Biological Processes Chapter 3 pp. 74-121
Biological Aspects of Psychology   <ul><li>How does the nervous system communicate internally? </li></ul><ul><li>How does ...
<ul><li>Neuroscience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An interdisciplinary field of study directed at understanding the brain and its...
The Nervous System
Fig. 2.20
Anatomy of a Neuron <ul><li>Dendrites </li></ul><ul><li>Soma </li></ul><ul><li>Axon </li></ul><ul><li>Nodes of Ranvier </l...
Axons and Dendrites
Communication <ul><li>Neurons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interneurons </li></ul></ul...
Afferent and Efferent Signals
Glial Cells (Example: Astrocytes)
“ Message” Within a Neuron: Electrical
“ Messages” Between Neurons: Chemical
The Composition of Intracellular and Extracellular Fluids
Neuronal Communication: Resting Potential Polarization: Negative sign indicates that the inside is negative in comparison ...
Neuronal Communication: Resting Potential
Fig. 2.25
Myelin Sheath and Nodes of Ranvier
Propagation in Unmyelinated and Myelinated Axons
Generating Action Potentials <ul><li>Change in potential, primarily because of messages from other neurons </li></ul><ul><...
Neurotransmitters  <ul><li>When action potential reaches the end of the axon, it triggers vesicles (sacs) in the terminal ...
Fig. 2.30
Example Neurotransmitters <ul><li>Acetylcholine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in triggering muscles to contract </li></ul...
Drugs and the Brain <ul><li>Agonists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mimic the action of neurotransmitters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
The Communication Network: Reflexes <ul><li>Reflex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A largely automatic body movement </li></ul></ul>...
A Simple Reflex Pathway
Central and Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>Central Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain and spinal cord </li></ul...
Central and Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>Automatic system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerves that control the more automati...
Brain Damage <ul><li>Studying brain damage is one of the oldest methods for investigating brain function </li></ul><ul><li...
Lesion
Recording Electrodes Surgically Implanted in a Rat’s Brain
Talking and Listening to the Brain <ul><li>Transcrancial magnetic stimulation (TMS) </li></ul><ul><li>Electroencephalograp...
Evoked Potentials
Transcranial Magentic Stimulation (TMS)
CT Scans
PET Scans Show Patterns of Brain Activation
Will Imaging Technologies Allow Us to “Read” People’s Minds?
Brain Structures <ul><li>Hindbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Forebrain </li></ul>
Hindbrain and Midbrain
Hindbrain and Midbrain
Forebrain
The Cerebral Cortex
The Case of Phineas Gage <ul><li>Illustrates effects of damage to the cerebral cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Railroad construct...
Hemispheric Lateralization <ul><li>In general,  left side  of cortex handles information from the  right side  of body/spa...
Visual Processing in The Two Hemispheres
The hemispheres Can Be Separated
Hemispheric Specialization <ul><li>Right hemisphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial tasks, emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>L...
Endocrine System:  Regulating Growth and Internal Functions <ul><li>Endocrine system </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul>...
The Endocrine System http://www.clinica-verde.com/pages/conditions-treated/endocrine-system.php
Flight or Fight Response
Gender, Hormones, and Psychology <ul><li>Before birth, hormones are released by pituitary gland and initiate developments ...
Natural Selection <ul><li>Natural Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differential production and survival of offspring by spe...
How Genes Work <ul><li>Chromosomes:  Strips of DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Half come from mother; half from father </li></ul...
How Genes Translate into Traits <ul><li>Phenotype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What you can observe about the trait </li></ul></u...
Genes and Behaviour <ul><li>Family Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Twin Studies </li></ul>
Evolutionary Adaptations and Human Behaviour <ul><li>Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness (EEA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T...
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Chapter3 biological processes

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Chapter3 biological processes

  1. 1. Biological Processes Chapter 3 pp. 74-121
  2. 2. Biological Aspects of Psychology <ul><li>How does the nervous system communicate internally? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the brain initiate and coordinate behaviour? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the body regulate growth and other internal functions? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we adapt, store, and transmit the genetic code? </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Neuroscience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An interdisciplinary field of study directed at understanding the brain and its relations to behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The brain and the spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The network of nerves that link the central nervous system with the rest of the body </li></ul></ul>Neuroscience
  4. 4. The Nervous System
  5. 5. Fig. 2.20
  6. 6. Anatomy of a Neuron <ul><li>Dendrites </li></ul><ul><li>Soma </li></ul><ul><li>Axon </li></ul><ul><li>Nodes of Ranvier </li></ul><ul><li>Terminal buttons </li></ul><ul><li>Synapse </li></ul>
  7. 7. Axons and Dendrites
  8. 8. Communication <ul><li>Neurons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interneurons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor neurons </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Afferent and Efferent Signals
  10. 10. Glial Cells (Example: Astrocytes)
  11. 11. “ Message” Within a Neuron: Electrical
  12. 12. “ Messages” Between Neurons: Chemical
  13. 13. The Composition of Intracellular and Extracellular Fluids
  14. 14. Neuronal Communication: Resting Potential Polarization: Negative sign indicates that the inside is negative in comparison to the outside
  15. 15. Neuronal Communication: Resting Potential
  16. 16. Fig. 2.25
  17. 17. Myelin Sheath and Nodes of Ranvier
  18. 18. Propagation in Unmyelinated and Myelinated Axons
  19. 19. Generating Action Potentials <ul><li>Change in potential, primarily because of messages from other neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Excitatory messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depolarization: Cell loses the negative charge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inhibitory messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperpolarization: Cell becomes more negatively charged </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Neurotransmitters <ul><li>When action potential reaches the end of the axon, it triggers vesicles (sacs) in the terminal buttons to release chemicals called neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><li>These activate receptors in the postsynaptic membrane </li></ul><ul><li>May be excitatory or inhibitory </li></ul>
  21. 21. Fig. 2.30
  22. 22. Example Neurotransmitters <ul><li>Acetylcholine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in triggering muscles to contract </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dopamine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibitory effects; dampens and “smoothes out” neural messages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serotonin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in sleep and dreaming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in regulating anxiety </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Drugs and the Brain <ul><li>Agonists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mimic the action of neurotransmitters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Nicotine and acetylcholine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antagonists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Block the action of neurotransmitters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Curare and acetylcholine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neuromodulators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase or decrease effectiveness of other neurotransmitters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Endorphins </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The Communication Network: Reflexes <ul><li>Reflex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A largely automatic body movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled by a simple network of sensory neurons, interneurons in the spinal cord, and motor neurons </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. A Simple Reflex Pathway
  26. 26. Central and Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>Central Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain and spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Sympathetic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Parasympathetic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Central and Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>Automatic system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerves that control the more automatic needs of the body, such as heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sympathetic system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The division of the automatic nervous system that helps the body respond to emergencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The division of the autonomic nervous system that helps the body calm down </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Brain Damage <ul><li>Studying brain damage is one of the oldest methods for investigating brain function </li></ul><ul><li>To establish structure-function relationship, necessary to observe in a controlled way effects of systematic and localized remove of tissue </li></ul>
  29. 29. Lesion
  30. 30. Recording Electrodes Surgically Implanted in a Rat’s Brain
  31. 31. Talking and Listening to the Brain <ul><li>Transcrancial magnetic stimulation (TMS) </li></ul><ul><li>Electroencephalograph (EEG) </li></ul><ul><li>Event-related potentials (ERP) </li></ul><ul><li>Computerized tomography (CT) </li></ul><ul><li>Position emission tomography (PET) </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Evoked Potentials
  33. 33. Transcranial Magentic Stimulation (TMS)
  34. 34. CT Scans
  35. 35. PET Scans Show Patterns of Brain Activation
  36. 36. Will Imaging Technologies Allow Us to “Read” People’s Minds?
  37. 37. Brain Structures <ul><li>Hindbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Forebrain </li></ul>
  38. 38. Hindbrain and Midbrain
  39. 39. Hindbrain and Midbrain
  40. 40. Forebrain
  41. 41. The Cerebral Cortex
  42. 42. The Case of Phineas Gage <ul><li>Illustrates effects of damage to the cerebral cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Railroad construction accident, 1848 </li></ul><ul><li>Iron rod driven through skull </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal lobe damage </li></ul><ul><li>Gage survived </li></ul><ul><li>Personality changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unpredictable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crude </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Hemispheric Lateralization <ul><li>In general, left side of cortex handles information from the right side of body/space, and vice versa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With vision, each half of each eye sends information to different side of the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information does eventually go to both hemispheres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corpus callosum transfers information across hemispheres </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Visual Processing in The Two Hemispheres
  45. 45. The hemispheres Can Be Separated
  46. 46. Hemispheric Specialization <ul><li>Right hemisphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial tasks, emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Left hemisphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is there any such thing as being “left brained” or “right brained?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not according to well-designed studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemispheres normally share information, work together </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Endocrine System: Regulating Growth and Internal Functions <ul><li>Endocrine system </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like nervous system, a means of communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike nervous system, relatively slow, longer-lasting messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate with nervous system </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. The Endocrine System http://www.clinica-verde.com/pages/conditions-treated/endocrine-system.php
  49. 49. Flight or Fight Response
  50. 50. Gender, Hormones, and Psychology <ul><li>Before birth, hormones are released by pituitary gland and initiate developments in reproductive anatomy, determining sex organs </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence exists that male and female brains differ somewhat anatomically, although such differences are often exaggerated </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to separate effects of biology (nature) from the ongoing influences of the environment (nurture) </li></ul>
  51. 51. Natural Selection <ul><li>Natural Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differential production and survival of offspring by species members with advantageous traits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Traits are inherited via genes </li></ul><ul><li>Traits can be psychological as well as physical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to be passed to offspring if they aid in finding a mate, increase chance of survival </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary Adaptations: Traits that enhance survival, fitness </li></ul>
  52. 52. How Genes Work <ul><li>Chromosomes: Strips of DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Half come from mother; half from father </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genes: Segments of chromosomes that influence particular characteristics Examples: height, hair colour </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant genes may mask recessive ones </li></ul><ul><li>Genes may mutate (spontaneously change) </li></ul>
  53. 53. How Genes Translate into Traits <ul><li>Phenotype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What you can observe about the trait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: A person’s weight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phenotype influenced by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genotype (genes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So “final product” usually influenced heredity AND environment </li></ul>
  54. 54. Genes and Behaviour <ul><li>Family Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Twin Studies </li></ul>
  55. 55. Evolutionary Adaptations and Human Behaviour <ul><li>Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness (EEA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The environment, or environments, in which a species’ evolutionary adaptations were selected </li></ul></ul>

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