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CHAPTER 5

KEY ISSUE 4
KEY
Blue = Vocabulary Terms
Underlined = PR RF
Italics = Important Terms
WHY DO PEOPLE PRESERVE LOCAL
LANGUAGES?
 Language displays the two competing geographic
trends of globalization and local...
HEBREW: REVIVING EXTINCT
LANGUAGES
 Hebrew is a rare example of a once extinct
language that has been revived
 It was us...
CELTIC: PRESERVING ENDANGERED
LANGUAGES
 Was spoken in Germany, France, Northern Italy,
and British Isles
 Major languag...
CELTIC LANGUAGE ON ROAD SIGNS
 See figure on page 173
 Road signs written in both English and Gaelic
MULTILINGUAL STATES
 Multilingual: able to speak/ understand several
languages, expressed in many languages
 Monolingual...
BELGIUM DIVIDED
 See figure 5-16 on page 174
 Belgium is divided into the Flemings in the North
that speak Flemish, and ...
PEACEFUL SWITZERLAND
 See figure 5-17 on page 17
 Switzerland peacefully exists with multiple
languages
 Four official ...
ISOLATED LANGUAGES
 Isolated language: a language unrelated to any
other and therefore not attached to any language
famil...
BASQUE
 The best example of an isolated language in
Europe is Basque
 Basque is spoken by one million people in the
Pyre...
ICELANDIC
 Unlike Basque, Icelandic is related to other
languages in the Germanic branch
 Icelandic has changed less tha...
GLOBAL DOMINANCE OF ENGLISH
 English is an example of a lingua franca
 Lingua franca: a language of international
commun...
IMPORTANCE OF ENGLISH
 The rapid growth in the importance of English is
reflected in how many students learn English as a...
EXPANSION DIFFUSION OF ENGLISH
 Expansion diffusion has occurred in two ways with
English
 #1: English is changing throu...
DIFFUSION TO OTHER LANGUAGES
 See Figure 5-18 on page 179
 English words have become increasingly integrated
into other ...
REVIEW QUESTIONS
 What is the difference between and extinct
language and an isolated language?
 Why has Icelandic chang...
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  1. 1. CHAPTER 5 KEY ISSUE 4
  2. 2. KEY Blue = Vocabulary Terms Underlined = PR RF Italics = Important Terms
  3. 3. WHY DO PEOPLE PRESERVE LOCAL LANGUAGES?  Language displays the two competing geographic trends of globalization and local diversity  Thousands of languages are extinct languages  Extinct language: a language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used  Example: Gothic spoken in Northern Europe, extinct because the descendants converted to other languages through integration
  4. 4. HEBREW: REVIVING EXTINCT LANGUAGES  Hebrew is a rare example of a once extinct language that has been revived  It was used to write the Old Testament of the Bible  After the fourth century B.C. it was only used for Jewish religious services  It became one of Israel’s official languages in 1948  Because Israel was home to many refugees of different countries who spoke many languages and Hebrew was still used for Jewish prayers, no other language could unify the country
  5. 5. CELTIC: PRESERVING ENDANGERED LANGUAGES  Was spoken in Germany, France, Northern Italy, and British Isles  Major language in the British Isles before the Germanic Angles invaded  The Celtic Branch is divided into Gaelic and Brythonic  Most Celtic languages declined whenever they lost their territory to speakers of other languages  Irish Gaelic and Scottish Gaelic are still spoken today  People are preserving the Celtic language through bands and being offered as courses in school
  6. 6. CELTIC LANGUAGE ON ROAD SIGNS  See figure on page 173  Road signs written in both English and Gaelic
  7. 7. MULTILINGUAL STATES  Multilingual: able to speak/ understand several languages, expressed in many languages  Monolingual: able to speak/ understand one language, expressed in only one language  Multilingual States can cause conflict  Difficulties usually arise at the boundary of the two languages
  8. 8. BELGIUM DIVIDED  See figure 5-16 on page 174  Belgium is divided into the Flemings in the North that speak Flemish, and the Walloons in the South that speak French  Belgium had difficulty making a precise boundary between the two  A mayor of town in Flanders refused to speak Flemish, which is required by national law  After refusing to be tested on Dutch, he was removed from the office
  9. 9. PEACEFUL SWITZERLAND  See figure 5-17 on page 17  Switzerland peacefully exists with multiple languages  Four official national languages, including German, French, Italian, Romansh  The key is a very decentralized government, in which local authorities hold most of the power
  10. 10. ISOLATED LANGUAGES  Isolated language: a language unrelated to any other and therefore not attached to any language family  Isolation usually results in the differentiation of language into two  Similarities and differences between language are a measure of the degree of interaction among groups of people  Results in a lack of linguistic diversity  Linguistic diversity: consisting of many different languages
  11. 11. BASQUE  The best example of an isolated language in Europe is Basque  Basque is spoken by one million people in the Pyrenees Mountains of northern Spain and southwestern France  Their lack of connection to other language reflects on how isolated the people are in their mountainous region
  12. 12. ICELANDIC  Unlike Basque, Icelandic is related to other languages in the Germanic branch  Icelandic has changed less than any other in the Germanic branch due to its relative isolation from other places  When people migrate, they take along their language  The isolated people of Iceland had no interaction with immigrants  They have less opportunity to learn new words and had no reason to make changes to their language
  13. 13. GLOBAL DOMINANCE OF ENGLISH  English is an example of a lingua franca  Lingua franca: a language of international communication such as English mutually understood by people with different native languages  Trade language: to facilitate trade, speakers of two different languages mix elements of languages to form a common one  Pidgin language: a form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocab of a lingua franca used for communications among speakers of different languages
  14. 14. IMPORTANCE OF ENGLISH  The rapid growth in the importance of English is reflected in how many students learn English as a second language  70% of Europeans aged 18-24 speak English  Japan is considering adding English as an official language  Students around the world want to learn in English because they believe it to be the most effective way to work in a global economy/ participate in a global culture
  15. 15. EXPANSION DIFFUSION OF ENGLISH  Expansion diffusion has occurred in two ways with English  #1: English is changing through diffusion of new vocabulary, #2: English words are fusing into other languages  Recent changes in English result from common usage and ethnic dialects  In the twentieth century, many African Americans migrated from the south to the north  They preserved their distinctive dialect, coined Ebonics  Ebonics: a combination of ebony and phonics
  16. 16. DIFFUSION TO OTHER LANGUAGES  See Figure 5-18 on page 179  English words have become increasingly integrated into other languages through elements of pop culture  Many French people are upset that English words have diffused into French because it ruins the language’s purity  Franglais: a combination of French and English  English is diffusing into the Spanish language by 28 million Hispanics in the US  Spanglish: a combination of Spanish and English
  17. 17. REVIEW QUESTIONS  What is the difference between and extinct language and an isolated language?  Why has Icelandic changed less than any other in the Germanic branch?  Do multilingual states always cause conflict? Why/ why not?  Why do so many students in foreign countries want to learn English?  How has English been diffused?

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