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Location-based Services - Introduction


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Location-based Services - Introduction

  1. 1. I. Introduction 1.1 What are Location-based Services 1.2 Application Scenarios 1.3 LBS Actors 1.4 Course contents
  2. 2. <ul><li>Location-based services ( LBSs ) ... </li></ul><ul><li>... are IT services for providing information that has been created, compiled, selected or filtered taking into consideration the current location of one or several targets </li></ul><ul><li>... can also appear in conjunction with conventional services like telephony and related added-value features, e.g., to realize location-based routing of calls or location-based charging </li></ul><ul><li>Synonyms </li></ul><ul><li>Location-aware services , </li></ul><ul><li>Location-related services , </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile location services , ... </li></ul>1.1 What are Location-based Services? Definitions (I)
  3. 3. <ul><li>Location services ... </li></ul><ul><li>... deal with the localization of target persons or objects </li></ul><ul><li>... make location data (e.g., WGS-84 coordinates obtained by GPS) available to external actors </li></ul><ul><li>... do not imply the processing of location data for composing information or performing high-level functions </li></ul><ul><li>... are not end-user services </li></ul><ul><li>... are important sub-services of LBSs </li></ul>1.1 What are Location-based Services? Definitions (II)
  4. 4. 1.1 What are Location-based Services? Reactive and Proactive LBSs <ul><li>Reactive LBS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicitly invoked by the user by establishing a service session between the client application and the LBS server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User or another person is located only during the service session (either one or several times) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proactive LBS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatically initialized as soon as a predefined location event occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not explicitly requested by the user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User approaches, enters, or leaves a certain point of interest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User approaches, enters, or leaves another person </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Require continuous tracking in order to detect location events </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. 1.1 What are Location-based Services? LBSs and Context-Awareness (I) <ul><li>LBSs as a special appearance of context-aware services </li></ul><ul><li>Context-aware services </li></ul><ul><li>Services that automatically adapt to one or several parameters (context information) reflecting the context of a target </li></ul><ul><li>Primary context </li></ul><ul><li>Any kind of raw data derived from sensors </li></ul><ul><li>Sensors: light sensors, bio sensors, microphones, accelerometers, location sensors </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary context </li></ul><ul><li>High-level context derived from raw data by combination, selection, filtering.... </li></ul><ul><li>Example: state of a person (sleeping, working, eating,...) </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1.1 What are Location-based Services? LBSs and Context-Awareness (II)
  7. 7. 1.2 Application Scenarios Business vs. Public Initiatives <ul><li>Business initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing average air time per user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selling location information to third parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offering services tailored to the special needs of mobile users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operators may either realize and offer LBSs on their own initiative or may enter into business relationships with other actors (requires business models) </li></ul><ul><li>Public initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Governments and authorities have recognized potentials of communications and location technologies for supporting and fulfilling sovereign and administrative tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Realized by legal mandates or public-private partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Public initiatives turned out to be very important driving forces for a broad commercial introduction of LBSs </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Provide the mobile user with nearby points of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restaurants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated Teller Machines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sightseeings,.... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User specifies type of points of interest he wishes to obtain </li></ul><ul><li>Upon request, the user is automatically located by the mobile network </li></ul><ul><li>Service provider assembles a list of points of interest according to the user's position </li></ul>1.2 Application Scenarios Enquiry and Information Services
  9. 9. 1.2 Application Scenarios Community Services <ul><li>Support interaction between users that share common interests (cooking, traveling, family, computer, eroticism, ...) </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instant Messaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddy lists: show which of a user's buddies are online (presence feature) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Idea: Location-based Community Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show a user the current locations of his buddies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alert user if one of his buddies stays close by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alert user if one of his buddies enter or levaes a pre-defined location </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent tracking of buddies required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy issues </li></ul></ul> Gib mir deinen Ort, ich geb dir meinen 
  10. 10. 1.2 Application Scenarios Traffic Telematics <ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic configuration of appliances and features inside the vehicle, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostics of malfunctions, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissemination of warning messages, ... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most popular application: navigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On Board Unit (OBU): GPS receiver + map material (on CD/DVD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optional: GSM/GPRS unit for providing the driver with up-to-date information from a remote server (latest traffic jams, weather conditions, ...) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: CoPark </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Registering and tarifing parking lots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guiding the driver to the reserved lot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange of parking lots among drivers </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 1.2 Application Scenarios Fleet Management & Logistics <ul><li>Deals with the control and coordination of fleets of vehicles by a central office (freight services, public transportation, emergency services, ...) </li></ul><ul><li>Location-based fleet management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Request the position of vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Display their positions on a map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the distance between different vehicles of a fleet as well as between a vehicle and its destination, ... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic delegation of new orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict the arrival time of deliveries at the destination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of fallback scenarios </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 1.2 Application Scenarios Mobile Marketing <ul><li>Promotion of products and services by interacting with consumers through their mobile devices </li></ul><ul><li>Contact is established by using &quot;media channels&quot; like SMS, MMS or WAP </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate selection of target groups by evaluating user profiles that reflect a customer's interests in products and services and his buying patterns in the past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High degree of interactivity between consumers and agencies carrying out a campaign </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Location-based mobile marketing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer is provided with information about products and services of local relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk: consumers might feel harassed by incoming advertisement messages </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 1.2 Application Scenarios Mobile Gaming <ul><li>Interactive games allow remote users to share the same session and to enter into a real-time competition via their mobile devices </li></ul><ul><li>Location-based mobile gaming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual and real worlds merge and the current location of users become an essential aspect of the play </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you see me now ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On-line players catch professional players who run through real city streets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On-line players are equipped with mobile-devices for tracking and communication with the game server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mogi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Players have to cruise the streets of a city to collect virtually hidden treasures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile device indicates hiding places of treasures on a map </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 1.2 Application Scenarios Value-added Services <ul><li>Synonym: supplementary services </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancements of basic services, especially speech telephony </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Call forwarding, freephone, split charging, and televoting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Location-based call forwarding/selective routing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incoming calls addressed to a user's mobile device are automatically rerouted to a nearby fixed terminal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Location-based charging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual selection of locations of some size from where mobile users can make calls at special tariffs or even free of charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Homezone from o2 Germany </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Conventional methods </li></ul><ul><li>Access control by local staff on the spot (e.g., Italy)  causes congestions on roads </li></ul><ul><li>Vignettes (e.g., Swiss)  Drivers cannot be charged in dependence on the covered distance </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic toll systems </li></ul><ul><li>Data exchange between On Board Units (OBUs) inside vehicles and fixed control stations along the roads </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning of vehicles via </li></ul><ul><ul><li>infrared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>microwave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>image recognition (for analyzing the vehicles' license plate numbers) </li></ul></ul>1.2 Application Scenarios Collecting Tolls (I)
  16. 16. <ul><li>The German system Toll Collect </li></ul><ul><li>System for charging trucks on highways </li></ul><ul><li>Should have been launched in August 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Went into operation with a reduced functional range in January 2005 after profound defects </li></ul><ul><li>Features: combination of positioning via GPS and fixed control stations </li></ul>1.2 Application Scenarios Collecting Tolls (II) OBUs with GPS receiver and GSM/GPRS unit GPS receiver of the OBU determines the truck's position Trucks without OBUs are detected and controlled by fixed stations along the road Based on obtained position, OBU detects toll roads and transfers toll charges to the toll center via GSM/GPRS Source of images:
  17. 17. 1.2 Application Scenarios Collecting Tolls (III) Source: Toll Collect GmbH
  18. 18. 1.2 Application Scenarios Enhanced Emergency Services (I) <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Persons calling an emergency response agency (e.g., police, fire) are unable to communicate their current location (dt.: Röchelrufe ) or they simple do not know it </li></ul><ul><li>Address of a caller can be easily determined when made over the fixed telephone network </li></ul><ul><li>But: rescue workers have serious problems locating emergency callers from mobile networks </li></ul><ul><li>50% of all emergency calls increasingly originate from mobile networks </li></ul><ul><li>Administrations in many countries oblige mobile operators to extend their networks for offering enhanced emergency services </li></ul>
  19. 19. 1.2 Application Scenarios Enhanced Emergency Services (II) <ul><li>Features of Enhanced Emergency Services </li></ul><ul><li>Selective routing : routing of an emergency call to the Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) that serves the geographical area the call originates from </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Number Identification (ANI): delivery and display of the emergency caller's telephone number </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Location Identification (ALI): determines the location (in terms of a street address) of an emergency caller </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced 911 (E-911) in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced 112 (E-112) in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Similar activities in Japan and Korea </li></ul>
  20. 20. 1.2 Application Scenarios Enhanced Emergency Services (III) <ul><li>E-911 </li></ul><ul><li>Passed by U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Derive a mobile caller's location from the coordinates of the serving cell site from where the emergency call has been made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic Number Identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduled to be completed in April 1998 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locate a caller accurately within 50 to 100m in 67% and 150 to 300m in 95% of all emergency calls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required the operators to begin network enhancements not later than October 2001 and to finish them by December 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operators were and still are faced with serious problems with the realization of Phase 2 </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. 1.2 Application Scenarios Enhanced Emergency Services (IV) <ul><li>E-112 </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinated by the European Coordination Group on Access to Location Information for Emergency Services (CGALIES) </li></ul><ul><li>CGALIES investigates and prepares for the introduction of enhanced emergency services in all countries of the EU </li></ul><ul><li>Commitments for operators are less restrictive than in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>No mandate, just recommendations defining several features of E-112 </li></ul><ul><li>No time schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Operators are urged to locate emergency callers as accurately as possible </li></ul>
  22. 22. 1.3 LBS Actors Actors and Roles <ul><li>Provisioning of LBSs is an interorganizational matter </li></ul><ul><li>Actor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomous entity like a person, a company, or an organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopts one or several roles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterizes the functions an actor fulfills from a technical point of view or the impacts it exerts on LBS from an economical or regulatory point of view </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. 1.3 LBS Actors Operational and Non-operational Actors <ul><li>Operational actors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actors cooperating during execution of an LBS and request and provide subservices of an LBS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain technical infrastructures like mobile devices, server farms, networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: user, target, service provider, content provider, operator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-operational actors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictate the economical or regulatory circumstances of LBS operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: government, trade & commerce, vendors, standardization groups, ... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operational actors also affect non-operational aspects and significantly decide about success or failure of a certain technology (e.g., cellular network operators) </li></ul>
  24. 24. 1. Introduction 2. What is Location? 3. Spatial Databases and GIS 4. Basics of Wireless Communications 5. Cellular Networks and Location Management 6. Fundamentals of Positioning 7. Satellite Positioning 8. Cellular Positioning 9. Indoor Positioning 10. Interorganization LBS Operation 11. Architectures and Protocols for Location Services 12. LBS Middleware 13. LBS - The Next Generation
  25. 25. 1 Introduction Einordnung <ul><li>Bereich </li></ul><ul><ul><li>K (Kommunikationssysteme) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hörerkreis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Haupt- und Nebenfach Informatik </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voraussetzungen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grundkenntnisse in Informatik </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vordiplom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobilkommunikation (vorteilhaft) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leistungsnachweis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vorlesungsschein durch Bestehen der Klausur am Ende des Semesters (Termin wird bekannt gegeben) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skript </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kopien der Folien zum Download im Internet (PDF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. 1 Introduction Termine und Klausur <ul><li>Vorlesungstermine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>montags, 10.15-11.45 Uhr, Raum Oe 1.14 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Klausur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Termin wird bekannt gegeben </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anmeldung erforderlich </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Übungstermine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dienstags 14-tägl. , 10.15 - 12.45 Uhr, Raum Oe 1.14 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Termin: 08.11.2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Termin: 22.11.2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Termin: 06.12.2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Termin: 20.12.2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Termin: 17.01.2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Termin: 31.01.2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Die erfolgreichen Teilnehmer der Abschlussklausur erhalten einen Vorlesungsschein. Dieser gilt in Verbindung mit einem weiteren Vorlesungsschein, wie er z.B. im Rahmen der Übungen zu den Vorlesungen „Verteilte Systeme&quot; oder „Mobilkommunikation I+II&quot; erworben werden kann, als ein vollwertiger Übungsschein. Alternativ hierzu kann der Vorlesungsschein verwendet werden, um die Vorlesung „Location-based Services“ als 3-stündig prüfen zu lassen. Diese Regelung gilt auch für Magister und Studenten mit Nebenfach Informatik. </li></ul>
  27. 27. 1 Introduction Literatur Axel Küpper Location-based Services - Fundamentals and Operation John Wiley & Sons 386 Seiten ISBN 0-470-09231-9 ca. 100 € Johann Hjelm Creating Location Services for the Wireless Web John Wiley & Sons € 41,50 Jochen H. Schiller Agnes Voisard (Ed.) Location-based Services Morgan Kaufman € 46,50 Amin Hassan Karimi, Hassan Karimi (Ed.) Telegeoinformatics CRC Press € 92,50