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Problem solving


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Problem Solving Techniques

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Problem solving

  1. 1. PROBLEM SOLVING Process and Technique
  2. 2. PROBLEM SOLVING defining the problem (question or situation that presents uncertainty, perplexity or difficulty) and creating a vast number of possible solutions without judging these solutions. “Problem solving is a cognitive processing directed at achieving a goal where no solution method is obvious to the problem solver.”
  3. 3. SKILLS NEEDED FOR PROBLEM SOLVING Making judgements Analytical Skills Critical Thinking Collecting Information Planning
  4. 4. PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS STAGE ONE Define the Starting Issue(s) Analyze the Situation Define the Problem Objectives: 1. To analyze the facts. 2. To define the problem Understand the Issues
  5. 5. PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS STAGE TWO Find Solutions Generate Ideas Evaluate Ideas Make Decisions Objectives: 1. To generate ideas. 2. To evaluate ideas. 3. To decide on the best possible solution
  6. 6. PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS STAGE THREE Plan Your Action Analyze the Impact Plan Your Action Plan the Follow-through Objectives: 1. To determine the impact on people and systems. 2. To build on action plan. 3. To decide on follow-through.
  7. 7. INTERPERSONAL PROBLEM SOLVING 1. Presenting yourself • Eye Contact • Good voice 2. I-talk • Convey displeasure • Unhappiness about the situation 3. The Mary Poppins Rule “A spoonful of sugar helps the medicine go down”. • Polite language 4. The Comic Parry (or keep it light) • Use of humor and wit in problem situations
  8. 8. INTERPERSONAL PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS Problem sensitivity: Ability to be aware of problems that arise out of social situations. A sensitivity to the kinds of social situations out of which interpersonal difficulties may arise. Ability to examine relationships with others in the here and now.
  9. 9. INTERPERSONAL PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS Alternative solution training: Ability to generate a wide variety of potential solutions to the problem. Skill is to draw from a repertoire of ideas representing differing categories of solutions to a given problem.
  10. 10. INTERPERSONAL PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS Brainstorming: The creative art of generating the greatest number of ideas in the shortest possible time. Acceptance of every idea uncritically Aim for quantity not quality At this stage do not initiate any discussion List the ideas Set a time limit
  11. 11. INTERPERSONAL PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS Means-ends thinking: Ability to articulate the step by step means necessary to carry out the solution to a given interpersonal problem. Ability to recognize obstacles, the social sequences deriving from these solutions. Recognition that interpersonal problem solving takes time.
  12. 12. INTERPERSONAL PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS Consequential thinking: Being aware of the consequences of social acts as they affect self and others. Ability to generate alternative consequences to potential problem solutions before acting.
  13. 13. INTERPERSONAL PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS Causal thinking: Reflects the degree of appreciation of social and personal motivation. Involves the realization that how one felt and acted may have been influenced by and, in turn, may have influenced how others felt and acted.
  14. 14. Left Brain • Follows a logical pattern • Is objective, rather than subjective• Views time chronologically, minute by minute, hour by hour• Sees things as true or false, black or white • Seeks the detail, sees the trees rather than the forest • Houses short-term memory • Thinks critically, perhaps negatively, asks “why?”. EFFECTIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING
  15. 15. Right Brain • Follows intuitive hunches • Creates patterns, without following a step-by-step process• Is subjective, rather than objective • Views time in a total sense – a lifetime, career, project• Sees the forest, rather than the trees• Thinks positively, unconstrained by preconceived ideas• Asks “why not?”, breaks rules EFFECTIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING