7 Yojana and 7 yugas( , / / ) –, Yujir verb= to add, This forms yuga and yojana-both unite in 7 ways.$Two Yojanas by Bhāskarāchārya-II for 2 purposes-1. Astronomy- Siddhānta-śiromaņi -earth is standard-Equator = 5000 yojanas, 1 yojana = 8 Kms.2. Human use-Līlāvatī-Angula (finger width) is standard.1 Yojana = 32,000 hands = 16 Kms.( ) ( / )Sun is at 100 Yojanas. Here, yojana is diameter of sun. It is at 108(about 100) yojanas.Jain astronomy-1 Pramāņa yojana = 500 Ātmā yojana =1000 Utsedha yojanasModern Physics-(1) Definitions of Meter-(a) 10 part of distance between equator and north pole along Paris.(b) Distance between 2 marks on a rod at zero degree at Paris.( c) 16,50,763,73 times wave-length of a radiation of Krypton86.(d) linked with second by speed of light-Light travels 2,99,792.458 Kms in 1 second.(2) Foot = length of Human foot = 30.48 Cms.(3) Nautical Mile-1 minute arc on equator = 6076.115 feet or 1852 meter.Astronomical measures-(1) Astronomical unit (AU)-Semi major axis of earth orbit=distance of sun =1.496 x 10 Meters.(2) Persec (Pc)-This is distance at which 1 AU makes angle of 1 second1 Persec = 3.0856 x 10 Meters = 3.26 Light yearsKilo-persec (Kpc) = 1000 Pc, Mega-persec (Mpc) = 10 Pc.(3) Light year is distance travelled by light in 1 tropical year = 9.4605 x 10 MeterGaja means elephant and measuring rod both, It indicates number 8.71615116
Nara yojana = Human measureLarge measures-1 Angula (finger width) is standard. 12 angula = 1 Vitasti (palm spread).2 Vitasti = 1 Hasta (hand) =45 Cm, 1 angula =1.875 Cm.1 Daņɖa = 4 hasta. It is also called Puruşa (man)- height with hands raised=fathom of 6 feet.4000 Daņɖa = 1 yojana = 32000 hands =16 kms.Small measures-Bŗhat-samhitā (58/1-2) of Varāhamihira8 Paramāņu (atom) = 1 Raja or dust particle (Ratha-reņu as per Mānasāra)8 Raja =1 Vālāgra (hair end), 8 Vālāgra = 1 Likśā (lice)8 Likśā = 1 Yūka, 8 Yūka = 1 Yava (barley grain width)8 Yava = 1 Angula (finger width) = 1.875 cm.microncmcm 5.410578.48875.1 441Paramāņu .10153.7810578.4 624cmŚrīpati calls it the size of dust particles seen in sun-rays.This is Trasareņu which has 60 Aņus (atom) as per Āyurveda.Thus, 1 atom = 1.2 x10-7Cm.Lalita-vistara tells Paramāņu-raja = Angula x 7-10 = 0.6 x 10-7 Cm.This is actually radius of Hydrogen atom.Trasareņu of Tiloya-pannati =1 Angula x 8-9 = 1.4 x 10-8 CmAny measure is in general called Angula. Puruşa sūkta-1 tells the whole world as angula.When measure is only 1 angula, it is called Anguşţha. Bālakhilya planets are called of1 Anguşţha. Here earth is Puruşa of 96 angulas.
Bhū-Yojana with earth as StandardSūrya-siddhānta (1/59)-Diameter = 1600 YojanaPañcha-siddhāntikā (1/18) Circumference = 3200 yojanaĀryabhaţīya (1/10) and Lalla- Diameter = 1050 YojanasSiddhānta-śiromaņi, Golādhyāya, Bhuvana-koşa 52-Diameter =1582 1/24 yojanas, Circumference =4967 YojanaIn space, earth has been called Padma (lotus) of 1000 petals-Padma-purāņa,Sŗşţi khaņɖa (40/2-3) Or Ŗgveda (6/16/13-14). Counting atmosphere as part ofearth, its 1000 part is equal to Āryabhaţa yojana.Bhāgavata purāņa, part 5 calls planetary orbit up to Neptune as Disc-shaped earth of100 Crore yojana diameter. Middle age astronomers have multiplied it by 360 to makeIt Divya yojana as diameter of Brahmāņɖa (galaxy).Half part of that is loka (lighted) part of 50 crore yojanas, in which 7 dvīpa (continents)and samudra (ocean) are described as same names found on earth. Remaining partis Aloka (dark) region.Here, 1 yojana = 1000 part of earth diameter = 12.75628 Kms.
Comparison of Dvīpa and Samudras with planetary orbitsSerial-Planet Point Radius(1000 yojana) Radius of Dvīpa Error% Name of region1.Mercury Near 5976.0 6,150 2.1 Kśīra-sāgara2.Mercury Far 15,701.1 15,750 0.3 Mānasottara parvata3. Venus Near 2851.0 2,950 3.5 Ghŗta-sāgara4. Venus Far 18,813.0 18,950 0.7 Puşkara-Dvīpa5. Mars Near 4,090.0 4,550 11.2 Krauñcha-Dvīpa6.Mars Far 25,736.5 25,350 -1.5 Jala-samudra7. Jupiter Near 43,422.8 41,100 -5.3 Jana-sthāna8. Saturn Far 1,21,599.6 1,25,000 2.8 Hiraņya-varşa9. Sun (mean) 10,840.4 10,950 1.0 Mean of Dadhi samudra10. Ceres* Near 16, 312.8 15,750 -3.4 Mānasottara parvata11. Ceres* Far 42,683.2 41,100 -3.7 Jana-sthāna12.Urans Far 2,29,811.0 2,50,000 8.8 Aloka-varşaNote-1.* Ceres is the main body in the asteroid belt between mars and Jupiter. Its orbit iscalculated for figures of 2000 AD.2. Jambū-Dvīpa of 50,000 yojana radius is extent of gravitational field of earth in which anobject will be in orbit. Its axis in direction of earth rotation in Meru of 1,00,000 yojanas.3. Dadhi-samdra is solid planet zone. Its mean circle is orbit of earth-largest solid planet.
Bha Yojana=Star measureIn astronomy texts, value of yojana is determined by comparing the standard measure ofearth in diameter or circumference with modern measure in Kms. Without any reason,we assume that the same measure is used for distance of sun or star planets-which looklike stars. There measure needs to be found by comparing sun diameter with current measures.Sūrya-siddhānta (1/59)-Diameter of earth = 1600 YojanaIt is 12,756.28 Km. (equator) in modern measure.So, this yojana = 12,756.28/ 1600 =7.9727 Km.Sun diameter = 6500 Yojana (Sūrya-siddhānta 4/17)It is 13,92,000 Km. in modern measures.So, this yojana= 13,92,000/ 6500 = 214.1538 Km.Solar yojana/earth yojana =214.1538/7.9727 = 26.86 or 27 approximately.Bha means star and indicates number 27. So, measure of sun (a star) and star-like planets canbe called Bha-yojana which means star-measure or 27 (Bha) yojanas.(1) Sun orbit=43,31,500 Yojana (Sūrya-siddhānta 12/86)Diameter = 1.47 x 10 Kms., Modern value = 1.50 x 10 Kms.(2) Nakśatra Kakśā =Sun orbit x 60 (Sūrya-siddhānta 12/80)This is obviously within solar system as size of Brahmāņɖa is much larger.This is small planets called Bālakhilyas, 60,000 in number rotating round sun.Their size in Anguşţha = 1 angula (Bhāgavata purāņa 5/21/17)Earth can be taken as a puruşa of 96 angula = 12,756.28 Km.So, Bālakhilya size is 12,756.28/96 = 135 km.NASA estimate of 2005 is that there are 70,000 Plutonic bodies of more than 100 KmDiameter at 44-65AU distance (60 AU average in Bhāgavata)(3) Brahmāņɖa circumference = 1.87 x 10 Bha-yojana (Sūrya-siddhānta 12/90)Diameter = 1.3 x 10 Light year , Modern measure 10 LY.551688
Dhāma yojana- ( , / / )( , / / )Measure of solar system is given in Ŗk veda (10/189/3)For 30 Dhāma brightness is more, which is understood as Vāk =field of Patanga =sun.Each Vasta (location) of Dyu (sky) is measured in Ahar. Ahar and vasta both mean day.Dhāma and yojana both words have been used in Řgveda (1/123/8) for measure of Uşā (twilight)They (Uşā) are same today and will be same tomorrow. They spread towards place of Varuņa,one by one. Dhāma of Varuņa are 30 without break. They are ahead of Kratu =sun by 30 Yojanas.1. Meaning in space-Zone of Varuņa is galaxy. Within that, there are 30 zones one after other wherelight of sun is more than the background of galaxy. Light of each zone is more than darkness and lessSun itself and is called Uşā (twilight) of 30 levels in 30 zones called Dhāma.Measure of Dhāma here is not defined. Here measuring rod is earth itself as in Sūrya-siddhānta-, .. ( , / / , , / )Measure of loka has started in Taittirīya upanişad (2/8) from Earth-called Manuşya-loka.Bŗhadāraņyaka upanişad (3/3/2)-= 32 ahar (Plural is aha̅ni) is measure of Deva-ratha, its double in all directions is Pŗthivī (enclosure of solarsystem), that is surrounded all around by Samudra (ocean) of twice size.Thus all measure starts from earth as measuring rod. But there are 3 Dhāmas within earth, soDhāma 3 = earth. Distance from center of measure is equal to radius of earth.Radius of Dhāma 4 =2 x earth radius,Radius of Dhāma 5 = 4 x earth radius, and so on.
D = r x 2n-3r21Earth34 ahargaŋa=2r4r 8rAhargaŋa Scale
Kśara DhāmaMeaning of Dhāma on earth-Varuņa is lord of west direction. Uşā (twilight) goes up to 30 dhāmas inthat direction ahead of place of sun rise. In India, it is taken as 15 degree west of sun-rise.This is called Sandhyā (joint) period and in Kali-yuga of 1200 years, 2 sandhyā are of 100 yearseach. Thus in a day of 24 hours, it will be of 1 hour each equal to 15 degree rotation of earth.In west, it is taken as 18 degree which is more correct for European latitudes.Thus 1 Dhāma = ½ degree longitude.This will differ for each latitude circle, will decrease as we move away from equator.On equator, it is fixed and can be called a Dhāma-yojana, equal to half degree arc.Thus, 1 Dhāma-yojana = 40,000/720 = 55.5 kms.Kaţha upanişad 1/3/1) gives measure of galaxy in that measure-= Persons doing good finally enter the largest cave of size (circumference) of para̅rdha yojana (0.5 x1017 x 55.5 kms.). Knowers of Brahma call it a combination of light and shadow having 5 Agnis(condensations) called (1) Svayambhu̅ (universe as collection of 1011 galaxies), (2) Parameşţhīmaņɖala (galaxy with stars), (3) solar system of 30 dha̅mas (230 x earth size), (4) Cha̅ndra maņɖala(sphere containing orbit of moon), and (5) earth. Out of these, the last 3 are jointly influencing us-called 3 eyes of Śiva. Chiketa = distinct, Nāchiketa =indistinct, mixed.Here diameter of galaxy comes to 97000 LY, between 100000 and 95000 LY estimates of NASA in1990 and 2005.Same measure is used in Ŗgveda (1/164/12) etc. where Brahmāņɖa has always been called Pura(structure) of Parārdha size. Yojaana has been used only once in Ŗgveda, so it can have only thismeaning.
SunEarth to 17 ahargaņaEarthMoon391517 ahargaņaMarsMercuryVenus
Solar system33 ahargaņa27 Maitreya21 Rathantara sāmaSaturn17 ahargaņaEarthSun
Solar System-Steps of VișņuSunHeat Zone100 diameterBright1000 D 10 D5710 DLightUșāSun as pointStep 1 Step 2 Step 3Parama padaBrahmāņɖa
Zones of Solar system1. Vaşaţkāra-Vāk (field of Sun) is şaţ (6), so it is called Vaşaţkāra. These are zones of 3 to33 at intervals of 6 ahargaņa each.(a) 3 ahargaņa =Earth itself.(b) 9 ahargaņa = earth x 26 = earth x 64. Moon is at 61 radius distance.(c) 15 ahargaņa = earth x 212 = earth radius x 2.6125 x 107 = Varāha zone.Difference between radii of Earth and venus orbits = (150-108) x 106 Km.Thus, Varāha zone = (26.125/42) x 100 = 62.2%.(d) 21 ahargaņa = earth x 218 = Radius of 1672 x 106 Km.Chakra of Ratha of sun has1000 yojana radius.Here, yojana =diameter of sun. So, radius is 13,92,000 x 1000 = 1392 x 106 Km.This is also called Sahasrākśa zone, where ākśa=sun. Thus 21 crosses ratha and iscalled Rathantara-sāma.(e) 27 ahargaņa = earth x 224 = Radius of 1.07 x 1011 Km. This is called Maitreya-maņɖala.In Vişņu purāņa (2/7) etc. it is stated of 105 yojana. Here, yojana is sun diameter.This is also called Sāvitrī =creative. It is 224 times earth and chhanda of 24 letters is calledGāyatrī . Gāyatrī also means Sāvitrī .(f) 33 ahargaņa = earth x 230= Radius of 6.848 x 1012 Km. Latest estimate of farthestobjects is Oort cloud at distance between 75 to 150 thousand AU.Larger limit =1.5 x 108 x 1.5 x105 Km = 2.25 x1013 Km(g) 34 ahargaņa is of double size called Prajāpati.2. Sun centric Trişţup chhanda- Trişţup chhanda has 4 parts of 11 letters each. 3 parts are3 zones of solar system called 3 steps of Vişņu. Complete Chhanda is of 44 letters. That ismeasure of Maharloka. It is taken 43 only as Chhanda can be of 2 letters more or less.It is equal to width of spiral arm of galaxy, called Śeşa-nāga. It has about 1000 stars called1000 heads of Śeşa. The 3 zones or steps of Vişņu are zones of heat, brightness and light.3. Two parts-Planetary zone is called Bŗhaspati, the largest planet. Outer zone is after1000 Sun-diameters = Sahasrākśa or Indra-
Solar yojanaFor measure of solar system, diameter of sun itself has been taken as a yojana. It can bealso called Ātmā-yojana, as sun is ātmā (soul) of universe (Yajurveda 7/42 etc.)It is seen from Vāyu purāņa (6/12) where Varāha is stated 100 yojana high and 10 yojanawide. As it is description of solar system, height of from sun is 100 yojana and in its body of10 yojana, earth is like a dot on its tooth. Thus earth is between 100 and110 yojanas fromsun. Taking sun-diameter as unit, it is 108-109 diameters.Examples-(1)Heat zone (Tāpa-kśetra)-Up to 100 yojanas from sun-( ) ( / ) ( )( / / / )(2) Bright zone (Raśmi-kśetra)-Up to 1000 yojanas from sun- ( )( = ) / / )( . . / )(3) Maitreya Maņɖala -1 lakh yojanas-Vişņu purāņa (2/8)Wheel of ratha-1000 yojana =zone of Indra (Sahasrākśa, akśa or chakśu = eye which is sun,Sahasra =1000)-This is grand cycle of planetary motions up to Saturn, so it is wheel. ThatIs basis of yugas in which revolution of planets are stated (Bhagaņopapatti)Ratha = Diameter 9000 yojana. Radius = 4500 yojana, up to orbit of Pluto.Īşā-daņɖa (axle rod)-Extent of solar wind up to 9000 yojana. Its middle zone is at 6750,Which is Nakśatra-kakśā (orbit of small bodies, Bālakhilya = small planets at end) at 60AU i.e. 60 times distance of sun (Sūrya-siddhānta 12/80)Spread of Solar Ratha (=body)-157 lakh yojanas x 1392000 kms.= 2 LY diameter
Prakāśa Yojana-Length by Speed of LightTruţi has been defined as time taken by a sharp needle to pierce a petal of rose.-Vaţeśvara-siddhānta, madhyamādhikāra,7; Siddhānta-śiromaņi, madhyamādhikāra, 26But this is not a definition of unit-hardness and width of rose-petal, sharpness of needleand force applied to it are unspecified.Bhāgavata purāņa (3/11/5) defines it as time taken by light to cross 3 Trasareņuor 3 units larger than it which are missing-( / / )Both can be explained by the fact that earth is called a big lotus in space –- , ( / )Last step of creation is earth, so it is foot. It is base (foot, pada) of life, so it is padma (lotus).This is the lotus coming from navel of Sun as Vişņu. Seen from earth, it is at focus of theapparent orbit of sun. That focus is navel (nābhi).Truţi is 33750 parts of 1 second. It is time taken by light to cross a yojana, which may be1000 or 1600 parts of its diameter.Examples-(1) Radius of solar system is distance travelled by light in 1 year. That was the region whosematerial started creation of sun, so it is Āditya. Thus is called samvatsara (year)-(= ) - ( / / / )(= ) ( / / )Within this region, devas are created- ( / / / , / / / , / ,, , / , / ) ( / / / )After samvatsara is Varuņa region- ( / / / )(2) Tapah loka of Brahmā is the region which receives light (or heated) from other parts. It isCalled visible universe in modern physics. ( ) / ,/ ), ( / / / )(3) Vijñāna ātmā in heart region is connected up to Brahma-randhra by lanes in individual bodies.(Bŗhadāraņyaka upanişad 4/4/8,9; Chhāndogya upanişad 8/6/1,2,5; Brahma-sūtra 4/2/17-20)From that it goes to Sun at speed of light. Ŗgveda (3/53/8) tells that this link goes and returns 6times in a muhūrtta (48 minutes). Light travels 3 lakh kms. In 1 second. It will take 500 secondsor 8 minutes to reach. It will go and return 3 times in 8 x 6= 48 minutes.-… … …… … ( / / - )( / / )
Pramāņa YojanaJain Astronomy By S.S. Lishk-Vidyasagar Publication, Delhi-53, Pages 28,29-1 Pramāņa yojana = 500 Ātmā yojana = 1000 Utsedha Yojana.Here Sun is ātmā of universe, so its diameter is ātmā-yojana.…… ( / )Each start of measure is earth, next loka is Pramā measured in Pramāņa yojana .Lower divisions of standard earth are utsedha yojana divided into 1000 parts., … , ( / / , / )Bhāgavata purāņa, part 5, Vişņu purāņa 2/7 etc give the following measures of 7 lokas-(1)Bhū-loka (Earth) 1000 yojana. In utsedha yojana = 1000 parts of earth.(2) Bhuvar loka-1 lakh yojana. In earth yojanas, it is Varāha of 1000 times bigger spread.(3)Svar loka-It is solar system whose ratha size is 157 lakh yojans= 157,00,000 x 1392000 kms = about 2 light years diameter.(4) Mahar loka is 1 crore yojana. It looks smaller than solar system of 1.57 crore size,but it is in Pramāņa yojana = sun diameter x 500)Thus, radius of mahar-loka =1 crore yojana = 107 x 500 sun diameters =6.96 x 1015 Kms.= 735 Light years. This is a sphere of width of spiral arm of galaxy near sun.(5) Janah loka-Radius is 2 crore yojanas in unit again bigger by 500 times.Thus it is 6.96 x 1018 Kms. =73,500 LY.(6) Tapah loka radius is 4 times bigger in unit 500 times bigger than that of mahar-loka.Radius is 14.7 crore LY, i.e. 45.1 Mpc which is distance of local super-clusture.(7) Satya-loka is 12 crore yojanas in still 500 times bigger unit. I.e. its radius=98 billion LY. Visible world (called Bhūmi) is of 1/10 size of Puruşa, as per in Puruşa-sūkta, 1Visible world = 9.8 billion LY. Modern estimates range from 8 to 18 billion LY.
Reverse tree of WorldMaņɖala Figure God Element Symbol Chakra in spinal cordSvāyambhuvaMaņɖalaUniverse1011 galaxiesParameşţhīMaņɖalaGalaxy, Ākāśa-gangāBrahmāņɖa,1011starsSolar systemSaura-MaņɖalaChāndra-MaņɖalaSphere of moon orbitBhū-MaņɖalaEarthBrahmā=BiggestVişņu=enclosingIndra= radiationSoma=Cool, rareAgni=DenseSkyTejaAirEarthWaterSpace Human bodyA hĻ lŖ rU vI yViśuddhiMūlādhāraMaņipūraSvādhişţhānaAnāhataHere order of Svādhişţhāna and Maņipūra is reversed in order of creation, called sŗşţi-krama.That is in order of Māheśvara-sūtras- …. It is in Saundarya-laharī-9.,,
Lokas and ViśvaHigher Lokas-- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7Bhū Bhuvar Svar Mahar Janah Tapah Satya(Earth) (Varāha) (Solar system) sphere of spiral (Galaxy) Visible Infinitearm width Universe UniverseParama DhāmaTrilokī (Dhāma) Rodasī (Avama) Krandasī (Madhyama) Sanyatī (Uttama)(of Rudra=weeping, lower) (Vişņu, tears, middle) (Static, higher)Ocean Sāvitrī Sarasvatī NiyatīWater Mara Ambha Ap=RasaHigher spheres are 4, successively bigger than man by 107 . Chāndra-maņɖala is affectingus, so that too is a world. Thus higher world are 5, given in World-tree-1. Svāyambhuva-maņɖala (universe), 2. Parameşţhī-maņɖala (galaxy), 3. Saura-maņɖala,(Solar system), 4. Chāndra-maņɖala (sphere of moon orbit), 5. Bhū-maņɖala (Earth)Man is world no. 6-Average of length-width-height=1.28 Meters= 107 parts of earth diameter.Lower Worlds are 7, successively smaller than man by 105 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7Kalila Jīva Kuņɖalinī Jagat Deva-dānava Pitara Ŗşi(Cell) (Atom) (Nucleus) (Moving particles) (Quarks ?) (Proto-type) (Strings)Size 10-5 Meter 10-10 Meter 10-15 Meter 10-20 Meter 10-25 Meter 10-30 Meter 10-35 MeterTotal worlds are 13, so Viśva means 13. Viśva is any system which is closed, complete andindependent.
Lower worlds( ) - , ( ) , ( / )In womb, cell starts collecting all materials, so it is called kalila.( )( , / )A cell also is a Viśva, which is enclosed (pariveşţita).( ) ( , )Starting from man, hair-end is first smaller Viśva 100 thousand times smaller. There are 6 more levels smallerby same ratio. Smallest is Nirañjana (not perceived by any instrument, or mind)( ) ( , / )From Ŗşis, pitars were born; then Deva-dānava. All jagat was from Deva only. Devas are 33, Asuras are 99,so created universe is one-fourth only (Puruşa-sūkta 3,4). Jagat= moving particles are of 3 types-Chara=lepton,Sthāņu=Baryon, Anu-pūrva =Mesonic link particles.( ) ( , / )Assume 100 parts of 100th part of hair end (micron size)= 10-10 Meter. That is Jīva, not destroyed in anychemical change-all Kalpa =or creation is recombination of atoms only.( ) , - -.. --Central nerve is 107 parts of hair-end. Kuņɖalinī is still 100 times smaller, equal to nucleus of atom = 10-15 meters( ) – -- ( , / / / )In beginning, it was Asat (invisible, beyond perception) only. That was Ŗşi. They pulled with force and energy,so they were called Ŗşi =Rassi in Hindi (String).
Higher Worlds( , / / , )(3) The zone lighted by sun and moon is Pŗthivī (earth) and in all the earths-ocean, rivers and mountainsare stated as on planet earth.(a) Planet earth-It is lighted by sun and moon both and it has all-ocean, rivers and mountains.(b) Maitreya-maņɖala-It is the zone exclusively lighted by sun. Zones formed by planetary orbits aredescribed as continents and oceans of same name as on earth.(c) Galaxy-This is the last limit up to which sun can be seen as a point- Definition of Brahmāņɖa inSūrya-siddhānta (12/90). In this earth also, central rotating disc is called a river-Ākāśa-gangā.(4) Whatever is the size of earth by diameter and circumference, the same is diameter and circumferenceof its sky, starting from earth.. Stated by Maitreya to Parāśara, addressed as Dvija (Brāhmaņa).(a) Planet earth-Its measure should start from human size, which is implied but not stated. Earth is limit(Koţi) of world for man and its size is 107 times, so Koţi = 107 . For earth also, its Koţi of world is solar systemwhich is its sky and is 107 times bigger.(b) For Maitreya-maņɖala, its sky or Koţi is galaxy and is 107 times bigger.( c) For the largest earth galaxy, its sky is universe. This is infinite, but is taken in same ratio of Koţi = 107 .Thus the 5 levels of Viśva starting with man are successively 107 times bigger.107 = 224 and 24 is number of letters in Gāyatrī chhanda, so it is said that is measure of all the Lokas.x 107 = 224 x 107 = 224 x 107 = 224 x 107 = 224Man Earth Solar system Galaxy Universe( ) - , / / , , / / / , ,/ / ) ( , / / )
Concept of TimeTime is perception of change of world. Change is of 3 types defining 3 types of time = Kāla.(1) Nitya Kāla (Eternal time)-All physical bodies are always decaying. Changes are irreversible.Whatever has gone can not come back. So, it is also called Death (Mŗtyu).( / )(2) Janya Kāla (Creative time)-This is related to Yajña which is creation of useful things in a cycle.Measure of that cycle is unit of time. There are 9 cycles of creation called 9 sargas. In BhāgavataPurāņa, 10 sargas are stated including Avyakta (abstract, formless). Time of that is Parātpara.…. ( , ) ( , / )(3) Akśaya-kāla (conserved time)-This is time of a system which follows 5 types of conservation lawsIn physics-mass, momentum, energy, angular momentum, and parity or charge.( , / )(4) Parātpara Kāla-This is time of abstract source of Universe, and is beyond any perception. It isdescribed in Bhāgavata Purāņa (3/16). From this abstract 9 levels are created, when forms and changesare perceived. It is called Day of Brahmā.( , / )Time and PuruşaPuruşa also is of 4 types-(1) All bodies with form (boundary is called Chhanda) are constantly decaying.That is called Kśara. Despite decay, the functions of the body remain the same, called Akśara. It is knownby same identity, which is invisible (Kūţastha). As a part of surrounding, it is constant, called Avyaya.At ultimate source, there is no difference-it is Parātpara.Puruşa Time1. Kśara Nitya2. Akśara Janya3. Avyaya Akśaya4. Parātpara Parātpara
Measures of Time-Sūrya-siddhānta (14/1)(1) Brāhma-His day is time period of creation of 9 stages from formless stage.1 Yuga = 12, 000 Divya-year. In astronomy, Divya year =360 solar year1 day of Brahmā =1000 yugas =1000 x 12000 x 360 = 4,32,00,00,000 years.Same period is night, when all merge in same formless source.In modern terms, 1 day-night of 8.64 billion LY is radius of visible universe and also cycle of creation.(2) Prājāpatya-Prajāpati is Creator. His work started with creation of galaxy. Axial rotation period ofgalaxy is called Manvantara. Galaxy element is called Manu. It has 1011 stars which is equal to number ofcells in human brain. So Brain element is called mana (mind).1 Manvantara = 71 yugas =30.68 crore years(3) Divya-1 Divya year =360 solar years. It can have 3 meanings-(a) Rotation period of imaginary planet at distance of 60 AU(called Nakśatra-kakśā in Sūrya-siddhānta (12/80)(b) In 1 day-night cycle, sun makes a circle at horizon. Similarly cycle of north-south motion is taken as 1Divya day, and 360 such days make divya-year.( c) This is cycle of historic changes called Parivarta-yuga in Vāyu-purāņa in list of 28 Vyāsas. It includescurrent generation with past and next =120 x3 years.(4) Jupiter year-It is period of 361.0486 days taken by jupiter with mean motion in 1 sign. In north India, this isactual time in 1 sign (Sūrya-siddhānta) . In south India, solar year is taken as Jupiter year (Pitāmaha-siddhānta)(5) Solar year-1rotation of sun (apparent) is 1 year. 12 part is 1 month. 30 part f month is day.(6) Lunar-Month is synodic rotation of moon in 29.5 days of 2 equal parts-new moon to full is bright half.(7) Pitara-They live on opposite side of moon. So, lunar month is 1 day of Pitaras. 30 days are 1 month and 12such months are year.(8) Sāvana (Civil)-Sunrise to next sunrise is day. 30 days = 1 month. 12 months = 1 year.(9) Nākśatra (sidereal)-Axial rotation period of about 23 hrs 56 minutes is 1 day. Sunrise to next rise period isbigger by 4 minutes as earth has to move 1 degree more covered by sun in annual motion.30 days = 1 month. 12 months = 1 year.
7 Yugas -Smaller(1) Sanskāra-yugas-This is period taken by a man in completing his education. This is of 5 types-(a) Gopada-yuga-Like 4 feet of a cow, it has 4 years. It starts with Go-dhūli, i.e. sun set when dustIs raised due to cows returning after grazing. Year 1 is Kali (start of count) which will end at midnightafter 365 days-hence Kali is called sleeping. Year 2 is Dvāpara (dvā = 2), which will end after 366Days at sunrise. Thus is called awaken. Year 3 is Tretā (tri =3), which ends after 365 days at noonwhen people are standing. Cycle is completed in year 4, called Kŗta (=completed) again at sun-set.( , / )(b) 5 year yuga- Yājuşa- jyotişa gives 5 year yuga. 5 such yugas have 6 omitted years, making a biggeryuga of 19 years. ( c) 12year yuga-It is rotation period of Jupiter and is taken as standard for teaching of Vedas.(d) 19 year yuga-Ŗk-jyotişa gives 19 year yuga with 7 extra lunar months which tallies with solar yearwithin 2 hours (See Vedānga jyotişa by P.V. Holay, Nagpur, 1985)(e) Eclipse yuga- this is by joint motion of sun and Rāhu in 18 years 10.5 days. Its half period of 3339tithis is also cycle of eclipse indicated in Ŗk (3/9/9, 10/52/6).( , / / )(2) Human yuga-(a) Normal working period of life is 60 years. This is cycle of Jupiter years in which Jupiterand Saturn make 5 and 2 revolutions. This is called Angirā period in Vedas.- , ,( , / / ) …( , / / / )Here, Āditya =12, Pañcha-hotā =5 x 12 =60 years.(b) Century year-It is indicated by Saptarşi, who remain 100 years in one star. The line joining 2 easternstars joins zodiac in point whose location is star of Saptarşi . It moves back @1 star (13020’) in 100 years.This is also obtained by combining yugas of Ŗk of 5 x 19 =95 years when moon comes in same nakśatra.Adding 5 year yuga ofYājuşa –moon will be 1 more. Rājatarangiņī has called it Laukika era.(c) 120 years cycle is taken in cycle of periods of planets in astrology.(3) Parivarta Yuga-It is Divya year of 360 years. Vāyu purāņa (23/114-226) or Kūrma (chapter 52) has calledit parts of Dvāpara or Parivarta. Brahmāņɖa purāņa (1/2/29/19) tells Yuga of 2600 years and at (1/2/9/36,37)Calls the same as manvantara of 71 yugas where 1 yuga = 360 years.….. ( , / / / )( , / / / , )71 x 360 =25,560 or about 26,000 years.
Historic yuga(4) Sahasra yuga-(a) Bhāgavata purāņa (1/1/4) tells a session(satra) of 1000 years by Śaunaka. Human lifeis only of 100 years, but standards of moral remain for thousand years, which is a satra of that period.3000 years after that, Vikramāditya re-edited Purāņas which is continuing now for 2000 years.(Bhavişya purāņa, 3/3/1/2-4)(b) Saptarşi-vatsara is of 2700 divya (solar year) or 3030 Mānuşa years (12 revolutions of moon in 327 days)( , / / / ,, / )( , / )Here , 2700 Divya years= 2700 x 365,25 days, 3030 Mānuşa years =3030 x 327 days. Both are equal.(c) Romaka siddhānta has used a yuga of 2850 years which is 150 times Ŗk yuga of 19 years.(5) Dhruva or Krauñcha yuga-(a)Dhruva samvatsara is of 9090 Mānuşa years or 8100 solar years.(Brahmāņɖa purāņa, 1/2/29/18). Vāyu purāņa, (57/18) has called it Krauñcha-samvatsara.(b) Jupiter Yuga-Jupiter years in north India follow Sūrya-siddhānta, chapter 4, where 361.0486 days is timetaken by Jupiter in 1 sign by mean motion. In 85 solar years, there are 1 more i.e. 86 Jupiter years. In southIndia by Pitāmaha siddhānta, solar year is taken as Jupiter year. 60 years cycles in both systems will join in60 x 85 =5100 solar years which makes 1 Jupiter Yuga. Rāma was born on 11-2-4433 BC at 10-47-48 LMT.Then it was Prabhava year in both systems (Vişņu-dharmottara purāņa, 82/7,8). 5100 years prior to that,Prabhava year was at time of Matsya incarnation in 9533 BC. As per Iliad of Homer last island of Atlantishad submerged in 9564 BC. Persian tales tell it in 9844 BC. Glacial floods lasted about 1000 years.(6) Ayana-yuga-Manvantara of 26000 years is the precession cycle of earth’s axis in reverse direction.But historic cycle follows cycle of Glacial floods and ice eras. That is joint effect of rotation of Apogee in1,00,000 years and precession in reverse direction in 26000 years (Milankovich Theory, 1923). When northpole is inclined away from sun, it gets less heat. Heat is further reduced when sun is farthest at apogee(mandoccha). That is period of glacial ice. At perigee, when north pole is towards sun, it gets maximum heatand is Glacial floods. That is cycle of 21,600 years-Middle value of 24,000 years is taken in India with 12000 years period of Avasarpiņī in order of Satya, Tretā,Dvāpara, Kali of 4,3,2,1 parts. Second half is Ustasrpiņī in reverse order of yugas. This is cycle of correctionTaken from tradition by Brahmagupta (Brhma-sphuţa-siddhānta, Madhyamādhikāra, 60-61) and Bhāskara-2(Siddhānta-śiromaņi, Bhū-paridhi, 7-8)(7) Astronomical era is of 12000 Divya years each equal to 360 solar years, i.e. of 43,20,000 years. It has3 meanings-(d) Combined cycle of planets within wheel of solar Ratha, up to Saturn (b) Cycle of change ineccentricity of earth orbit, (c) Cycle of magnetic pole reversal. These depend on (a).000,00,11000,261600,211
Yuga CycleCycle Order BC years of start Yuga Glacial cycle (modern value)61,902 Satya Glacial ice 69,200 (Tretā of previous cycle)Avasarpiņī 57,102 Tretā Glacial flood 58,100-Maņijā era, some sūktas in(descending) 53,502 Dvāpara that period-Veda-kāla-nirņaya-Dinanath Chulet, 1925.Dark era (first) 51,102 Kali49,902 KaliUtsarpiņī 48,702 Dvāpara(ascending) 46,302 Tretā Glacial ice 45,50042,702 Satya37,902 SatyaAvasarpiņī 33,102 Tretā Glacial floods 31,20029,502 Dvāpara Ādya Tretā-Brahmā-Varāha KalpaĀdya-yuga 27,102 Kali 29,102(Svāyambhuva) 25,102 Kali 27,376-Dhruva-0(Brahma-dina 2) 24,702 Dvāpara 43 x 360 = 16,000Utsarpiņī 22,302 Tretā Glacial Ice-20,000 19,276-Dhruva-118,702 Satya13,902 Satya 13,102-Vaivasvata ManuAvasarpiņī 9,102 Tretā Glacial floods 9,200 11,176-Dhruva-25,502 Dvāpara 28 x 360 = 10,000 8,476-Ikśvāku-1Vaivasvata 3,102 Kali 3,102-Kali 5,776-Saptarşi-2(Current,day-3) 1,902 Kali Mahāvīra birth 1905, Buddha (18886-1805) 3076-Laukika-3702 Dvāpara 756-Śūdraka, Śākambharī śaka -612, Śrī-Harşa-456Utsarpiņī 1,699 AD Tretā 1700AD-Industrial revolution5,299 AD Satya 2000 AD-End of Tretā-sandhyā-Information era.
Parts of YugaBrahmāņɖa purāņa (1/2/6/6-8) tells that the current kalpa or day of Brahmā is called Varāha-kalpa. Parts of yuga arecounted only for this kalpa. In list of 28 Vyāsas, each part of a yuga has been called parivarta.1 parivarta = 360 years (Paridhi = circumference divided into 3600, parivartana = change).1 Tretā = 3600 years = 10 Parivarta Yuga.Start of Tretā was in 22,302 and in 9,102 BC. These had 10 +10 = 20 parivarta or parts. Even after second Tretā endedin 5,502 BC, this counting continued till age of Rāma (birth on 11-2-4433 BC as per horoscope in Vālmīki Rāmāyaņa)as era of advancement continued. Vāyu purāņa, chapters (70, 86, 98) mentions these parts-Asura king Bali-3rd Tretā –This count should start from 22,302 BC, but this yuga-system itself started after VaivasvataManu, hence it should more properly be counted 3600 years before 13,902 BC, i.e. from 17,502 BC. Second Tretā willbe completed in 16,802 BC and the third will continue till 16,442 BC. In this period of Bali, Vāmana had achievedsupremacy of 3 lokas for Indra. But Asuras thought that they could have defeated Devas in war and continued attacks.Finally Kārttikeya defeated them convincingly. In his period, pole star had shifted from Abhijit to Dhanişţhā and inconsultation with Brahmā, he started year with entry of sun in Dhanişţhā (Mahābhārata udyoga parva, 230/8-10). Thatshould be in 16,000 BC. Bali period is 1 saptarşi = 2700 years after completion of Dhruva cycle in 19,276 BC, i.e. after16,576 BC when Asura empire based in Krauñcha Dvīpa (north America) was most powerful.. Year started with southward motion of sun, or varşā (rains), so year itself was called varşa.Dattātreya -10thTretā,-It appears to be in 9102 BC when second Tretā started after end of glacial floods.Māndhātā - 15th Tretā-started in 9102-4 x 360 =7,662 BC and continued till 7,302 BC. 18 generation after him wasBāhu, who had been defeated by Yavanas with help of Haihaya, Tālajangha, Śaka, Pārada, Kāmboja, and Pahlavas(Brahmāņɖa purāņa, 2/3/63/119-120). Megasthenes, Arian, Solin and other Greek authors have given the date of thisfirst Yavana attack by Dionysus (Bacchus) as 6451 years 3 months before Alexander, i.e. in 6,777 BC.Paraśurāma-19th Tretā - It started in 5502 + 2 x 360 = 7222 BC. After his death, Kalamba (Kollam) samvat started in6,177 BC which still continues in Kerala. As incarnation of Vişņu, he has been called Hercules (as sun or Vişņu, heholds the earth). He was 15 generations after Dionysus as per Greek writers. He destroyed kings (kingdoms) 21 times,which has been called republic era for 120 years by the Greeks. This should start 120 years before the death ofParaśurāma in 6297 BC, when he must have been about 30-35 years. Thus, he lived up to at least 155 years of age,so he is famous as long lived.Rāma-24th Tretā- This actually started 3 parivartas after end of Tretā, i.e. 5502-3 x 360 = 4422 BC, i.e. when he was11 years of age. Thus his life was mostly in 24th Tretā.
Saptarşi era-As per, Rājatarangiņī,1/50-52), Laukikābda started with death of Yudhişţhirain kali year 25, i.e. in 3076 BC when Saptarşis left Maghā after 100 years stay in that star.3 Saptarşi cycles i.e. 8100 years are cycle of Dhruva starting after death of King Dhruva,grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu as per Bhāgavata purāņa. It was called Krauñcha year,when Asura kings up to Bali were supreme in that continent.Brahmā-There were 7 human Brahmā as per Mahābhārata, śānti parva (chapters 348, 349)-1. Mukhya –From mukha (mouth) of Nārāyaņa) or main Brahmā-He taught Vaikhānasa.2. From eyes-He was taught by Soma and himself taught Bālakhilyas.3. From Vāņī – He has been called Apantaratamā, son of Vāņī in Mahābhārata, śānti parva(349/39). He taught Trisuparņa Ŗşi. As per purāņas, he lived on banks of Gautamī(Godāvarī). The suparņa, is stated to have entered sea-tending coastal land has been calledReļhi (Ŗgveda 10/114/4), so farmers in Andhra are still called Reddi. Brāhmī script of 64letters still continues as Telugu and Kannada having vowels of 1, 2, 3 meters.4. In ādi kŗta yuga (37902-33102 BC)- Brahmā was from ears. He taught Vedas withĀraņyaka, Rahasya, and Sangraha to Svārochişa Manu, Śankhapada, dikpāla Suvarņābha.5. In ādi kŗta yuga -From nose of Nārāyaņa-He taught Vīraņa, Raibhya Muni, and Kukśi(Dik-pāla = Ruler of a region).6. Aņɖaja Brahmā-taught Barhişad Muni, Jyeşţha Sāmavratī, king Avikampana.7. Padmanābha Brahmā taught Dakśa, Vivasvāna, Ikśvāu-This could not have been a singleman from Vivasvān in 14000 BC to Ikśvāku in 8576 BC. This appears to be institution ofBrahmā who was first consulted by Kārttikeya for new calendar. His tradition appears tohave continued till 9,500 BC at time of Ŗşabhdevajī after glacial floods. Hemight have been in east Himalayas. Catchment of Brahmaputra river is called Brahma-viţapa in Trivişţapa (Tibet), or at Manipura which means navel (of Nārāyaņa) giving birth toBrahmā, adjacent country.Saptarşi era and 7 Brahmās
In astronomy, 7th Manu period is running and 7 more are yet to come. These are periods of geological changeswhich has been also described in purāņas and Vedas. But in historic era, all 14 Manus have passed. There were7 main Manus and their 7 cousins, called Sāvarņi in same periods-Sl. No. Main Manu Sāvarņi Manu1. Svāyambhuva Meru Sāvarņi2. Svārochişa Dakśa Sāvarņi3. Uttama Brahma Sāvarņi (Kaśyapa)4. Tāmasa Dharma Sāvarņi5. Raivata Rudra Sāvarņi6. Chākśuşa Rauchya7. Vaivasvata BhautyaBrahmāņɖa purāņa (1/2/36/65) tells that 4 Manus- Svārochişa, Uttama, Tāmas, Raivata were descendants ofPriyavrata, elder son of Svāyambhuva Manu. Mother of Svārochişa was Ākūti who was daughter ofSvāyambhuva Manu and was married to Ruchi Prajāpati, father of Rauchya Manu. The other 3 were sons ofPriyavrata. Brahmāņɖa purāņa (3/4/1/23-24) tells that the other 5 Sāvarņi Manus were sons of Priyā (Kriyā),daughter of Dakśa Prajāpati. Harivamśa purāņa (2/15) tells that Chākśuşa Manu was son of Ripu, grandsonof King Dhruva. Almost same exists in Vāyu purāņa (4/100, 58/30). Prior to Vaivasvata Manu, list of kings isscanty. That gives 52 kings from Svāyambhuva to Chākśuşa and then 12 kings up to Vaivasvata Manu.Kaśyapa influence is for 5 generations from Chākśuşa Manu to Pŗthu, between them came Vŗ, Anga, Vena.Svāyambhuva…………………………….. Chākśuşa……………………………. Vaivasvata40 generations 12 generations52 generations (incomplete list) = 15,120 years.1 generation = 15,120 52 = 290 years.Period of Kaśyapa and Chākśuşa = 29102(Svāyambhuva) - 40 x 290 = 17,500 BC.Pŗthu period = 17,500 – 5 x 290 = 16,050 BC. Thus, Kaśyapa period is from 17,500 to 16,050 BC. It may be noted thatInstitute of Brahmā from Svāyambhuva Manu continued till glacial ice period in 20,000 BC. Then, it was revived by Kaśyapa.After that, period of each Vyāsa till Ŗşabhadeva can be taken as 2 parivarta = 720 years. Period of 6thVaivasvata-Yama istaken as 4 parivarta = 1440 years as there was deluge in his period. After Ŗşabhadeva, period of all Vyāsa is taken as1 parivarta = 360 years.Kaśyapa, and Manus
Jain scriptures are unanimous that Mahāvīra was at the end of avasarpiņī , thus he hasto be before 1902 BC. The horoscope given in astrology book tallies with the date11-3-1905 BC which was Chaitra śukla 13th.Date of Siddhārtha Buddha is known more accurately-Birth 31-3-1886 BC, Vaiśākhaśukla 15th, i.e. pūrņimā till 5-24 ghaţī. Departure for Kapilavastu-29-5-1859 BC, Sunday,āşāɖha śukla 15. Achieving Buddha stage-3-4-1851 BC, Vaiśākha pūrņimā till 11 ghaţībefore sunrise. Death of his fatherŚuddhodana 25-6-1848, śrāvaņa pūrņimā, Saturday.Nirvāņa (death) of Buddha-27-3-1807, Tuesday, Vaiśākha pūrņimā, slightly before sunrise.Rāma birth at Ayodhyā at 81024’ east, 26048’ north, on 11-2-4433 BC at local time10-47-48 h/m/s. lagna-9000’1”, sun-900’0’’, moon-9000’1”, mars-29800’0”, mercury-2100’0”,Jupiter- 9000’1”, venus-35700’0”, Saturn-20000’0”, Rāhu-12004’26”, balance in periodof Jupiter-4 years.Kŗşņa birth at Mathurā 27025’ north, 77041’ east, on 17-7-3228 BC at midnight.Sun-139048’, moon-47042’, mars-9106’, mercury-152048’, Jupiter-148054’, venus-102054’,Saturn-224042’, rāhu 106024’, lagna-500.Śankarāchārya at Kālaţī 10040’ north, 760 east, on 4-4-509 BC, Tuesday, 2252 hrs LMT,vaiśākha śukla 5 till 1132 hrs, punarvasu star from 4-4-509 BC -0139 hrs till 5-4-509,0406 hrs. Lagna-261024’, sun-25038’, moon-90068’, mars-305019’, mercury-44034’,Jupiter-247045’, venus-67053’, Saturn-343022’, rāhu-31047’.Mahāvīra, Buddha etc
Śūdraka was born as Indrāņīgupta in Brāhmaņa family and was king of Mālavā (Ujjain). He united4 main royal families in a yajña at Abu (Arbuda parvata) performed by Vişņu incarnation Buddhaborn as son of Ajina in Kīkaţa (Magadha). Śūdraka-śaka was started in 756 BC on that occasionindicated in Jyotişa-darpaņa of Yallaya. For uniting 4 kings, he was called Śūdraka as honourand his era was called Kŗta (satya) yuga. These 4 families-Pratihāra, Paramāra (Pramara),Chālukya, Chāhamāna (Chauhāna)-took lead in protecting the country against attack by Asuras(Assyria),so they were called of Agni-kula. Agni normally means fire, but Śatapatha Brāhmaņa(2/2/4/2) defines it as agni (agrī) =agraņī =leader. Pratihāra, and Paramāra stopped Asuras andChālukya continued to block, but decisive victory was by king Chāhamāna who completely routedAsura capital Nineve in 612 BC. This has been indicated in Bible as final destruction of Asuraempire by king of Medes east of Indus river (= Madhya-deśa between Gangā and Himālaya).Chāhamāna were devotees of Śākambharī whose blessing for destroying Asuras in Kali era isindicated in Durgā-saptaśatī (11/49). Era was started on that occasion has been indicated byVarāhamihira in Bŗhat-samhitā (13/3). After Chāhamāna, there was temporary incursion by Śakasof central Asia who were trounced by Śrī-Harşa of Mālavā, in 456 BC and set up a pillar(Vişņu-dhvaja = Kutub-minar), called pillar of Hercules by Megasthenes. It has also beenindicated by Ibn-Batuta, traveler from Morocco in 13th century. This samvat has been mentionedby Al-Biruni and Abul-Fazal. The 300 year period of Mālava-gaņa has been stated by Greekwriters like Megasthenes as 300 years of democracy.Mālava-gaņa-756-456 BC
28 Buddhas are listed in Bauddha text-Stūpa (Thūpa) vamśa. Vişņu incarnation Buddha was born asson of Ajina in Kīkaţa (Magadha) slightly before Śūdrala-śaka i.e. in about 800 BC. He was not among28 Buddhas. Mañjuśrī Buddha was born in China-he might be among 7 Brahmā, and was called Fan.Kaśyapa Buddha was in 17,500 BC. Pūraņa Kaśyapa was in Kasap (Rohtas district in west Bihar)in time of Siddhārtha Buddha. Amitābha Buddha was in China at time of Rāma whose teaching toRāvaņa is called Lankāvatāra sūtra. In Yoga-Vāsişţha, Nirvāņa khaņɖa, chapters 14-17, he has beencalled Kākabhuśuņɖi, who was north east from Meru, i.e. in China. Vasişţha had gone to him forlearning. His views have been criticised in Vālmīki Rāmāyaņa, Ayodhyā kāņɖa, chapters 108-109.In verse (109/34) he has been called Budha, Buddha, Tathāgata, Śakyatama (Śākya). SumedhāBuddha taught Paraśurāma after Dhanuşa yajña at Mithilā when Rāma was married. He lived atMahendragiri where a place named Baudha still exists which is a district. His teaching toParaśurām is called Tripurā-Rahasya. He is the same ŗşi who taught Durgā Māhātmya to kingSuratha. His explanation of śakti as 10 Mahāvidyā is called 10 Prajñā-pāramitā in Baddha texts.Śākya sinmha Buddha had gone to Nepal just before Mahābhārata in time of king Jitedasti.Fahien has described times and places of 3 Buddhas just before Siddhārtha Budda. Krakucchanda,Kanakamuni and Kaśyapa. Stūpa of Kanakamuni had been doubled by king Ashok in14th year of hisrule. After Siddhārtha, there were 3 Lokadhātu Buddhas, out of which 2 were in Kashmir-at time ofAshoka, 48 th king of Gonanda vamśa (1400 BC), and in time of 53 rd king Kanişka (1505 BC).Maitreya Buddha was in Dhānya-Kataka which is Cuttack in Orissa, a region of dhānya (paddy) withplaces as Chauliaganja, Dhānamandal, Salepur, etc. As per Fahien, he was about 300 years afterdeath of Siddhārtha Budda (1807 BC) i.e in1500 BC. Dīpankara Buddha was after Sumedhā.Orissa king Indrabhūti was his disciple. His son Padmasambhava started Lama tradition in Tibet.Siddhārtha has named 3 more Buddhas whose teachings did not survive in absence of written text-Vipaśyī, Śikhi, Viśvabhū.28 Buddhas
Sri Kunvar Lal Jain “Vyāsa-śişya” books (Purāņon men Vamśānukramika Kāla-krama, and Purāņon menAitihāsika Parivarta Yuga-Itihas Vidya Prakashan, Delhi, 1990) has indicated period of 28 Vyāsas given inmany purāņas (Vāyu, Brahmāņɖa, Kūrma etc). This is quoted by 18 Vol. Indian History by Sripad Kulkarnifrom BHISHMA, Thane, Mumbai-in vol. 4).1. Svāyambhuva Manu (Brahmā)-(29,102-17,500 BC)-Svārochişa, Tāmasa, Raivata also were in this period.2. Kaśyapa (Brahma-Sāvarņi Manu)-(17,500-16,050 BC)-Chākśuşa, and other Sāvarņi Manus. Pŗthu (17,050BC) was most important king who did extensive mining all over the world-so earth was called Pŗthvī. Devaand Asuras joined for samudra-manthana which was world-wide joint exploration of minerals. Vena was fatherof Pŗthu and possibly a jaina Tīrthankara as he has been blamed as Jaina in many Purāņas.3 Ūśanā Kāvya or Śukrāchārya (16,050-15,330 BC)-Son of Bhŗgu. Atharva-veda was by Bhŗgu-Angirā. Guru(Preceptor) of Asura, Daitya, Dānava. Treatises on Rājanīti (politics+economics), Dhanurveda, Āyurveda,Purāņas were written. Kārttikeya starts new calendar in 15,800 BC with year from entry of sun in Dhanişţhā star.4. Bŗhaspati -(15,330-14,610 BC)-Complete form of Vedas. He explained grammar for each word separatelyis still used in China- where there is separate sign for each word.5. Vivasvāna (Savitā)- (14,610-13,900 BC)-New calendar and yuga-system as per Sūrya-siddhānta. Year startedfrom Āśvina month with entry of sun in meşa sign and crossing of equator in north motion of sun. Avasarpiņī yugastarted with Satya yuga. Then Tretā, Dvāpara came and ended after (4800 +3600 +2400 years) in 3102 BC.6. Vaivasvata-Yama (13,900-12,460 BC)-He was Ahur-Mazda (Asura-Mahādeva) of Zend-Avesta. Deluge in hisperiod. He had explained the secrets of death to Nachiketā (Kaţhopanişad), so he is called Śrāddha-Deva also.He is called younger brother of Vaivasvata-Manu, but in action only.. His place was called Yama-loka, place ofdead with capital at Sanyamanī Purī. These are now called Yaman, Amman, Sana, Dead sea etc.7. Indra-Śatakratu (12,460-11,740 BC)-Śata =100, Kratu = yajña = science of producing desired objects in cycles.There were many Indras in 3600 years supremacy of Devas, but 14 among them were important who ruled for100 years each-and were called Śatakratu . Most of the sūktas of Vedas were written at time of 7th Indra-Vaikunţha. Indra was Lokapāla (ruler) of east direction (from center of India). With assistance of Marut (Lokapālaof north-west) who was expert in science of sound-he made Deva-nāgarī script with 49 letters for 49Maruts-stillused in north India from east (Indra) to West (Marut).8.Vasişţha (11,740-11,020 BC)-He was son of Mitra (Sun-Iran)) and Varuņa (Ahur-Mazda in Arab) both-may belink between two regions. 8th maņɖala of Ŗk-veda is by him.9.Apāntaratamā or Sārasvata (11,020-10,300 BC)-Son of Sarasvatī-Alambuşā in gotra (family) of Dadhyaņ-Atharvańa. He lived on banks of Gautamī (Godāvarī) where Brāhmī script is still current as Telugu and Kannaɖa.10.Tridhāmā or Mārkaņɖeya (10,300-9,580 BC)-Dattātreya taught Yoga-tantra and Mārkaņɖeya taught purāņa.28 Vyāsa
Vyāsa after Floods11. Ŗşabha-deva ji (9,580-8,860 BC)-After deluge he brought back supremacy of Bhārata as its Chakravartī . Incarnationof of Vişņu). He was the first jaina-Tīrthankara of the current avasarpiņī. In name of his son Bharata, was called Bhārata.Earlier, it was named Ajanābha-varşa. In his period, Maya-Asura of Mexico revised Sūrya-siddhānta of Vivasvān whichdeveloped errors due to slowing down of axial rotation of earth in deluge. The international conference was at Romaka-pattana,900 west of Ujjain (Rabat in Morocco). Ŗşabha-deva ji restored the civilization started by Svāyambhuva Manu,so he is called his descendant. As teacher (Ŗşabha =source of knowledge), he was 9th Śiva (Kūrma-purāņa).12. Atri (8,860-8,500 BC)-Bhauma-Atri (of India, Bhūmi or Bhūloka among 3 lokas of Indra) was āchārya (propounder)of āyurveda. He also made shorter method of solar eclipse. Sānkhya-Atri went to north-west direction where his Romanscript has 25 (or 26 with extra-x) letters is still used, for 25 elements of Sānkhya.13.Dharma or Nara-Nārāyaņa (8,500-8,140 BC) - He taught Vedas in Badarikāśrama. Guru tradition of Śankarāchāryastarts with this Nārāyaņa. This is period of Kāņva-Medhātithi ŗşi and king Duşyanta and his son Bharata.14. Suchkśaņa or Suchkśu (8,140-7,780 BC)-Period of Marutta, Avikśita, Karandhama and ŗşis Gautama, Vāmadeva.15. Tryāruņa (7,780-7,420 BC)-Period of king Māndhātā in line of Ikśvāku, and king Angāra of Gāndhāra.16.Dhanañjaya (7,420-7,060 BC) Ŗşi Bharadvāja was contemporary-Dāśa-rāja war in about 7,200 BC. Attack by17.Kŗtañjaya (7,060-6,700 BC) Gayāsura or Asita-Dhanvā on India in 6,777 BC- Dionysus, or Bacchus) as per18.Ŗtañjaya (6,700-6,340 BC) Megasthenes.19. Bharadvāja (6,340-5,980 BC)-Purohita (advisor) of emperor Chāyamāna (of Persia) and Divodāsa (of Kāśī)-both.20.Gautama (5,980-5,620 BC)-He resided on banks of Gautamī (Godāvarī)-wrote sūtras of Nyāya-darśana. Period ofJamadagni, Hariśchandra. Paraśurāma, Kārttavīrya Arjuna.21. Vāchaspati or Niryantara (5,620-5,260 BC)-Yavanas were expelled by king Sagara, supremacy on oceans. Hisgrandson Bhagīratha brought down Gangā (some glaciers of Himālaya merged with it.22. Sukalyāņa or Somaśuşņa (5,260-4,900 BC)-Ŗşis Pulastya and Viśravā. Institute of Paraśurāma ends with tretā.23. Tŗņavindu (4,900-4,540 BC)-He was emperor. His daughter married to Pulastya, father of Rāvaņa, Kubera.24.Vālmīki (4,540-4,180 BC)-Period of Rāma, son of Daśaratha (4433-4262 BC). Also of Rāvaņa, Hanumān.25. Śakti-Vāsişţha (4,180-3,820 BC)-Method of Veda-pāţha (recitation).26. Jātūkarņya (3,820-3,460 BC)-Student of Parāśara, but period is before him. Kaņāda wrote Vaiśeşika-sūtras.27. Parāśara (3,460-3,100 BC)-Teacher of Vişņu-purāņa. Divided Purāņa-samhitā in 100 crore verses into 18 purāņasof 4 lakh verses. 2 streams of astronomy-of Āryabhaţa (Svāyambhuva or Pitāmaha) and Parāśara (Sūrya-siddhāntaor Maitreya mentioned in Vişņu-purāņa).28. Veda-Vyāsa (from 3,100 BC till today)-Son of Satyavatī (later on married to king Śantanu) and Parāśara-Kŗşņa-Dvaipāyana. Wrote Bhāgavata purāņa, Brahma-sūtra, commentary on Yoga-sūtra of Patañjali. Divided Vedasinto many branches to preserve the knowledge. There was no further Vyāsa , so it is still called 28th kali.
Sūrya-vanśa started with rule of Ikśvāku on 1-11-8576 BC. He has been called son of Vaivasvata Manu (13902 BC)but could have been descendant, or he re-established his system of calendar and polity. In Kish-chronicle of Iraq,his son or descendant Vikukśi has been called Ukusi in 8,320 BC.(1) Vaivasvata Manu (13902 BC), (2) Ikśvāku (1-11-8576 BC), (3) Vikukśi (Ukusi in 8320 BC), (4)Purañjaya orKakutstha also called Āɖībaka =hump of bull)-He defeated Sujambha, second son of Prahlāda in sixth Deva-asurawar. (5) Anenā, (6) Pŗthu-not the earlier king of Kaśyapa period, (7) Viśvagaśva, (8) Ārdra, (9) Yuvanāśva-1,(10) Śrāvasta (set up Śrāvastī town), (11) Bŗhadaśva, attacked by Dhundu Asura. (12) Kuvalayāśva did the job,so he was called Dhundhumāra. Firdausi (Persian poet) has called him Keraspa in his Shāhanāmā. (13) Dŗɖhāśva,(14) Pramoda, (15) Haryaśva-1, (16) Nikumbha, (17) Samhatāśva, (18) Kŗśāśva, (19) Prasenajita, (20) Yuvanāśva-2,(21) Māndhātā-About his kingdom saying was famous that sun always sets and rises in his kingdom (Vāyu purāņa88/68, Vişņu purāņa 4/2/65, Mahābhārata, Droņa parva 62/11). Subordinate kings were-Angāra (Gāndhāra), Marutta,Asita (Asita-Dhanvā in Śatapatha brāhmaņa 13/4/3/12 was an Asura king-not Dionysus but his predecessor), Gaya,Anga-Bŗhadratha, Janamejaya, Sudhanvā, Nŗga. His 3 sons ruled different states, and main line continued atAyodhyā. (22) Purukutsa (23) Trasadasyu (24) Sambhūta (25) Anaraņya (26) Trasadaśva, (27) Haryaśva-2,(28) Vasumāna, (29) Tridhanvā, (30) Tryāruņa, (31) Satyavrata or Triśanku-He was being set by yajña of Viśvāmitrato Svarga, but was stopped midway by Indra. (32) Hariśchandra-He donated entire kingdom to Viśvāmitra andworked as chāņɖāla at Kāśī. (33) Rohitāśva, (34) Harita, (35) Chañchu, (36) Vijaya, (37) Ruruka, (38) Vŗka,(39) Bāhu-He was defeated and killed in combined attack of Yavana, Kāmboja, etc in 6,777 BC.(40) Sagara-He took back the whole empire and spread influence over seas due to which they were called sāgara.He punished Persians by making their beard goat-shaped and expelled Yavanas from Arab when the settled inGreece which was called Ionia (Herodotus). His 60,000 sons were burnt by sage Kapila, who might have been authorof Sānkhya-sūtras. In Gītā, he has been named as foremost Siddha and Sūrya-siddhānta, chapter 12 tellsSiddhapura at 1800 east of Ujjain, so many persons take his place at California (assumed to be Kapilāraņya).(41) Asamañjasa was expelled. (42) Anśumāna-grandson of Sagara became king. (43) Dilīpa, (44) Bhagīrathasucceeded in bringing Gangā from Himālaya which was called Bhāgīrathī. (45) Śruta, (46) Nābhāga-was a relation,not son. (47) Ambarīşa-2, (48) Sindhu, (49) Ayutāyu, (50) Ŗtuparņa, (51) Sarvakāma, (52) Sudāsa, (53) Kalmāşa-pāda (His feet became black due to curse of Śakti, son of Vasişţha), (54) Aśmaka, (55) Urukāma, (56) Mūlaka-Hewas at time of Paraśurāma and was hidden among women for saving him, so he was named Nārī-kavacha.(57) Śataratha, (58) Iɖaviɖa, (59) Kŗśakarma, (60) Sarvakāma, (61) Anarāya (or Anaraņya), (62) Nighna, (63)Anamitra or Raghu-1, (64) Dulīɖuha, (65) Viśvamahat, (66) Dilīpa. (67) Raghu-2-He is the hero of Raghuvamśa,epic of Kālidāsa. On his name, the clan was called Raghuvamśa. Whole of ancient India was under him.(68) Aja, (69) Daśaratha, (70) Rāma was his most famous son (4433-4372 BC) who killed Rāvaņa and set up worldempire. His rule is still considered standard for propriety.Sūrya-vanśa
(1) Soma (=Chandra) was son of Atri, (2) Budha was son of Soma, (Tāņɖya-mahā-brāhmaņa 24/18/6, Mahābhārata,(2) udyoga parva 147/3). (2) Budha was married to Iļā, daughter of Vaivasvata-Manu. Son of Iļā was (3) Aila Pururavā,first emperor in this line. His basic name was Puru. As son of Iļā, he was Aila. He started institution of yajña (3 agnisfor that). He was like vŗşabha (bull) of yajña and was making rava (vibration). So, he was called ravā. This means thathe was capable of production, hence ravā is still used as word for respect around Kashi. 4. Āyu 5. Nahuşa had heldthe post of Indra also for some period when Indra had to leave after Brahma-hatyā by killing of Vŗtra. Later on, had tobecome serpent (a tribe of men where he ruled) by curse of a ŗşi. First son of Nahuşa was Yati who became sanyāsī(renunciate), so second son Yayāti became the king. 6. Yayāti -His first wife Devayānī was daughter of Śukrāchārya(Kāvya in Kaaba, Arab) who had 2 sons- Yadu, Turvasu. Second wife Śarmişţhā was daughter of Asura (Dānava)king Vŗşa-parvā (vŗşa= Taurus, parvata = mountain-in Turkey). She had 3 sons-Druhyu, Anu, Puru. Due to fraudulentsecond marriage, Śukrāchārya cursed Yayāti to become old. Then the youngest son Puru only agreed to take his oldstate, so he was given main kingdom, and in his name the clan was called Puru-vamśa. Yadu got north east part-inthat line Kŗşņa (3228-3102 BC) was born. Druhyu got west part, Anu north (Ānava = yavana) and Turvasu in south-east. One branch of Yadu clan is stated to have gone under Ezypt rule where they were called Yid=Yahud (Jew)-escaped to Israel. (7) Puru, (8) Janamejaya-he did 3 Aśvamedha-yajña. (9) Prāchīnavān or Aviddha, (10) Pravīra,(11) Manasyu or Namasyu-He rules from Sindhu river to east ocean and Vindhya mountain to Himālaya. (12)Abhayada or Subhrū, (13) Subvanta or Dhundhu, (14) Yavuyāna or Bahugva, (15) Samyāti, (16) Ahamyati,(17) Raudrāśva, (18) Rucheyu-One of his 10 sisters was married to Atri whose son was Svasti. He had 3 sons-Soma (different from the first of Chandra line), Datta (Dattātreya), and Durvāsā. His daughter Apālā also was seer ofmantra of Ŗgveda. (19) Matināra, in time of Māndhātā in about 7,300 BC (20) Apratīrtha-His son ŗşi Kāņva Medhātithiwas seer of many mantras. Her sister Gaurī’s son was Māndhātā-famous world emperor of Sūrya-vamśa. (21) Tamsuor Sumati, (22) Īlina, or Sudyumna , (23) Duşyanta-from his wife Śakuntalā was born famous emperor (24) Bharata-hero of Abhijñāna-śākuntalam-famous play of Kālidāsa. Ŗşis of his time were-Ŗchīka, Jamadagni, Viśvāmitra, andBharadvāja. Bharata was married to Sunandā, daughter of Sarvasena, king of Kāśī. From her, a son (25)Bhūmanyuwas born by niyoga (artificial birth) by Bharadvāja. (26) Bŗhatkśtra (27) Suhotra (28) Hasti made a town in his name-Hastināpura, As this became capital of kings of India, Chinese called this country as elephant (hasti) kingdom. Eastand south parts of India adjacent to China are in shape of elephant head, whose trunk (śuņɖa) has gone to the end ofIndonesia after which there is strait of śuņɖā.. After Hasti, his son (29) Vikuņţhana became king. All his 3 sons-Ajamīɖha, Purumīɖha, Dvimīɖha-were brāhmaņas, but on order of sage Bharadvāja, eldest son (30) Ajamīɖhabecame king. He was contemporary to Sūrya-vamśa king Tridhanvā. After that, the list is in-complete.Chandra-Vamśa
Chandra-vamśa after SamvaraņaList after Ajamīɖha is incomplete and different names are found in Purāņas. This line regained power with Samvaraņa–wife Tapatī (4159-4071 BC). Their son was Kuru-wife Śubhāngī (4071-3999 BC). His descendants were in two lines-(1) Hastināpura line- Abhisvān-9 kings as per Bhāgavata purāņa- Parīkśita-Janamejaya-Bhīmasena-Their periods arenot known. Pratīpa (3370-3310 BC) was the first important king. His second son Śāntanu (3310-3251 BC) became king.Eldest son Devāpi went to Himalaya for Tapa and will re-start civilization after destuction by Kalki. Bāhlīka becameking of west part-Balkha of Iran. Śāntanu had 2 wives-From first wife was Devavrata, who took terrible oath of remainingunmarried and was given long life as per wish, so he was called Bhīşma (3238-3218 BC). Second wife Satyavatī had ason before marriage with sage Parāśara, called Kŗşņa-Dvaipāyana Vyāsa. After marriage Chitrāngada (3248 BC) andVichitravīrya (up to 3238 BC) were born. His elder son was blind, so second son Pāņɖu (3218-3213 BC) ruled. After hisdeath, again blind son Dhŗtarāşţra (3213-3174 BC) ruled and made his son Duryodhana (3174-3138 BC) a king. AfterMahāhbhārata war, Dharmarāja Yudhişţhira (3138-3102 BC), son of Pāņɖu became king.Kings after Dharmarāja Yudhişţhira in kali- All sons of Pāņɖavas were killed in Mahāhbhārata war. His younger brotherArjuna had a son from wife Subhadrā, sister of Kŗşņa Abhmanyu. Abhmanyu also was killed, but his son in womb ofUttarā was miraculously made alive by Kŗşņa after he was killed by brahmāstra used by Aśvatthāmā after war. Hebecame first king after Kŗşņa left the world at start of kali. (1) Parīkśita (3102-3041 BC)-he was son of Abhimanyu,He was killed by Takśaka, Nāga king, probably from Takśkaśilā. (2)Janamejaya retaliated against Nāgas, called(nāga-yajña) and their region turned into mass-graveyard, now called Moin-jo-daro (place of dead) and Harappā(place of bones). (3) Śatānīka, and his son (4) Aśvamedhadatta arranged revision of purāņas at institute (mahāśālā)of Śaunaka at Naimişāaraņya. (5) Adhisīmakŗşņa, (6) Nichakśu-In his period there was a great natural upheaval whichsubmerged Hastināpura in Gangā due to which capital had to be shifted to Kauśāmbī. Probably this was at sametime as drying up the great river Sarasvatī in west India. The kingdom remained for name sake only and King of Kāśīhad to take charge of managing the country. Probably, he was also named Yudhişţhira, but after 5 years of rule, hetook sanyāsa as Pārśvanātha (23rd Jaina Tīrthankara) in 2634 BC, when Jainas take start of Yudhişţhira śaka.(7) Ūşņa (Bhūri), (8) Chitraratha, (9) Śuchidratha, (10) Vŗşņimāna, (11) Suśeņa, (12) Sunītha, (13) Nichakśu-2,(14) Rucha, (15) Sukhabala, (16) Pariplava,(17) Sunaya, (18) Medhāvī, (19) Nŗpa (Ripu-) ñjaya, (20) Durva,(21) Tigmātmā, (22) Bŗhadratha, (23) Vasudāna, (24) Śatānīka, (25) Udayana (Hero of plays by Bhāsa, in time ofPradyoota, mentioned in epic Meghadūta of Kālidāsa), (26) Vaśīnara, (27) Daņɖapāņi, (28) Niramitra,(29) Kśemaka-ended in 1634 BC by Magadha king Mahāpadmananda.(2) Magadha line- Sudhanvā (3999-3919 BC) Suhotra (3919-3826 BC) Chyavana (3826-3788 BC) Kŗmi or Kŗti(3788-3751 BC) Uparichara Vasu (3751-3709 BC) (Pratīpa or Chaidya) Bŗhadratha (3709-3637 BC)-capital atGirivraja (Rājagŗha=Rajgir now)Kuśāgra (3637-3567 BC) Ŗşabha (3567-3497 BC) Satyahita (3497-3437 BC) Puņyaor Puşpavanta (3427-3394 BC) Satyadhŗti (3394-3351 BC) Sudhanvā (3351-3308 BC) Sarva (3308-3265 BC)Jarāsandha (3222-3180 BC) Sahadeva (3180-3138 BC).
1.Bārhadratha vamśa-Started with Somāpi, son of Sahadeva killed in Mahābhārata war.(1) Somāpi (Mārjāri)-(3138-3080 BC), (2) Śrutaśravā (3080-3016 BC), (3) Apratīpa (3016-2980 BC),(4) Niramitra (2980-2940 BC), (5) Sukŗta (2940-2882 BC), (6) Bŗhatkarman (2882-2859 BC), (7) Senajita(2859-2809 BC), (8) Śrutañjaya (2809-2769 BC), (9) Mahābala (2769-2734 BC), (10) Śuchi (2734-2676 BC),(11) Kśema (2676-2648 BC), (12) Aņuvrata (2648-2584 BC), (13), Dharmanetra (2584-2549 BC), (14) Nirvŗtti(2549-2491 BC), (15) Suvrata (2491-2453 BC), (16) Dŗɖhasena (2453-2395 BC), (17) Sumati (2395-2362 BC),(18) Suchala (2362-2340BC), (19) Sunetra (2340-2300 BC), (20) Satyajita (2300-2217 BC), (21) Vīrajita(2217-2182 BC), (22) Ripuñjaya (2182-2132 BC)Total-22 kings for 1006 years (Brahmāņɖa purāņa 2/3/74/121, Vişņu purāņa 4/23/12 etc)2. Pradyota vamśa-Last Bārhadratha king was Ripuñjaya killed by his minister Śunaka (or Pulaka) and madehis son-in-law Pradyota, as king (Brahmāņɖa purāņa 2/3/74/122, Skanda purāņa 12/2 etc).(1) Pradyota (2132-2109 BC), (2) Pālaka (2109-2085 BC), (3) Viśākhayūpa (2085-2035 BC), (4) Janaka(2035-2014 BC), (5) Nandivardhana (2014-1994 BC)-Total 5 kings for 138 years.3. Śiśunāga vamśa- (Kaliyuga Rāja Vŗttānta 2/2, Bhāgavata purāņa 12/2/8 etc.)-(1)Śiśunāga (1994-1954 BC),(2) Kākavarņa or Śakavarņa (1954-1918 BC), (3) Kśemadhanvā (1918-1892 BC), (4) Kśatrauja (1892-1852 BC),(5) Vidhisāra (Bimbisāra) or Śreņika (1852-1814 BC), (6) Ajātaśatru (1814-1787 BC), (7) Darśaka (1787-1752 BC), (8) Udāyi (1752-1719 BC), (9) Nandivardhana (1719-1677 BC), (10) Mahānandi (1677-1634 BC).In this period Siddhārtha, son of Śuddhodana became Buddha, who was incarnation of māyā and moha, notof Vişņu (Vişņu purāņa 4/23 etc). He was 5 years younger to Bimbisāra and died in 8th year of Ajātaśatru’srule in 1806 BC. Udāyi in 4 year of his rule established Pāţaliputra on confluence of Son and Gangā (Vāyupurāņa 119/318). Ten kings of this dynasty ruled for 360 years.4. Nanda vamśa- Mahā-Padma-Nanda was the son of last Śiśunāga king Mahānandi by his śūdrā wife. Afterdeath of his father he became king 1500 years (more accurately 1534 years after birth of Parīkśita in 3138BC) stated in all purāņas as a landmark of history. He won most of India by exterminating all kśatriya kings likesecond Paraśurāma. (Vişņu purāņa 4/24/104, Bhāgavata purāņa 12/1/10). He ruled for 88 years followed by 8sons for 12 years (Matsya purāņa 270/20, 273/23)-a total of 100 years from 1634 to 1534 BC.Magadha kings in Kali
Maurya vamśa-Kauţilya Chāņakya destyoed and made Chandragupta as king. His family belonged to Murā town(in Sambalpur of Orissa, now submerged in Hirakud reservoir) which was center of iron ore called mura (murrum).So the family was called Maurya. 12 Maurya kings ruled for a total of 316 years (Kaliyuga Rāja Vŗttānta 3/2,Matsya purāņa 270/32, Vāyu purāņa etc.)- (1) Chandragupta (1534-1500 BC), (2) Bindusāra (1500-1472 BC),(3) Aśoka (1472-1436 BC), (4) Supārśva (Suyaśa, or Kuņāla)- (1436-1428 BC), (5) Daśaratha (Bandhupālita)-(1428-1420 BC), (6) Indrapālita (1420-1350 BC), (7) Harşavardhana (1350-1342 BC), (8) Sangata (1342-1333BC), (9) Śāliśūka (1333-1320 BC), (10) Soma (Deva-) śarmā (1320-1313 BC), (11) Śatadhanvā (1313-1305),(12) Bŗhadratha (Bŗhadaśva)-(1305-1218 BC).There was another Aśoka in Gonanda-vamśa (43rd king) in (1448-1400 BC) who had become Bauddha due towhich Bauddhas from central Asia destroyed the kingdom. Many of the inscriptions in name of Aśoka are by him(Rājatarangiņī , 1/101-102). No inscriptionincluding one at Hathi-gumpha mentions that had become Buddhist.Only mention is in Bauddha text Divyāvadāna (chapter Aśokāvadāna) that Aśoka was a good Bauddha becausehe had killed 12,000 Jaina monks on victory over Kalinga. This is too high a figure for a normal war. There is nobasis of figure of 1,50,000 killed, 350,000 injured and 550, 000 arrested. This exceeds the population of thethen Kalinga and more than current strength of Indian army. Alexander Army was only 120,000 with 20,000horses, which was afraid of Magadha army of 600,000. Only possibility maybe that Jainas might be powerful inKalinga administration which was lost after war. Another fallacy is spread that Magadha empire was destroyeddue to adoption of non-violence by Aśoka. Actually, non-violence is feature of Yoga-sūtra and more stressed inJainism. Rather, Bauddha themselves including Siddhārtha Buddha himself were strongly opposed to vegetarianfood even for Bhikśus. It is surprising as to how Buddha was moved by sacrifice of animals in yajña, which is forfood, not for God. Maurya kings were never against Brāhmaņs, minister of Last king Puśyamitra was himself aBrāhmaņa who killed king and became king himself.Śunga-Vamśa-10 Śunga kings ruled for 300 years (Kaliyuga Rāja Vŗttānta, Matsya, Vāyu purāņa).(1) Puśyamitra (1218-1158 BC), (2) Agnimitra (1158-1108 BC), (3) Vasumitra (1108-1072 BC), (4) Sujyeşţha(2) (1072-1055 BC), (5) Bhadraka (1055-1025 BC), (6) Pulindaka (1025-992 BC), (7) Ghoşavasu (992-989 BC),(3) (8) Vajramitra (989-960 BC), (9) Bhāgavata (960-928 BC), (10) Devabhūti (928-918 BC).Maurya and Śunga vamśa
Kaņva-Vamśa-4 Kaņva kings ruled for 85 years ((Vişņu purāņa 4/24/39-42 etc).(1) Vāsudeva (918-879 BC), (2) Bhūmimitra (879-855 BC), (3) Nārāyaņa (855-843 BC), (4) Suśarmā (843-833 BC).Āndhra-Vamśa-33 Āndhra kings ruled for 506 years. During that rule, saptarşi-cycle of 2700 years started in timeof kingYudhişţhira (saptarşi in Maghā from 3176 BC)-(Matsya purāņa chapter 270 etc.). Detailed list is inKaliyuga Rāja Vŗttānta, list in other purāņas miss some names.(1) Śimukha (Sindhuka or Sumukha)-(833-810 BC), (2) Śrīkŗşņa Śātakarņī (810-792 BC), (3) Śrīmalla Śātakarņī(792-782 BC), (4) Pūrņotsanga (782-764 BC)-In his time Kalinga king Khārāvela became independent fromMagadha which was suffering under attack from west Asia. He repaired Prāchī canal in 5th year of his rule(Prāchī inscription) which was 803 (Tri-vasu-śata ) years after coronation of Nanda (1634 BC), thus his rulestarted in 1634-(803-4) = 835 BC. (5) Śrī Śātakarņī (764-708 BC), (6) Skandha-stambin (Śrīvasvanī)-(708-690BC), (7) Lambodara (690-672 BC), (8) Āpilaka (672-660 BC), (9) Megha-Svāti (660-642 BC), (10) Śāta-Svāti(642-624 BC), (11) Skanda-Svāti (624-617 BC), (12) Mŗgendra-Svāti-Karņa (617-614 BC), (13) Kuntala (614-606 BC), (14) Saumya (606-594 BC), (15) Śata-Svāti-Karņa (594-593 BC), (16) Pulomāvi-1 (593-557 BC),(17) Megha (557-519 BC), (18) Arişţa (519-494 BC), (19) Hāla (494-489 BC)-author of Gāthā-sapta-śatī,contemporary of Śankarāchārya. (20) Maņɖalaka (489-484 BC), (21) Purandara-Sena (484-463 BC)- saptarşi-cycle completed in 476 BC in his period. (22) Sundara- Śātakarņī (463-462 BC), (23) Chakra-Vāsişţhī-Putra andMahendra (462-461 BC), (24) Śiva-1 (461-433 BC),(25) Gautamī-Putra-Śātakarņī (433-408 BC), (26) Pulomāvi-2(408-376 BC), (27) Śiva-2 (376-369 BC), (28) Śivakoņɖā ( 369-362 BC), (29) Yajñaśrī (362-343 BC),(30) Vijayaśrī (343-337 BC), (31) Chandraśrī (337-334 BC), (32) Pulomāvi-3 (334-327 BC)-He was a child sonof Chandraśrī whose queen had links with commander Chandragupta who killed the king and kept his infant sonas namesake king. His father Ghaţotkacha-Gupta was commander to 2 kings-(30) Vijayaśrī and (31) Chandraśrī.Finally, Chandragupta killed the son also and became the king himself.Kaņva and Āndhra Vamśa
Gupta-Vamśa-They have been called Āndhra-bhŗtya also, as they were serving as commander under them(Matsya purāņa 273/17). Their place is called Śrī-Parvata which should be Śrī-śailam of Andhra Pradesh asthe kings were from that area, not of Nepal as surmised. At start of this rule, Alexander attacked India in 326BC. His historians have mentioned last kings of Āndhra and first 2 kings of Gupta clan as well as strength ofarmy of Āndhra kings. Names as mentioned by Megasthenes are-Ghaţotkacha (Ghaţa = head, Utkacha = remover of hairs) - barber,Chandraśrī. (Chandra-Bīja)—Agrammas (Xandrammas)-31st. Āndhra kingChandragupta-1-Sandrocottus, Samudragupta-Sandrocryptus,Chandragupta-2 was famous as conqueror or Amitrocchedas (=wiping out enemies)-Amitrochades.This was known to R.C Mazumdar, who quoted Megasthenes in –”Ancient India”-page 135 to give strength ofarmy of Āndhra kings. But, he had to retract it in his later book in collaboration with K.K. Dutta and H.C.Raychaudhary. For obedience to British fraud, he was made General editor of 12 Vol. Indian History byBharatiya Vidya Bhawan. Usmania university also keeps both contradictions-For culture of Andhra Pradesh,Megasthenese had come in Gupta period. For history purpose, he was in Maurya period.Gupta kings adopted titles of earlier great kings of Maurya period-Chandragupta-1-Vijayāditya. Samudragupta-Aśokāditya, Chandragupta-2-Vikramāditya. This was only a title.Famous Paramāra king of Ujjain of this name was later on.Śrīgupta-Ghaţotkacha-Chandragupta-1 (327-320 BC)-FounderKacha (320 BC) Samudragupta (Aśokāditya (320-269 BC)Rāmagupta Chandragupta-2 (Vikramāditya) (269-233 BC)Kumāragupta-1 (233-191 BC)Skandagupta (191-175 BC-Issueless) Puragupta (guardian of Budhagupta)Vainyagupta (175-174 BC) Kumāragupta-2 (174-172 BC) Budhagupta (172-166 BC)Narasimhagupta (Bālāditya-1)- (166-126 BC)Kumāragupta-3 (126-85 BC) Vişņugupta (85-82 BC)Gupta Kings
Mālvā KingsAfter Mahābhārata war, Paīkśita was killed by Nāga Takśaka of Takśaśilā in 3042 BC. His Son, king Janamejayaretaliated against Nāgas in 3089 BC in his Nāga-yajña. Many persons were killed, giving names of Moin-jo-daro(=place of dead) and Harappa (heap of bones). India became safe for 2200 years from invasion. But in 833 BC,Mauryan empire broke after fall of Śunga and Kaņva eras and attacks started from tyrants of Assyria, called AsuraIn India. Khārāvel of Orissa (835 BC as per his inscription) checked their incursion up to Patna. But that wasin-sufficient and Vişņu-incarnation Buddha, son of Brāhmaņa Ajina of Magadha united 4 leading (Agri=Agni) kings ofIndia-Paramāra, Pratihāra, Chāhamāna, Chālukya under Mālvā king Śūdraka at mount Abu in756 BC (Śūdraka-śaka). For uniting 4 clans, he was called śudra as honour. Paramāra, and Pratihāra checked Asuras for a while,but they were routed by Chāhamāna of Delhi. Bible has stated that king of Medes of east of Indus wiped outNineve, capital of Assyria in 612 BC (Era as per Bŗhat-samhitā 13/3 of Varāhamihira). His goddess Śākambharī isIndicated in Durgā-saptaśatī (11/58). King Sudhanvā was 6th from him who setup 4 Pīţhas of Śankarāchārya in483 BC. Last descendant was Prithviraj Chauhan, defeated in 1192 AD by Mohammad Ghori.Gardabhilla king Darpaņa of Ujjain had kidnapped Sarasvatī, sister of Jain muni Kālakāchārya (599-527 BC),who went for help to 96 chiefs of Hinduga (Hindukush). Those chiefs had to save themselves from Darius ofPersia (550 BC) and with help of Balamitra, king of Saurāşţra, captured Ujjain. Śaka king Nahpāna orNahasena was made ruler of Ujjain. The Śaka kings and descendants were wiped out by Śrī-harşa in 456 BC(Harşa-śaka). After that Paramāra king captured Ujain. As per Bhavişya purāņa, pratisarga (4/1), they were-(1) Pramara (197-191 BC), (2) Mahāmara (191-188 BC), (3) Devāpi (188-185 BC), (4) Devadūta (185-182 BC),(5) Gandharvasena (182-132 BC), (6) Śankha (132-102 BC), (7) Gandharvasena (102-82 BC)-after sudden death ofhis son Śankha. (8) Vikramāditya (82 BC-19 AD)-He started Vikrama samvat in 57 BC at Paśupatinātha in Nepalfrom Chaitra and at Somanātha from Kārttika month. He ruled up to Arab in west and his astrologers certified Jesusas a great man.. He revised Puāņas and had 9 Jewels of men in his court. His son (9) Devabhakta (19-29 AD )could not control the empire and it was divided into 18 parts. It was attacked from all directions by Tatars,Shakas, Hunas, Chinese etc who looted, raped and kidnapped in mass scale. Finally, grand son(10)Śālivāhana (29-89 AD) chased them west of Sindhu river. Jesus Christ took shelter after resurrection in hiskingdom at Shrinagar in Kashmir. His 2 disciples also took shelter in south India. Then 10 kings ruled for 50years each (11) Śālihotra (80-139), (12) Śālivardhana (13) Śakahantā (189-239), (14) Suhotra (239-289),(15) Havihotra (289-339), (16) Indrapāla (Indrāvatī) (339-389), (17) Mālyavān (Mālyavatī) (389-439), (18)Śambhudatta (439-489), (19) Bhaumarāja (489-539), (20) Vatsarāja (539-589), (21) Bhojarāja (589-639)-Hehad gone to Balkha with his army, and was contacted by Mohammad, who sought his help in establishingIslam. This is indicated in Islamic history also. Kālidāsa-3 was with him. 10 generations after him was thefamous king Bhoja (1018-1060 AD)-Author of Samarāngaņa-sūtradhāra etc.
This is given in Rājatarangiņī. Taranga (chapter)-1, describes Gonanda-vamśa from 3450 BC. Names of first 5kings are not known. 6 Gonanda-1 (3238-3188 BC), (7) Dāmodara-1 (3188-3140 BC)-He was killed just beforeMahābhārata war, then his queen Yaśomatī ruled. (8) Gonanda-2 (3138-3083 BC)-He was killed by Pāņɖavaking Parīkśita20 Pāņɖava kings-( 9) Parīkśita who became 9th king and ruled from (3083-3041 BC), (10) Harnadeva wassecond son of Parīkśita , (11) Rāmadeva, (12) Vyāsadeva, (13) Droņadeva, (14) Simhadeva, (15) Gopāladeva,(16) Vijayānanda, (17) Sukhadeva, (18) Ramaņadeva, (19) Sindhimāna, (20) Mahānadeva, (21) Kamāandeva,(22) Chandradeva, (23) Ānandadeva, (24) Drupadadeva, (25) Haranāmadeva,(26) Sulakhānadeva, (27)Senāditya, (28) Mangalāditya.Another Kashmir dynasty-(29) Kśemendra, (30) Bhīmasena, (31) Indrasena, (32) Sundarasena, (33) Galagendra,(34) Baladeva, (35) Nalasena, (36) Gokarņa, (37) Prahlāda, (38) Bambru, (39) Pratāpaśīla, (40) Sangrāmachandra,(41) Lorikachandra, (42) Bīramachandra,(43) Babighena, (44) Bhagavantī-with these 16 kings-a total of 36Pāņɖava kings ruled for 1331 years (3083-1752 BC)Gonanda-vamśa again-(45) Lava (1752-1713 BC), (46) Kuśa or Kuśeśaya, (47) Khagendra, (48) Surendra(Issueless). One relation (44th in Gonanda line) became king named (44) Godhara in 1596 BC. (45) Suvarņa,(46) Janaka, (47) Śachīnāra died issueless in 1448 BC. (48) Aśoka was grandson of Janaka’s brother. Hebecame king in1448 BC. Under influence of Lokadhātu Buddha, he became Bauddha and was namedDharmāśoka. He made many vihāras and stūpas, many of which are thought to be by Maurya Aśoka.Bauddhas of central Asia captured his kingdom. By grace of a śaiva saint, he got back his kingdom and gota son named Jālauka. He ruled up to 1400 BC and established Śrīnagara town. (49) Jālauka (1400-1344BC),(50) Dāmodara-2 (1344-1294 BC),Again, Bauddhas of central Asia ruled the state for 60 years,3 kings- Huşka, Juşk,a Kanişka (1294-1234 BC).Gonanda-vamśa (52) Abhimanyu (1234-1182 BC), -52 Gonanda kings for 2268 years (3450-1182 years.(53) Gonanda-3, (54) Vibhīşaņa, (55) Indrajita, (56) Rāvaņa, (57) Vibhīşaņa-2, (58) Kinnara, or Nara, (59)Siddha, (60) Utpalākśa, (61) Hiraņyakula, (62) Vasukula, (63) Mihirakula (704-634 BC)-These 3 were kashmiriśaivas, not foreigners. (64) Baka, (65) Kśitinandana, (66) Vasunandana, (67) Nara, (68) Akśa, (69) Gopāditya(417-357 BC)-He built Śankarāchārya temple in 367 BC which is now called Takhta-e-Suleman. (70) Gokarņa,(71) Kinakhila, (72) Narendrāditya, (73) Andha-Yudhişţhira-he was short-eyed not blind,-73+5=78 kings(3450-272 BC)Kings of Kashmir-Taranga-1
Kings of Kashmir-Taranga-2Relations of Harşa-Vikramāditya-(1) Pratāpāditya, (2) Jalaukasa, (3) Tuşājina, (4) Vijaya,(5) Jayendra, (6) Sandhimati-(272-80 BC)Gonanda-vamśa-Descendent of Andha-Yudhişţhira (80) Meghavāhana (80-46 BC),(81) Pravarasena, Śreşţhasena or Tuñjina (46-16 BC), (82) Hiraņya-(His younger brotherToramāņa made coins in his own name-died in jail)-He died issueless-(16 BC-14 AD),83-Mātŗgupta (Sent by king Vikramāditya of Ujjain)-(14-19 AD), (84) Pravarasena-2-Son ofToramāņa (19-79 AD),(85) Yudhişţhira -2 (79-118 AD)-contemporary of king Śālivāhana,grandson of Vikramāditya of Ujjain, (86) Lakśmaņa (Narendrāditya) (118-131), (87) Tuñjinaor Rāņāditya, poet (131-173), (88) Vikramāditya (173-215), (89) Bālāditya (215-252)- end of Gonanda-vamśa.Karkoţaka-vamśa-(1) Durlabhavardhana (son-in-law of Bālāditya the last king of Gonanda-vamśa)-(252-288), (2) Durlabhaka or Pratāpāditya (288-338), (5) Lalitāditya or poetMuktāpīɖa (431-467), (6) Kuvalayāditya (467-468), (7) Vajrāditya, Vāpyāyika or Lalitāpīɖa(468-525), (8) Pŗthivyāpīɖa (525-569), (9) Sangrāmapīɖa (7 days), (10) Jayāpīɖa, scholarand poet (569-620), (11) Lalitāpīɖa (620-672)-Chinese traveler Huensang had come in thisperiod, (12) Sangrāmapīɖa -2 (672-729), (13) Chipyata,or Jayāpīɖa (729-781), (14) Ajitāpīɖa(781-837), (15) Anangpīɖa (837-840) (16) Utpalāpīɖa (840-845), (17) Sukhavarmā (845-852)Utpala-vamśa-Avantivarman (town Avantipura in his name) and his son ruled in (852-936).Poets Ānandavardhana, and Ratnākara in that period. Grand-daughter of Bhīma-śāhī wasDiddā who ruled in name of her son Abhimanyu Gupta for (957-971) and countered attackof Mahmud of Gajani. Then Eka and tyrant Harşa ruled in (1086-1110). Shahmir ruled inname of Shamsuddin in 1318. His family ruled till 1561 when Moghul king Akbarcaptured Kashmir.
This is given because Nepal was always independent and its king list is not distorted. This hasimportant links with other kings of India.Gopāla-vamśa-(1) Bhuktamānāgata Gupta (4159-4071 BC), (2) Jayagupta (4071-3999 BC),(3) Paramagupta (3999-3919 BC), (4) Harşagupta (3919-3826 BC), (5) Bhīşmagupta (3826-3788), (6) Maņigupta (3788-3751 BC), (7) Vişņugupta (3751-3709 BC), (8) Yakśagupta(3709-3637 BC). He died issueless.Ahīra-vamśa-Three kings of India ruled for 200 years-(9) Varasimha, (10) Jayamatasimha,(11) Bhuvanasimha.Kirāta-vamśa-(12) Yalambarā, (13) Pavi, (14) Skandarā, (15) Valamba, (16) Hŗti, (17) Humati-he had accompanied Pāņɖavas in forest. (18) Jitedāstī-He died in Mahābhārata war onPāņɖava side. This is also described in Kirāta-parva under Vana-parva of Mahābhārata andfamous epic Kirātārjunīyam of Daņɖī. 7 kings ruled for 300 years (3437-3138 BC), (19) Gali(3138-3137 BC). Then 22 kings ruled for 782 years till 2319 BC. (20) Pushka, (21) Suyarma,(22) Parbha, (23) Svānanda, (24) , (25) Stuvanka, (26) Giighri, (27) Nane, (28) Lāka, (29)Thora (30) Thoko, (31) Varmā, (32) Guja, (33) Puşkara, (34) Keśu. (35) Sunsa, (36) Sammu,(37) Guņana, (38) Kimbu, (39) Paţuka, (40) Gasti.Soma-vamśa-(41) Nimişa, (42) Mānākśa, (43) Kākavarman, (44-48)-Unknown, (49)Paśuprekśa Deva-In his period many persons came from India in 1867 BC (period of Buddhaand Mahāvīra in Bihar). These 9 kings ruled for 464 years (2319-1875 BC). (50-51)-Unknown,(52) Bhāskaravarman-He conquered India (some adjacent parts) and without any son. Headopted Aramāna of Sūrya vamśa who became king in 1712 BC in name of Bhūmivarman.Nepal Kings-1
Sūrya vamśa-(53) Bhūmivarman (1712-1645 BC), (54) Chandravarman (1645-1584 BC),(55) Jayavarman (1584-1502 BC), (56) Vŗşavarman (1502-1441 BC), (57) Sarvavarman(1441-1363 BC), (58) Pŗthvīvarman (1363-1287 BC), (59) Jyeşţhavarman (1287-1212 BC),(60) Harivarman (1212-1136 BC), (61) Kuberavarman (1136-1048 BC), (62) Siddhivarman(1048-987 BC), (63) Haridattavarman (987-906 BC), (64) Vasudattavarman (906-843 BC),(65) Pativarman (843-790 BC), (66) Śivavŗddhivarman (790-736 BC), (67) Vasantavarman(736-675 BC), (68) Śivavarman (675-613 BC), (69 Rudravarman (613-547 BC), (70)Vŗşadevavarman (547-486 BC)-In his period Śankarāchārya had come in 486 BC for debatewith 12 Bodhisattvas. Due to his blessing the king got a son who was named after the saint.(71) Śankaradeva (486-461 BC), (72) Dharmadeva (461-437 BC), (73) Mānadeva (437-417 BC), (74) Mahideva (417-397 BC), (75) Vasantadeva (397-382 BC), (76)Udayadevavarman (382-377 BC),(77) Mānadevavarman ( 377-347 BC), (78)Guņakāmadevavarman (347-337 BC), (79) Śivadevavarman (337-276 BC), (80)Narendradevavarman (276-234 BC), (81) Bhīmadevavarman (234-198 BC), (82)Vişņudevavarman (198-151 BC), (83) Viśvadevavarman (151-101 BC). After himhis son-in-law became king.Ţhākurī-vamśa-(84) Amśuvarman (101-33 BC)-Paramāra king Vikramāditya of Ujjain came in57 BC and started his Vikrama-samvat at Paśupatinātha from Chaitra śukla 1st. (85)Kŗtavarman (33 BC-54 AD), (86) Bhīmārjuna (54-147 AD), (87) Nandadeva (147-172 AD),(88-89)-Unknown (172-299), (90) Vīradeva (299-394),(91) Chandraketudeva (394-450),(92) Narendradeva (450-516), (93) Varadeva (516-570)- Avalokiteşvara and oneŚankarāchārya (of a Pīţha) came in 522 AD. (94) Naramudi (570-615), (95) Śankaradeva(615-627), (96) Vardhamānadeva (627-640), (97) Balideva (640-653), (98) Jayadeva (653-668),(99) Balārjunadeva (668-685), (100) Vikramadeva (685-697), (101) Guņkāmadeva (696-748),(102) Bhojadeva (748-756), (103) Lakśmīkāmadeva (756-778), (104) Jayakāmadeva (778-798).Nepal Kings-2
Śaka and SamvatsaraThese are two complementary systems of calendar-(1)Śaka is mathematical calendar where calculation is done by calculating number of days from a particular point.(2) Samvatsara is followed by people for daily use, festivals as per lunar tithis and is matched with season cycles.Meaning of śaka -This is derived from 2 root verbs- (a) śakļ śaktau =to be able (Pāņini dhātu-pāţha 5/16), (b) şachaor sacha sechane, sevane cha (1/97) . It is powerful form of Kuśa (reed) which is derived from 2 verbs-(a) Kŗśatanūkaraņe (41/117)=to become thin or fine, (b) Kŗşa vilekhane (1/716, 6/6)=to plough or to draw a line.Thus, Kuśa is a thin rod and sign of number 1 in all languages (I). This becomes Śaka (powerful) in 2 ways-(a) By being big in size-In north India sal tree is Śaka (Sakhua). Siddhārtha Buddha was born in region of sal tree,so he was called Śākya-muni. In south India, Teak tree is Śaka, so it is called Sāgvān (Śaka-vana). Australiaabounds in pillar shaped Eucalyptus trees, so it was called Śaka-dvīpa-stated south east of Jambū-dvīpa (Asia)-Mahābhārata (12/14/21-5) and (6/11/4) Rāmāyaņa (4/10/19-54) and (4/43/12) etc.(b) By joining many thin kuśas-In central Asia including south Europe, many wandering small tribes joined in aFederation, so they were called Śaka. In mathematics (statistics) also, each item is counted by a sign of kuśa (I).After, they become 4, they are bound by the fifth- IIII, IIII, IIII, II ….In any mathematical calculation in astronomy,we count the number of days from a particular reference, called Ahargaņa (day-count). So, the calendar used forpurpose of calculation is called Śaka.Meaning of Samvatsara- (1) This is the exclusive zone of sun where light of sun reaches in 1 year= sphere of 1Light year radius. Like 6 seasons in 1 year, there are 6 zones (Vaşaţkāra) in solar system(Śatapatha Brāhmaņa(1/7/2/11,21)(2) This is the curved orbit of earth around sun (Tsara Chhadma gatau=to move in curve-1/373), time in orbit (1 year).(3) One of 5 type of lunar years in Vedānga jyotişa which matches most closely with solar year. They areSamparidānvita- i.e. pre-fixes sam, pari, idā. Anu, it added to Vatsara. Vatsara is derived from Ut (out, up) + şū(to give birth). Thus, vatsa = son, vatsara means son and year born from sun-its zone or period of rotation.(4) System of lunar year which is equalized with solar year by adding extra months after intervals.(5) The year which is followed by people. Sam+ vat+ sarati = moves accordingly. Thus, Jaina tradition callsanniversary as Samavasaraņa. All major social activities and festivals follow samvatsara-financial year,Educational session, agriculture cycle and all festivals.(6) Time measures of equal measure-Guru, Saptarşi, Dhruva or Krauñcha-samvatsaras.Thus, all texts of astronomy use Śālvāhana Śaka for calculation purpose, but all festivals are fixed as perVikrama samvatsara.
Calendar of BrahmāIt started in time of Svāyambhuva Manu (29102 BC) after Glacial floods of 31,200 BC. There are 2references in Vedas-(1) Taittirīya Brāhmaņa (3/1/1/11,12) and Devī-bhāgavata puāņa (9/12/47, 9/1/46-48).The Rāsa in space is due to precession of earth axis in 26000 years. That period is called a manvantara inBrahmāņɖa purāņa (2/29/19). It starts from Kŗttikā (scissors) and ends with Viśākhā (2 branches). These starsare 2 points of intersection of equator and ecliptic-at first point they start like 2 branches of scissors and atopposite end 2 branches rejoin. In time of Svāyambhuva and 26000 years later at start of Kali-spring equinox(Vişuva sankrānti occurred in Kŗttikā star. However, in all periods, calculation of spherical triangle has to bedone from first point of intersection. So, Taittirīya samhitā (4/4/10) tells-Kŗttikātah gaņanā, here gaņanā doesnot mean counting as assumed by S.B. Dixit, it means calculation.(2) Madhusudan Ojha in Chhandah-samīkśā has explained motion of sun from 24 degree north to southBy chhandas. The same has been stated in Āvaraņa-vāda quoting Ŗgveda 1/164/1-3,12,13, 1/115/3, 7/63/2Explained in verses 123-132. Diagram at end is as per Atharva veda (8/5/19-20) Ŗgveda (10/130/4), Vāyu(Chap 2), Brahāņɖa (part 1, chap. 22) Vişņu (2/8-10)Karka rekhāMakara rekhā240N Jagatī200N Trişţup120N Pankti120S Anuşţup200S Uşņik240S Gāyatrī00N BŗhatīThese are the lanes in which sun remains for 1 month each. The same calendar is described inBook of Enoch, chapter 4 in Ethipoean version of Old Testament. The lanes are further divided into 3each, called Vīthi and nāɖī used for Melāpaka in astrology. This is followed in Vedānga jyotişa, also, wherelongest day length is double of night as letters in jagatī are double of gāyatrī.This was the original system of Brahmā in Taittirīya samhitā. Vivasvān revived Vedas which was calledĀditya sampradāya, followed by Yājñavalkya later on. Earlier form was called Brahma- sampradāya. Thatwas followed by Guru Nanak continued by his second son-Śrīchanda ji (Udāsīna- sampradāya. Brahmā iscalled Vahe-guru. Brahmā=Vah=Big.No. of letters in chhanda-Gāyatrī 6x4, Uşņik 7x4,Anuşţup 8x4, Bŗhatī 9x4,Pankti 10x4, Trişţup 11x4Jagatī 12x4
Kārttikeya CalendarMahābhārata Udyoga parva, chapter 230, Verses 8-10 state that Abhijit Nakśatra had fallen (from poleposition) and a new calendar was started by Kārttikeya in consultation with Brahmā as advised by Indra.In this system, year started with entry of sun in Dhanişţhā in stead of Abhijit.Earlier (in 17500 BC) at time of Kaśyapa Brahmā, Abhijit was the pole star, i.e. highest point from equator.Similarly, in diurnal motion, when sun is highest point from local horizon, it is called Abhijit muhūrtta.In Abhijit period (of Pole star) Brahmā was supreme, so lord of this star is Brahmā . From this period, riseof Devas started. 2 brother Asura kings Hiraŋya-kaśipu and Hiraŋyākśa were killed by Varāha and Nŗsimhaincarnations of Vişŋu. 2 generations later, Vāmana took kingdom of 3 lokas (Russia, China and India) fromBali for Indra. Many Asuras were dissatisfied with deal by Bali and continued war. Compromised was byKūrma who suggested co-operation for producing mineral wealth-which resulted in Samudra-manthana.Again war erupted over sharing and finally, Kārttikeya defeated Asuras convincingly by destroyingKrauñcha mount (north America) by missile. Language of his navy (Mayūra =peacock) occupying pacificis still spread over all islands spread in largest region.After 17,500 BC entry of sun in Dhanişţhā star will be near summer solstice-to be exact in 15,800 BC.Then year started with month of Māgha which was start of south motion of sun (Dakśiŋāyana). That wascontinuation of system in Asura supremacy, merely starting point had been shifted. So, South motion ofSun is called Asura day in Sūrya-siddhānta. Since year started with Varşā (rains), it was called Varşa.After victory over Asuras, erected pillar in sea at Koŋārka and started Ratha-yātrā on Māgha-saptamī-thatmight be exact day of sun entry in Dhanişţhā star. Later on, in new calendar, when year started with entryof sun in Aśvinī star (Chaitra month),the ratha-yātrā shifted to start of rains in Āşāɖha śukla 2, which is firstday of seeing moon in rains (Āşāɖhasya prathama divase meghamāślişţa sānuh-Meghadūta, 2). Thatwas in time of Vikramāditya (82BC-19 AD) when Kālidāsa wrote his epics.System of Kaśyapa Brahmā and Kārttikeya continued in Vedānga jyotişa-where year is assumed to startfrom north motion of sun in 2983 BC.The Brahmā who was consulted by Kārttikeya was Apāntaratamā. He lived on banks of Godāvarī and hadgone to Hariŋa-dvīpa (Magadaskar) for Tapa. His Brāhmī script of 63-64 letters still continues with Kannada andTelugu in his region. Tamil by Kārttikeya is in Tamilnadu.
Vivasvān calendarVivasvān means sun-He was one of the sons of Aditi-12 Ādityas are widespread in time. His son Vaivasvatawas the last historic Manu. He started the calendar with month of Chaitra at time of spring equinox. Yugasystem of 12000 years with ascending and descending periods was started by him, not by Brahmā, so timeof Brahmā falls in initial Tretā and not Satya yuga. After Vaivasvata Manu- Satya, Tretā, Dvāpara - of (4800+3600+2400 =10800) years ended at start of Kali on 17-2-3102 B. Thus, his period was 13902 BC. Vivasvānhimself may be in about 14000 BC. Solar dynasties are all over world-In Maya and Inca (Inah=sun), Japan,Ethiopea, Ezypt etc. Places of sun are points of start of time zones in ancient world-at interval of 1 Daŋɖa=24 minutes, compared to modern system of 30 minute intervals. Reference was from longitude of Lankā,at equator, whose time was called Ku-bera =earth time, as the time of current reference Greenwich is called.The same longitude passed through Ujjain at tropic of cancer then. 4 cardinal points at 900 intervals weremarked by major structures-Pillar of Hercules at 900 west, Pyramid of Mexico 1800 west (or end of east ascalled in Vālmīki Rāmāyaŋa, Kişkindhā kāŋɖa, 40/54,64) called Siddhapura in Sūrya siddhānta, and under-Sea pyramid at Yama-koţi-pattana at 900 east. That is south west tip of New zealand, it is pair of islands, socalled Yama-dvīpa, at same south latitude as Yama star. Koţi is end of land mass, pattana = port.Other places of sun are Stone-henge in UK (780 west), Hellespont 420 west, Lourdes (Rudreśa-east border ofFrance)) 720 west, Kyoto (old capital of Japan) 600 east, Inca capital in Peru 1500 west. In India itself, Kālahastī(AP) and Lolārka (Varanasi) are 60 east, Puŋyārka (Punarakh) near Patna 90 east, Koŋārka (Orissa) at 120 east,Kālapriya and Mūlasthāna at 00 and 60 west, Puşkara (Bukhara in Uzbekistan) at 120 west (Vişŋu purāŋa 2/8/26).Astronomical yugas also are of 12000 Divya years (of 360 years), Divya year in history is solar year.Next Vyāsa after Vaivasvata Manu was Vaivasvata Yama (Jamshed of Zend-Avesta) in whose period glacialfloods occurred for about 2000 years. They followed same system and are brothers in that sense. Political andsocial systems were destroyed. In addition, day length increased due to extra load of water at equator, whichincreases angular momentum. Due to that, calendar of Vaivasvata Manu developed errors. It was corrected ininternational conference at Romaka-pattana, 900 west, place of sun called Rabat (Morocco) or Konakry (NewGuinee). It was presided by an astronomer of Maya (Mexico) called Maya-Asura. That was held when Alpa(131 years were left in Satya yuga, ending 4800 years after Vaivasvata Manu, i.e. in 9233 BC. That was afterrevival in Matsya incarnation (9533 BC) when Prabhava Guru year started in both systems-Pitāmaha, Sūrya(Vişŋu dharmottara purāŋa, chapter 68). After that eleventh Vyāsa Ŗşabhadeva had established new world order.Vaivasvata manu was 16000 years or 43 yugas after Svāyambhuva Manu and after 28 yuga=10600 years afterhim was system of Parāśara (Matsya purāŋa, chapter 173).