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INTRODUCTION: THE CONCEPTS OF POLITICS AND GOVERNANCE

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INTRODUCTION: THE CONCEPTS OF POLITICS AND GOVERNANCE

  1. 1. Introduction: The concepts of POLITICS and GOVERNANCE Prepared by: Ms. Irish Verone M. Polidario, LPT
  2. 2. JUMBLED LETTERS GAME
  3. 3. PLTOICIS POLITICS
  4. 4. LERU FO AWL RULE OF LAW
  5. 5. GROVEANNCE GOVERNANCE
  6. 6. TARPCNSREANY TRANSPARENCY
  7. 7. RSPENOISVEENSS RESPONSIVENESS
  8. 8. Introduction: The concepts of POLITICS and GOVERNANCE Prepared by: Ms. Irish Verone M. Polidario, LPT
  9. 9. ORIGIN OF POLITICS • POLIS – city-state • POLITES – citizens • POLITIKOS – government officials (Zaide, 1983)
  10. 10. POLITICS • is derived from the Greek word polis which means “city-state”, a small independent self- contained political society.
  11. 11. POLITICS • “the heart of Political Science” • It is the activity of people where they create, preserve and amend laws under which they live.
  12. 12. POLITICS as the art of government. • Politics is what defines the activities of the government and of the state. All government officials and all those working in government are participating in politics.
  13. 13. POLITICS as public affair. • Politics is played by everybody, politicians or not. • In politics, Aristotle said that “man by nature is a political animal;” this means that it is only within a political community that human beings can live the good life. • Thus, politics becomes necessary to create a just society.
  14. 14. POLITICS as compromise and consensus. • Politics is meant to resolve conflict. • In politics, compromise, conciliation and negotiation become necessary. • It is through these means that issues and problems are being resolved. • Thus, politics becomes the process of conflict resolution.
  15. 15. POLITICS as power. • Politics happens in all human interactions: within the family, among friends, among officemates, etc. • Politics can, therefore, be seen as struggle over scarce resources, and power can be seen as the means through which struggle is conducted.
  16. 16.  Focuses its study on the actual actions or decisions of the state.  Politics is concerned with issues, problems and activities of the state while political science is concerned on how the state originated, its nature and its functions.  An academic discipline deals with the theoretical study of the state and government.  A political scientist observes how to state makes decision, and how the state’s decision affects people. In the modern perspectives, political science studies politics. The state and government are the key factors in the study of political science and politics. Thus, political science cannot be differentiated from politics.
  17. 17. 5 REASONS TO STUDY POLITICS 1. Politics will help you to know your rights. 2. Politics clarifies what you yourself believes. 3. Politics is a living, breathing subject. 4. Politics helps you to understand our nation’s parties. 5. Politics prepares you for adult life. http://www.bedes.org/senior-school/news-and-blogs/senior-school- news/2015/01/5-reasons-to-study-politics.aspx
  18. 18. HOW POLITICS CAN BE STUDIED?
  19. 19. Focuses in answering the questions: (What is?) Positive Approach Example: “The Department of Education documented more than 1,700 cases of child abuse and bullying in school year 2013-2014.” (What should be?) Normative Approach Example: “Bullying and other forms of violence in schools should be viewed not just a school problem but a societal problem as well.” 1. NORMATIVE vs. POSITIVE APPROACH
  20. 20. Focuses on the study of the individual (voter, leader, party leader, etc.) particularly the actors of the political system, their emotions, biases and predispositions. Behaviorists, therefore, study the political process by looking at how it relates or influences the individual’s behavior, motivations, personalities or feelings of human actors (Orji, 2009). 2. BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
  21. 21. Focuses on the study of human behavior, wherein individuals are motivated by their wants, their self-interest or goals which will explain their preferences. Furthermore, according to this approach, humans act to maximize their outcome, that is, to get the most benefit and profit from their actions. 3. RATIONAL CHOICE APPROACH
  22. 22. What is GOVERNANCE? • the action of the government. • “the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented.” (Sheng, UNESCAP)
  23. 23. • “a government’s ability to make and enforce rule and to deliver services, regardless of whether the government is democratic or not.” -Fukuyama (2013) • In the early Indian history, back to at least 400 B.C, governance includes emphasizing justice, ethics and anti- autocratic tendencies.
  24. 24. • Moreover, World Bank (2007) defines governance as “the manner in which public officials and institutions acquire and exercise the authority to shape public policy and provide public goods and services.” NOTE: Decisions should not be influenced by interest of the few, values and preference.
  25. 25. 8 CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE
  26. 26. 1. Participation – active involvement of all affected and interested parties in the decision- making process. 2. Rule of Law - legal frameworks should be fair and enforced impartially. 3. Transparency - free flow of information. 4. Responsiveness - serve all stakeholders.
  27. 27. 5. Consensus Oriented - mediates differing interests. 6. Equity and Inclusiveness - all its members have opportunities to improve or maintain their well-being. 7. Effectiveness and efficiency - produce results that meet needs while making the best use of resources . 8. Accountability - accountable to the public.
  28. 28. PHILIPPINE Politics and Governance for Senior High School pages 8-12 Victoria O. Ligan Gerlieta S. Ruiz Mona L.Laya
  29. 29. -Ms. Ivy

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