Nato Sawhney, 18 Powerpoint Slides


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Nato Sawhney, 18 Powerpoint Slides

  1. 1. Nanotechnology in Modern Textiles Paul S. Sawhney1, Kumar V Singh2, Brian Condon 1, Nozar D. Sachinvala1, and David Hui3 1Southern Regional Research Center, ARS/USDA, New Orleans, LA 70124, 2Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Miami University, Oxford, OH, 45056 3Dept of Mechanical Engineernig, University of New Orlean, New Orleans, LA 70148
  2. 2. Objectives q Demonstration of the scope and the applications of Nanotechnology towards the modification and development of advanced textile fibers, yarns, fabrics, and the textile processing. q Summarize the recent advances made in nanotechnology and its applications to cotton textiles with some novel ideas and limitations of the existing technology.
  3. 3. Nanotechnology q Nanotechnology deals with the science and technology at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, although 100 nanometers presently is the practically attainable dimension for textile products and applications. q The inferior properties of cotton fibers and yarns can be enhanced or complemented by engineering the physical, chemical, and surface characteristics of cotton fibers/yarns, in order to develop the desired textile attributes, such as fabric softness, durability, and breathability and the advanced performance characteristics, viz., water repellency, fire retardancy, antimicrobial resistance, etc.. q Enhancement of textile materials by nanotechnology is expected to become a trillion dollar industry in the next decade, with tremendous technological, economic and ecological benefits. q In recent years, the worldwide government funding for the R&D in the area of nanotechnology has increased to $3 billion annually [1].
  4. 4. Developments of Nano-Fibers/Yarns Nano- Macro-technology Micro-technology Nano-technology 10 - 1 10 - 2 10 - 3 10 - 4 10 - 5 10 - 6 10 - 7 10 - 8 10 - 9 10 - 10 m Ordinary Fibers Fine denier Fibers Micro Fibers Nano Fibers Fiber diameters
  5. 5. q Carbon Nano Tube (CNT) q This high performance fiber was discovered by Iijima [2]. q High-performance yarns are being produced by super- aligned arrays of carbon nanotubes [3]. q These fibers/yarns are produced by the electro- spinning process q The yarns strengthened with CNT exhibit extraordinary mechanical properties q Young’s modulus ~ TPa range, Tensile strength ~ 200 GPa, Elastic strain ~ 5 %, and Breaking strain ~ 20 %. q Such Nano fibers/yarns can be efficiently used as super capacitors in electronic textile components [4-8].
  6. 6. q Multi-Walled Carbon Nano Tube (MWCNT) q MWCNT nano yarns can be spun by simultaneous reduction of fiber diameter and increase in twist (1000 times). q Spinning parameters depend upon specific, desired mechanical properties (strength, toughness, energy damping capability, etc.) q MWCNT-reinforced yarns are used for supporting multi-functionalities in electronic textiles. q Uses include Capability for actuation; Energy storage capacity; Radio or microwave absorption; Electrostatic discharge protection; Textile heating, or Wiring for electronic devices [9].
  7. 7. q Additional developments q The combination “nano-fibrils” and strengthening fibers can be used for producing nonwoven fabrics for tissue engineering [10]. q Polypropylene/nano-carbon fiber composites spun by melt spinning process considerably enhance the modulus, compressive strength, and dispersion properties [11]. q Optimal crystallization and orientation of nanofibers yield excellent properties for micro-filtration applications in the medical field[12]. q Antistatic polyacrylonitrile fiber has been developed by suspending nano-antimony-doped tin oxide particles during the fiber spinning process. [13-14]. q By embossing the surface of synthetic fibers with nano structures, desired functionality has been obtained [15]. q Integration of nano-sized antimicrobial particles into textile fibers has led to the development of superior wound dressings [16].
  8. 8. Applications in Fabric Finishes q Nano-TexTM has developed several fabric treatments using nanotechnology: (a) Permanent anti-static treatment; (b) Wrinkle-free treatment using moisture-wicking technology; (c) Stain- resistance and -repellent treatments; and (d) “Nanobeads” to carry bioactive or anti-biological agents, drugs, pharmaceuticals, sun blocks, and even textile dyes. These treatments onto textile substrates permanently alter properties of the textiles [16-18]. These textiles are claimed to exhibit superior durability, softness, tear strength, and abrasion resistance. They may also provide softness to durable-press garments.
  9. 9. q Chemical oxidative deposition technology of Conducting Electroactive Polymers (CEP) onto different kinds of fibers and textiles, yields composite materials with high tensile strength and good thermal stability [19]. q Furthermore, Surface polymerization of CEP (Graft copolymerization) of polymer fibers increases the conductivity almost 10 times by decreasing the electrical resistivity [20-22]. q Coated polymeric composite materials can be used in microwave attenuation, EMI shielding, and dissipation of static electric charge. Hence, they can be useful for military applications, e.g., camouflage, stealth technology, etc., [23- 24].
  10. 10. UV rays and radiation protection Coating of fabrics with nano- beads used for carrying desirable molecules Breath-ability and temperature control Fluid droplets Stai n Cotton fibers wrapping the synthetic core Nano-structures to prevent wetting due Synthetic fiber to fluids core
  11. 11. q By combining the nano-particles with the organic and inorganic compounds, the surfaces of the fabrics treated with abrasion resistant, water repellent, ultraviolet (UV), electromagnetic and infrared protection finishes can be appreciably modified. Recently, the titanium-dioxide nano-particle have been utilized for the UV protection [25-26]. q By using nano-sized silicon dioxide, improvements in the strength and flame-resistance of textile fabrics can be achieved [27]. q The usage of nano-engineered cross-link agents during finishing process enhances the wrinkle resistance of cotton fabrics [28]. q Micro encapsulation technique is being used in textile industry for flame- or fire- retardant (FR) agents and anti-microbial agents. Recently, microcapsules containing silver nano-particles (Silver Cap) were being investigated for providing anti-microbial effects. [29].
  12. 12. Future Directions and Challenges q Significant potential for profitable Nano-technology applications in cotton and other textiles. q Application of Nano-technology may be extended to attain performance enhancement of textile manufacturing machines & processes. q Especially the fabric finishing technology has taken new routes and demonstrated the potential for significant improvements via the applications of modern nanotechnology q It is however important to note that advances that are taking place in the area of nanotechnology applications in textile are still immature. Several aspects such as human risks associated with such applications are being investigated through several government initiatives [30].
  13. 13. Applications in Modern Textiles
  14. 14. Company/ Products & Industry/Center Applications Nano-TexTM Fabric finishes: wrinkle-resistant, (USA) [16-18] stain-resistant, anti-static and UV protection properties (Nano-Pel, Nano-Touch, Nano-Care, Nao-Dry & Nano-Beads) Scholler® “Soft shells” technology for [31-33] functional stretch multi-layer fabrics: Dynamic climate controlled extremely air-permeable, light, and water & wind resistant clothing & gloves. Schoeller®-PCM, NanoSphere™, 3XDRY®, Schoeller®-Keprotec® Bugatti [34] Jacket with a Nanosphere finish, which has the moisture management features. Franz-Ziener Ski jackets for developing grime- (Germany) resistant, windproof, waterproof, and [35] breathable fabric.
  15. 15. Institute for Develop textile materials for soldiers: Soldier Light weight, strong, abrasion/wear Nanotechnolo resistant, durable, impact energy gies (ISN) [36- absorbent, temperature controlled 37] water-proof, improved camouflage, and embedded with multipurpose micro/nano sensors Quantum “Nano-fibrils” reinforced yarns and Group Inc. [38] nonwoven fabrics for the application in tissue engineering. Otsuka Electro conductive fibers to be used Kagaku for the protection from radiation [39] emitted by electronics. SRRC-ARS- Developed textile based USDA nanocomposite material from various [40] types/sources of cellulose, such as grass, kenaf, cotton fiber, cotton plant material, etc. with clays, which is used as the nanofiller material
  16. 16. q Other Applications of Nanotechnology in Textile Industries [39-41] q Anti-SARS masks for use by medical personnel [42] q Nano-surfaces suitable for bioactive culture matrices, textile nanosensors, and microelectrodes[43] q Nano-filtration membrane technology: For water conservation and dye recovery [44-45] q Developments of pigments/particles for dyeing and printing of textile fabrics [46]
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