POSITION ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL
Submitted To:Prof. Dr. ALİ
In this study, position control of circuit
elements are carried out by using servo
motor. In the control, microcontroller is
used. This microcontroller is prefered for
the absense of hardware programming. In
the designed system, required position
knowledge has been entered with button
attached to system. When the system
works required and realised position values
are seen on the LCD screen.
OBJECTIVES OF OUR
Learning how to assemble a
Having information about working
elements of a position controller such
as resistors, buttons, dc motor, etc.
Being able to combine electrical,
mechanical and software sciences.
Achieving a successive team work.
Making worker mechatronic system.
Project plan is going to be created.
Circuit elements which is going to be used in the
Information of circuit elements are going to be
Materials are going to be purchased.
Materials are going to be assembled.
Firstly, we searched the correct
Then, we researched and purchased
We find the functions of circuit
Finally, we made the project report.
Servo motors are used in closed loop
control systems in which work is the control
The digital servo motor controller
directs operation of the servo motor by
sending velocity command signals to the
amplifier, which drives the servo motor.
An integral feedback device (resolver)
or devices (encoder and tachometer) are
either incorporated within the servo motor or
are remotely mounted, often on the load
These provide the servo motor's position
and velocity feedback that the controller
compares to its programmed motion profile and
uses to alter its velocity signal.
Servo motors feature a motion profile,
which is a set of instructions programmed into
the controller that defines the servo motor
operation in terms of time, position, and velocity.
The ability of the servo motor to adjust to
differences between the motion profile and
feedback signals depends on the type of controls
and servo motors used.
HOW RC SERVO MOTOR
A servo motor
consists of several
main parts, the
motor and gearbox,
a position sensor,
an error amplifier
and motor driver
and a circuit to
figure contains a
block diagram of a
typical servo motor
Inside this box is a complete servo
system including: motor, gearbox, dc
motor, servo horn /arm control
RC Servo Motor
RC servos normally have 3 wires:
+v, ground, control.
The control signal is a pulse that occurs
at about 50hz.
The width of the pulse determines the
position of the servo motors output. eatly
upon the type of controls and servo
Size of microprocessor is being smaller
with developing technology and
producing further small part of transistor.
Today, microprocessors are used in
digital clock, oven,washing machine and
all of electrical devices. The
microprocessor is not used single in
circuit. They must be programmed and
made electronic circuits.
We will need a computer to run software,
allowing you to program a PIC microcontroller
circuit. A fairly cheap, low specification
computer should run the software with ease.
The computer will need a serial port or a USB
port. This is used to connect the computer to
the microcontroller circuit.
We can prepare advertising board digital
thermometer and we can write everything
whatever we want on LCD…etc. To make all
of these we need PIC, PIC programme and
socket to load the proramme
PIC microcontrollers (
Controllers), are electronic
circuits that can be programmed
to carry out a vast range of tasks.
They can be programmed to be
timers or to control a production
line and much more. They are
found in most electronic devices
such as alarm systems, computer
control systems, phones, in fact
almost any electronic device.
Sockets are interfaces
that can "plug into" each
other over a network.
Once so "plugged in", the
programs so connected
How do sockets work?
A socket has a typical flow of events. In
a connection-oriented client-to-server model,
the socket on the server process waits for
requests from a client.
To do this, the server first establishes
(binds) an address that clients can use to find
the server. When the address is established,
the server waits for clients to request a
The server performs the client’s
request and sends the reply back to the
client. The two endpoints establish a
connection, and bring the client and server
A breadboard (protoboard) is a
construction base for prototype of
electronics. The term is commonly
used to refer to solderless breadboard
Because the solderless breadboard
does not require soldering, it is
reusable. This makes it easy to use for
creating temporary prototypes and
experimenting with circuit design.
Older breadboard types did not have
this property. A stripboard (veroboard)
and similar prototyping printed circuit
boards, which are used to build
permanent soldered prototypes or
one-offs, cannot easily be reused. A
variety of electronic systems may be
prototyped by using breadboards, from
small analog and digital circuits to
complete central processing units
A Voltage Regulator is an integrated circuit that
outputs a specified DC voltage. Voltage regulators
are necessary in applications where a certain
constant and consistent level of DC voltage is
needed in a circuit. A circuit may need a consistent
DC voltage of 3.3 volts. There are 3.3 voltage
A circuit may need a consistent DC voltage of 9
volts. Then the circuit designer would use a 9volt regulator to provide 9 volts consistently to a
circuit. You probably get the point by now. A
voltage regulator is used in applications in
circuits where a specific, constant DC voltage
output is needed.
Voltage regulators are widely used in variety of
electronic circuits. This is because electronic
components, especially microelectronic circuits,
which contain components such as
ICs(integrated circuits), would fry if they were
supplied with high voltage.
They are voltage-sensitive devices and would be
destroyed and rendered nonfunctional and useless
with high voltage. These devices function only on
low voltage, so they are used in conjunction with
voltage regulators, which outputs low DC voltage.
How to Connect a Voltage Regulator in a
Voltage Regulator (regulator), usually having
three legs, converts varying input voltage and
produces a constant regulated output
voltage. They are available in a variety of
The most common part numbers start with
the numbers 78 or 79 and finish with two
digits indicating the output voltage.
• İnput voltage (5V-18V)
• Ground (0V)
• Regulated output 5V
The number 78 represents positive voltage
and 79 negative one. The 78XX series of
voltage regulators are designed for positive
input. And the 79XX series is designed for
Pin 1 is the Input Pin. The
output voltage of whatever
voltage source you want to
regulate down is fed into this
pin. So for instance, if you have
10 volts coming from a
transformer that you want
regulated down to 5 volts, the
output of the transformer is fed
into the regulator input (pin 1)
so that the regulator can
regulate it down to your wanted
voltage (5 volts). The voltage
regulator should always be fed
as smooth of a DC signal as
possible so it can regulate it
Pin 2 is ground. It hooks up to the ground in our
circuit. Without ground, the circuit couldn't be
complete because the voltage wouldn't have
electric potential and the circuit wouldn't have a
return path. Ground is essential.
Pin 3 is the output pin. This is the pin that gives
out the regulated voltage, which, in this case, is
5 volts. At the end of this experiment, when our
circuit is hooked up, we're going to read out the
voltage with a multimeter and it should give out
close to 5 volts.
In electrical engineering parlance, the term
"potentiometer" is used in either one of two ways. It
may refer to an instrument that measures an
unknown emf or voltage by comparing it to a
standard emf. In this capacity, it is functioning as a
null instrument; it permits precision measurement by
adjusting a value of a circuit element until a meter
reads zero. Alternatively, "potentiometer" may refer
to an electronic component that is used to vary
resistance in a circuit
Digital potentiometers are active devices.
Conventional potentiometers are passive devices
with no electronic parts.
Digital potentiometers which are used to replace the
conventional mechanical potentiometer sand they
offer the advantages that they are programmable.
Their main advantage is that the resistance is
programmable and it can be adjusted automatically
by a microprocessor or a microcontroller.
A potentiometer is also referred
to as a variable resistor or pot.
They have three terminals, where
the one in the middle is known as
the wiper, and the other two are
known as ends.
The wiper is a movable contact
where resistance is measured
with respect to it and either one
of the end terminals.
How does a potentiometer work?
Potentiometers work by having a resistive
element inside. Both end terminals are
attached to it, and do not move. The wiper
travels along the strip when the knob is turned.
The closer the wiper is to the end terminal it is
wired in conjunction with, the less the
resistance, because the path of the current will
be shorter. The further away it moves from the
terminal, the greater the resistance will be.
How does a potentiometer work?
The symbol for a potentiometer is the same
one as a resistor, save for an arrow in the
middle. In a circuit where they are used
strictly as variable resistors or rheostats, only
two terminals are wired to the other
components. All three terminals are wired
separately when they function as voltage
dividers. Light dimmers in houses and
volume controls on electronics are two
common applications. Others include
switches and position sensors.
A battery is a device that converts
chemical energy directly to electrical
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Innovaties LCD 2x16 A Module provides
versatile display functions. Through
itssimple connections, it can be controlled
by Innovatis BASIC Commander for a
widerange of LCD applications. In this
module, two display lines, each with 16
characters on each line can be displayed.
By using the cursor control command, the
position ofthe character to be displayed on
the screen can be arbitrarily changed. In
this module,the backlight function can be
used to change the backlight to allow the
message tobe read easily. In addition, it can
be configured to display user defined
characters to display any specially required
It can be used to display corresponding characters
in ASCII code.
The module will automatically convert and display
the data according to its data type.
255 steps backlight control.
For continuous inputs, the module will carriage
Cursor position assignment and Tab function with
configurable Tab steps and HOME function.
Destructive backspace, clear to end of line or end
of screen from the cursor position.
Set the user defined characters to display various
Display off command to reduce power