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Screen Reader Accessible Footnotes in PDF Documents –between High Flying Standards and Grounded Features of            Ava...
Agenda1. Starting Point2. Our Approach and Results3. The Impact and Future Work
1.Starting Point
Are Notes really important?• Footnotes and endnotes are a relevant part of the  content of a document• Therefore it is imp...
The problems for screenreader users are ...• to be able to turn off note references on a document  level• to identify the ...
The Conflict• on the one hand: requirements based on  accessibility standards – like the PDF reference (ISO  32000-1) and t...
2.Our Approach and Results
Evaluation of available solutions•   By cooperating with the accessibility experts of the    foundation “Access for all” w...
Evaluation of available solutions•   By cooperating with the accessibility experts of the    foundation “Access for all” w...
Solution A: Theoretical Best Practice             according to PDF/UA• ISO standard delivers only basic preconditions• pos...
Solution A: Theoretical Best Practice             according to PDF/UA• ISO standard delivers only basic preconditions• pos...
Solution B: Real Life Compromise• All Footnotes as a numbered list• heading „list of endnotes“• link from the reference to...
Solution B: Real Life Compromise• All Footnotes as a numbered list• heading „list of endnotes“• link from the reference to...
Solution C: Footnotes as Simple Inline Elements             (lean version of A)•+ • as the note replaces the reference the...
Solution C: Footnotes as Simple Inline Elements             (lean version of A)•+ • as the note replaces the reference the...
Evaluation• blind experts from the foundation „Access for All“  evaluated our solution• Results • „The proposed solution e...
3.The Impact and Future Work
How can authors implement Solution B into their                 documents?• will be implemented in the final version of the...
Thank you!Feel free to ask questions!       www.axespdf.com/try
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Screenreader accessible footnotes in PDF documents - between high flying standards and grounded features of available assistive technologies

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Footnotes and endnotes are a relevant part of the content of a document. Therefore it is important that they are accessible and usable for screenreader users in a similar quick and easy way as for sighted users. In this presentation we discuss 3 possible solutions.

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Screenreader accessible footnotes in PDF documents - between high flying standards and grounded features of available assistive technologies

  1. 1. Screen Reader Accessible Footnotes in PDF Documents –between High Flying Standards and Grounded Features of Available Assistive Technologies Markus Erle (Wertewerk) / Samuel Hofer (xyMedia) 13th International Conference, ICCHP 2012 - Linz, Austria, July 2012
  2. 2. Agenda1. Starting Point2. Our Approach and Results3. The Impact and Future Work
  3. 3. 1.Starting Point
  4. 4. Are Notes really important?• Footnotes and endnotes are a relevant part of the content of a document• Therefore it is important that they are accessible and usable for screenreader users in a similar quick and easy way as for sighted users
  5. 5. The problems for screenreader users are ...• to be able to turn off note references on a document level• to identify the note references and the note• to have the decision to read the note or not (on an object level)• to access the content of a note directly from the note referer• to go back to the content flow after reading the note
  6. 6. The Conflict• on the one hand: requirements based on accessibility standards – like the PDF reference (ISO 32000-1) and the new PDF accessibility standard PDF/ UA (ISO 14289-1)• on the other hand: the real-life accessibility for users of screen readers that do not support these standards yet
  7. 7. 2.Our Approach and Results
  8. 8. Evaluation of available solutions• By cooperating with the accessibility experts of the foundation “Access for all” we could test the real life accessibiliy of the available solutions (Microsoft Office / Libre Office / Adobe InDesign)• All solutions caused severe accessibility or usability problems for screen reader users.• In summary the problems are: • how to identify the note reference and the note • the place of the note in the tag tree (inline, separate block level element) • how it is possible for a screen reader user to jump back to the note reference
  9. 9. Evaluation of available solutions• By cooperating with the accessibility experts of the foundation “Access for all” we could test the real life accessibiliy of the available solutions (Microsoft Office / Libre Office / Adobe InDesign)• All solutions caused severe accessibility or usability 3 possible solutions problems for screen reader users.• In summary the problems are: to make it better! • how to identify the note reference and the note • the place of the note in the tag tree (inline, separate block level element) • how it is possible for a screen reader user to jump back to the note reference
  10. 10. Solution A: Theoretical Best Practice according to PDF/UA• ISO standard delivers only basic preconditions• possible implementation: note tag as an inline element replaces the note reference• every note has a unique ID•+ • conforms to PDF/UA • very elegant•- • no AT support yet
  11. 11. Solution A: Theoretical Best Practice according to PDF/UA• ISO standard delivers only basic preconditions• possible implementation: note tag as an inline element replaces the note reference• This will be the every note has a unique ID•+ • solution in future. conforms to PDF/UA • very elegant•- • no AT support yet
  12. 12. Solution B: Real Life Compromise• All Footnotes as a numbered list• heading „list of endnotes“• link from the reference to the note• back link from the end of the note to the reference•+ • fully accessible and usable•- • test users were astonished at the first time
  13. 13. Solution B: Real Life Compromise• All Footnotes as a numbered list• heading „list of endnotes“• link from the reference to the note the This end of thebe to the reference will note• back link from the• + present solution. • fully accessible and usable•- • test users were astonished at the first time
  14. 14. Solution C: Footnotes as Simple Inline Elements (lean version of A)•+ • as the note replaces the reference there is no problem any more to „jump“ from the reference to the note•- • annoying: user cannot choose to read the note or not • confusing: the end of a note is not clear • time consuming: you have to do the work manually (as post-processing)
  15. 15. Solution C: Footnotes as Simple Inline Elements (lean version of A)•+ • as the note replaces the reference there is no problem any more to „jump“ from the reference to the note•- Very bad • annoying:compromise.the note or not user cannot choose to read • confusing: the end of a note is not clear • time consuming: you have to do the work manually (as post-processing)
  16. 16. Evaluation• blind experts from the foundation „Access for All“ evaluated our solution• Results • „The proposed solution enables that screenreader user can decide whether they want to read the content of a note or not“ • „The link in order to jump from the note referer to the content of the note and the link back to the note referer guide the screenreader user in a clear and easy way“
  17. 17. 3.The Impact and Future Work
  18. 18. How can authors implement Solution B into their documents?• will be implemented in the final version of the Word- Add-In axesPDF for Word (for Word 2007 and Word 2010)• it will even support Solution A
  19. 19. Thank you!Feel free to ask questions! www.axespdf.com/try

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