world. The concept of web 2.0 is put forward in the recent years and it evolved to the current sophisticated and interactive websites in medical field. According to the World Bank2 , in 2010 regarding 2 billion people were net users that represented nearly 30.2% of the world population. One area where the internet is being more widely used by this crowd of users is Medicine. A global study conducted by the Thomson Reuters agency showed that, on average, 53% of the searches done by U.S. citizen’s aim at obtaining health-related data [1]. In another survey, conducted in 2010 by the pew internet project, a part of the bench research center, it had been found that eightieth of American adult internet users perform searches for health- related information [2]. With the appearance of Web 2.0, new terms arose like Medicine 2.0, Personal Health Record (PHR 2.0), Health 2.0, Social Health, and e-Health that get to study this new type of interaction that goes on the far side the normal doctor-patient relationship. The term crowdware takes inspiration from groupware, which suggests principles and ideas on communication and collaboration inside a shared context that facilitate a group to accomplish a joint task. Crowdware systems introduce new awareness contexts wherever the crowds will communicate, collaborate and act during a style of on-line activities and tasks. 2 http://data.worldbank.org Crowdsource Application A Pragmatic Approach for Participation in Healthcare Sector Using Web 3.0 Qurat-ul-Ain Fatima Jinnah Women University, the Mall Rawalpindi, Pakistan ainne45@yahoo.com Ayesha Saeed Fatima Jinnah Women University, the Mall Rawalpindi, Pakistan ayeshasaeed360@yahoo.com Dr. Sadaf Abdul Rauf Fatima Jinnah Women University, the Mall Rawalpindi, Pakistan sadaf.abdulrauf@fjwu.edu.pk Amna Naveed Fatima Jinnah Women University, the Mall Rawalpindi, Pakistan Amnanaveed92@yahoo.com Qurat-ul-Ain Fatima Jinnah Women University, the Mall Rawalpindi, Pakistan quratulain@fjwu.edu.pk
  2. 2. ISSN: 2312-7694 Qurat-ul-Ain et al, / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE), Vol. 2 (2), 2015, 351-355 352 | P a g e © IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 02 No.02 April 2015 www.ijccse.com [4] Explains that crowdware may be described as a category of systems to supporting virtual and real crowds, inheriting most parts of software, along with the web 2.0 and Cloud Computing, to produce advanced services at any place time, connecting individuals in heterogeneous domains. In [5] it is described that blogs, wikis, social network services, Web-based crowd collaboration systems, and ‘smart artifacts’ (non-traditional computer-based devices that enable mobile work, i.e., tablets, smart phones, pervasive, and wearable health watching systems) square measure all styles of crowdware. We present in this paper the development of a crowdsource application focusing the health care domain. The basic idea behind developing such kind of application is that patient should be given more responsibility for their health. If a single opinion matters then what about hundred thousand opinions. Information technology has been incorporated in many of the fields but in health sector, advancement still has to make so basic idea behind the application development was to make some advancements in health sector. [3] Discuss that due to the development of this crowdsource application the distance between two people who search for the same query or an answer to their health- related problems is reduced and new type of patient- patient interaction came up. The Rest of the paper is as follows: Section 2 covers the review of different crowdsource applications and techniques that are surveyed. Section 3 explains the overview of proposed application. Methodology is covered in section 4. Implementation of the application is discussed in detail in section 5 and Section 6 concludes the paper. II. RELATED WORKS In this section we give an overview of the applications, the theories related to crowdsourcing and the related work in the medical paradigm till the present date. A. Physician Centered Models: This is the foremost traditional model, primarily based on a closed and hierarchal health care system discussed in [3]. In this physician-centered model, the health professional stores the patient’s health information. Health professionals usually use completely different approaches to manage their patients’ medical records, using data Technology resources. As the web evolved from web 1.0 to Web 2.0, the styles of interaction between doctors and patients and the ways in which patients reach health info also evolved. In this new context, we are able to say that there are 2 main ways for patients to reach information: The most common sort of access to health information is though the intermediation of acknowledged experts. This way, the patient needs the health professional to get the information they want. The professional provides the ‘relevant’ data to the patient, and it serve as a broker between the patient and the knowledge. In [3], a term disintermediation is conferred. The delegates are expelled from the inventory network. Illustrations are patients looking for data on the internet. The issue with this methodology is that the patient can lose all sense of direction in the information wilderness and may get misguided. A. Patient Centered Models The recent years have seen an outstanding expansion in the advancement and reception of (Personal Health Records) PHR. The authors characterize PHR as an electronic application where people can get to and oversee data on their wellbeing in a private, secure and secret environment [7]. Prescription 1.0 is a patient-focused model. In this model, [3] discuss that; the patient concentrates the data about one's own health: they are created and kept by patients who grant access for their utilization to establishments, clinicians, analysts, and different clients of that information. The term Medicine 2.0 was explained in [3], authored by Dr. Gunther Eysenbach to mean all therapeutic practices that utilize the Web 2.0 engineering. Some different terms are additionally utilized for the same reason, for example, Health 2.0, E-Health, and PHR 2.0. There are three main user groups in Medicine 2.0 talked about in [3] where patients, health experts and researchers likewise connect in this model. III. PROPOSED CROWDSOURCE PARADIGM We propose an approach which exploits the benefits of crowdsourcing paradigm as well as maintains privacy concerns when applied to the medical domain. Figure 4 presents an Overview of the development application. Currently the application is designed for three groups of people, i.e. patients, doctors and technicians. They all can
  3. 3. ISSN: 2312-7694 Qurat-ul-Ain et al, / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE), Vol. 2 (2), 2015, 351-355 353 | P a g e © IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 02 No.02 April 2015 www.ijccse.com communicate with each other through an online platform which is the basic idea of our application. Patients can discuss their problem with doctors, doctors can interact with technicians if they need any equipment and want to outsource. Core engine comprises dashboard programming to make interaction possible between clients and web 3.0 will be integrated for this purpose. Web 3.0 contains both semantic web and artificial intelligence. Currently, our application is based on the assumption that doctors and technicians who attach their certificates and CVs are authorized and affiliated with some company. User authorization is a potential future work that we plan to pursue. The overview of the proposed technique is described in [Figure 1] Figure 1: Overview of the Application IV. METHODOLOGY The process model used for this research is Iterative model. The application was designed by following the SE life cycle, i.e. requirement gathering, requirements analysis, designing GUI by implementing search technique, and then evaluation by testing and running the module. Similar cycle was followed for all the iterations. We used following two techniques in the development of application:  Full Text Search  Context Awareness Full-text search3 is well-known search on elements of the initial texts described in databases such as titles, abstracts, designated sections, or bibliographic references. In an exceedingly full-text search, a research engine examines all of the words in each stored document because it tries to match search criteria which is text fixed by a user. Full text search is implemented with the context awareness4 . Context awareness is added for keeping record of what each user searches for. Query words get stored that a user searches. A new user would have no search words. So default information will be displayed on his home page. Otherwise stored query words of a user are used to display information e.g. it could be displaying relevant information on home page based on previous search by a registered user. If a user never had searches anything in past then default information gets displayed. V. IMPLEMENTATION With the application at hand, interface is as important as the core engine. Thus so in implementing the application, Graphical User Interface has been given more importance because the better the interactive and pleasing interface will be, the more users will be attracted. The Application is totally OS independent as it is a web application. User just has to browse. Browsers which are being supported by application are Internet Explorer 8, Firefox and Google chrome. The framework covers the following phases:  User have to Login first. If user is a new one then first have to do signup.  During Signup user has to choose a category whether he is doctor, patient or technician.  User have to check “Terns and condition” for completion of signup procedure.  After Signing up, on the base of category being chosen, user is directed to his respective profile creation page. User can add his personal and basic informtaion.  When Profile creation process is completed then home page of the user gets displyed.  In Groups, three groups have been identified. Patients’, Doctors’ and Techinicains’ group. 3 http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/fulltext-query- expansion.html 4 http://research.microsoft.com/en- us/projects/contextawaresearch/
  4. 4. ISSN: 2312-7694 Qurat-ul-Ain et al, / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE), Vol. 2 (2), 2015, 351-355 354 | P a g e © IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 02 No.02 April 2015 www.ijccse.com  Patients can discuss their problems with other patients and with doctors as well. Doctor can suggest any prescription to patient.  Basic bio data like age, gender and medical history of patient is only visible to a specific doctor added by user. so that doctor can suggest prescription to patient on reviewing his biodata.  Doctors can discuss new practices and solutions with other doctors in Doctors’ group.  If Doctor need any kind of quipment for their hospital then they asks for (Request for Proposal) RFP in technicians’ group and technicians upload proposals. After reviewing proposals, contarct signup is made between doctors and any technician of doctors’ choice.  Patients can add his medical record in detail as well so that it doctor can review that before suggesting any prescription.  No patient can view personal information of any patient.  User can made wall post on other user’s wall if they want to discuss something personally. Those wall post are not visible to any other user.  In the recent Searches, all the searches done by the user gets displyed. Context Awareness is applied over here.  User can search any medicine, post and prescription and can browse other members as well. A. Privacy Privacy of the personal information of user is one of the important features of application. Though crowdsource paradigm, by definition is a environment for global information sharing, but when applied to our problem at hand, it needs to be ensured that patient privacy is ensured. If the user is patient then during profile creation, he can add his disease, symptoms and medical history if he wants to. The medical information added by user is not displayed to any other user unless that user adds the “name” of particular user to whom he wants to share Information. If a doctor browses a Patient to see his medical history and open his profile then no information get displayed to doctor [Figure 2] because patient has not added his name to share personal information. Figure 2: Privacy on Medical History Doctor can post on patients’ wall and on patient’s choice; he will enter that specific doctor name to share his/her information with. Then the information will be displayed to that specific doctor [Figure 3]. Figure 3: Detail Shared with a Specific Doctor [Figure 4] explains that the medical records are only shared with doctors
  5. 5. ISSN: 2312-7694 Qurat-ul-Ain et al, / International Journal of Computer and Communication System Engineering (IJCCSE), Vol. 2 (2), 2015, 351-355 355 | P a g e © IJCCSE All Rights Reserved Vol. 02 No.02 April 2015 www.ijccse.com Figure 4: Medical Records VI. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK Only few crowdsource applications are developed till now and health care sector is a major category in which advancement must be made so many techniques and methods have been proposed by the researchers which are followed to implement a crowdsource application for health sector. In the application, patients are given more responsibility for their health and outsourcing in crowd is made possible. This application can be a big advancement in medical paradigm and can improve health issues throughout the globe. It is assumed that doctors and technicians are authorized user and their attached certificates are verified but no authorization procedures are applied. Authorization of users can be applied to application in future. REFERENCES [1] Reuters, “Consumer-targeted Internet investment: online strategies to improve patient care and product positioning,” in Reuters Business Insight Report 2003, May. [2] R. Cline and K. Haynes, “Consumer health information seeking on the Internet: the state of the art.,” in Health. Education Research 16(6), 2010, pp.671–692. [3] G. Eysenbach, “Medicine 2.0: social networking, collaboration, participation, apomediation, and openness,” in J Med Internet Res. 2008 Aug;10. [4] D. Schneider, K. Moraes, J.M. Souza and M.G.P Esteves, “CSCWD: five characters in search of crowds,” in Liang Gao; Weiming Shen; Jean-Paul A. Barthès; Junzhou Luo; Jianming Yong; Wenfeng Li & Weidong Li, ed., 'CSCWD' , IEEE, 2012, pp. 634-641 [5] H. Wald, C. Dube, D. Anthony, “Untangling the Web- the impact of Internet use on health care and the physician– patient relationship,” in Patient Education Counsel 2007;68:218–24. [6] D. O’Connor, “Apomediation and ancillary care: researchers’ responsibilities in health-related online communities,” in International Journal of Internet Research Ethics 3(12), 2010. [7] P. Tang, J. Ash, D. Bates, J. Overhage, D. Sands, “Personal health records: definition, benefits, and strategies for overcoming barriers to adoption,” in J Am Med Inform Assoc, 2006. [8] M. Van Limburg, “What business models opportunities are there for exploiting a personal health record on the dutch healthcare market.” v. 1.3, June 2009. [9] J. Howe. The rise of crowdsourcing. Wired, 14(6), June 2006.

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