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The concepts of
Prepared by: Ms. Irish Verone M. Polidario, LPT
ORIGIN OF POLITICS
• POLIS – city-state
• POLITES – citizens
• POLITIKOS – government officials
• is derived from the Greek
word polis which means
“city-state”, a small
independent self- contained
• “the heart of Political Science”
• It is the activity of people
where they create, preserve
and amend laws under which
POLITICS as the art of
• Politics is what defines the
activities of the government
and of the state. All
government officials and all
those working in
participating in politics.
POLITICS as public affair.
• Politics is played by everybody,
politicians or not.
• In politics, Aristotle said that
“man by nature is a political
animal;” this means that it is only
within a political community that
human beings can live the good
• Thus, politics becomes necessary
to create a just society.
POLITICS as compromise
• Politics is meant to resolve
• In politics, compromise,
conciliation and negotiation
• It is through these means that
issues and problems are being
• Thus, politics becomes the
process of conflict resolution.
POLITICS as power.
• Politics happens in all human
interactions: within the family,
among friends, among officemates,
• Politics can, therefore, be seen as
struggle over scarce resources, and
power can be seen as the means
through which struggle is
Focuses its study on the actual actions
or decisions of the state.
Politics is concerned with issues,
problems and activities of the state
while political science is concerned on
how the state originated, its nature and
An academic discipline deals with the
theoretical study of the state and
A political scientist observes how to
state makes decision, and how the
state’s decision affects people.
In the modern perspectives, political science studies politics.
The state and government are the key factors in the study of
political science and politics.
Thus, political science cannot be differentiated from politics.
5 REASONS TO STUDY POLITICS
1. Politics will help you to know your rights.
2. Politics clarifies what you yourself believes.
3. Politics is a living, breathing subject.
4. Politics helps you to understand our nation’s
5. Politics prepares you for adult life.
Focuses in answering the questions:
(What is?) Positive Approach
Example: “The Department of Education documented
more than 1,700 cases of child abuse and bullying in
school year 2013-2014.”
(What should be?) Normative Approach
Example: “Bullying and other forms of violence in
schools should be viewed not just a school problem but
a societal problem as well.”
1. NORMATIVE vs. POSITIVE APPROACH
Focuses on the study of the individual
(voter, leader, party leader, etc.) particularly the
actors of the political system, their emotions,
biases and predispositions.
Behaviorists, therefore, study the political
process by looking at how it relates or influences
the individual’s behavior, motivations,
personalities or feelings of human actors
2. BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
Focuses on the study of human behavior,
wherein individuals are motivated by their
wants, their self-interest or goals which will
explain their preferences.
Furthermore, according to this approach,
humans act to maximize their outcome, that is,
to get the most benefit and profit from their
3. RATIONAL CHOICE APPROACH
What is GOVERNANCE?
• the action of the government.
• “the process of decision-making and the
process by which decisions are
implemented.” (Sheng, UNESCAP)
• “a government’s ability to make and
enforce rule and to deliver services,
regardless of whether the government is
democratic or not.” -Fukuyama (2013)
• In the early Indian history, back to at
least 400 B.C, governance includes
emphasizing justice, ethics and anti-
• Moreover, World Bank (2007) defines
governance as “the manner in which
public officials and institutions acquire
and exercise the authority to shape
public policy and provide public goods
Decisions should not be
influenced by interest of
the few, values and
1. Participation – active involvement of all
affected and interested
parties in the decision-
2. Rule of Law - legal frameworks should
be fair and enforced
3. Transparency - free flow of information.
4. Responsiveness - serve all stakeholders.
- mediates differing
6. Equity and
- all its members have
opportunities to improve or
maintain their well-being.
- produce results that meet
needs while making the
best use of resources .
8. Accountability - accountable to the public.
Politics and Governance
for Senior High School
Victoria O. Ligan
Gerlieta S. Ruiz