Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Brandon social chaneg (ss12)


Published on

SUB to SIR vhea

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Login to see the comments

  • Be the first to like this

Brandon social chaneg (ss12)

  1. 1. SOCIAL CHANGE<br /><ul><li>refers to an alteration in the social orderof a society.
  2. 2. It may refer to the notion of social progress or socio-cultural evolution, the philosophical idea that society moves forward by dialectical or evolutionary means.
  3. 3. It may refer to a paradigmatic change in the socio-economic structure.</li></ul>relations.<br />
  4. 4. For instance, a shift away from feudalism and towards capitalism. <br />Accordingly, it may also refer to social<br />revolution, such as the Socialist revolution presented in Marxism, or to other social movements, such as Women's suffrage or the Civil rights movement.<br /> Social change may be driven by cultural, religious, economic, scientific or technological forces.<br />More generally, social change may include changes in nature, social institutions, social behaviors or social<br />
  5. 5. In Sociology, the term social change refers to a major change in a society or culture that has lasting effects on that culture. The abolition of slavery is an example of social change.<br />
  6. 6.  <br />1)       Materialistic perspectives(materialistic factors are usually economic production and technology) <br />  Marxist perspective: economic production, economic classes form the basic anatomy of society, and everything else arises in relationship to them<br /> <br />Other materialistic perspectives: Cultural lag theory <br />(W. Ogburn) technological causes of change, material culture (technology) changes more quickly than nonmaterial culture (values, ideas, norms, ideologies), i.e. there is a period of maladjustment (a lag time) during which nonmaterial culture is still adapting to new material conditions<br />         <br />         <br />CAUSES OF SOCIAL CHANGE<br />
  7. 7. Technology causes change in 3 ways: <br /><ul><li>it increases alternatives available to society, creates new opportunities
  8. 8.    it alters interaction patterns among people, changes structures of human groups
  9. 9.    it creates new problems </li></li></ul><li>2)       Idealistic perspectives (idealistic factors/ideational aspects are values, beliefs and ideologies) <br />Weber’s perspective: in essence, values and beliefs, both religious and secular, have decisive impact on shaping social change, as well as other factors such as those outlined by Marx: <br />        Protestanism: He argued that values of Protestanism, especially Calvinism and related. He produced a cultural ethic which sanctified work and worldly achievement, encouraged frugality and discouraged consumption. <br />Unintended consequences of this religious worldview, this-worldly asceticism, encouraged development of large pools of capital through encouraging work, savings and non-frivolous consumption, and encouraged rational reinvestment and economic growth. Work was a religiously sanctioned calling. Each man is a moral free agent, accountable only to God. Suspicious of material consumption beyond bare necessities believing it led to moral corruption. <br />
  10. 10.         In Catholicism, work is merely mundane activity to keep one alive, encouraging other-worldly asceticism where highest form of activity was devotion to God, men were accountable to the Church which sought to regulate the operation of the economy and other secular aspects of society in terms of religious values. No reason in values to ban consumption. <br />        Discussed China and India, whose faiths, Confucianism & Taoism and Hinduism respectively, also weren’t favorable to the development of capitalism. <br />
  11. 11. Cultural ideas, values, and ideologies that have broadly shaped directions of social change in modern world: <br />freedom and self-determination <br />material growth and security <br />nationalism, e.g. French & English Canadians, English & Irish, Germans & French, Palestinians, Kurdish, Basque separatists and Spanish <br />Capitalism: not only type of economic system but also ideology, connected set of values and ideas emphasizing positive benefits of pursuing one’s private economic interests, competition and free markets<br />Marxism <br />  <br />
  12. 12. Ideas and values can cause change or be barriers to change, at one time or promote change at another time. <br />Ideational culture can cause change by:<br /><ul><li>legitimizing a desired direction of change, e.g. promoting further equality and democracy
  13. 13. providing a basis for social solidarity necessary to promote change, i.e. integrative mechanisms, neutralizing the conflicting strains found in society, e.g. mobilizing force during war
  14. 14.  highlighting contradictions and problems, e.g. US cultural value of equality of opportunity have highlighted racism and sexism </li></li></ul><li>1)  FUNCTIONALISM (relates to Linear development models of social change)<br /> Theory of order and stability or Equilibrium theory: is a concept of stability is a defining characteristic of structure, defines activities that are necessary for the survival of the system, society has functional requisites or imperatives where different functional requisites produce differentiated structures that specialize in accomplishing the requisites.  <br />SOCIAL CHANGE THEORIES<br />
  15. 15.  <br />Parson’s Evolutionary Theory- types of change:<br /> <br />System maintenance – most common: restoring a previous pattern of equilibrium<br />Structural differentiation- very common: increasing differentiation of subsystem units into patterns of functional specialization and interdependence<br /> Adaptive upgrading: new mechanisms of integration, coordination and control are developed to incorporate the integrative problems by having structural differentiation<br />Structural change – least common change: when key features of the system, e.g. basic cultural values, goals, distribution<br />  <br />
  16. 16. Key evolutionary universals that were evident in transition from pre-modern to modern societies <br />(describes modernism but does not explain it): <br />social stratification<br /> bureaucratic organization<br />cultural legitimation of existing structural arrangements<br />money economy and markets<br />generalized or universalistic social norms<br />democratic associations<br /> <br />Neo-functionalism<br /> <br />
  17. 17. Tension-management system (society is not an equilibrium system): <br />if there are strains or tensions, organization will initiate compensatory, adjustive or counterbalancing actions to counter disruptions change will be confined to internal features, if these strains are so severe or prolonged that such actions cannot compensate, organizational features will be altered or destroyed and entire organization changes<br />Criticisms<br /><ul><li> deals mainly with gradual evolutionary change, less able to deal with revolutionary, fundamental, rapid transformations, or emergence of new values
  18. 18. sources of strains ambiguous unless exogenous in origin
  19. 19. see change as good - views modernism as a benevolent trend. Societal growth produces differentiation, and problems with increased complexity stimulate adaptive change with new coordination and control mechanism. Increased bureaucratic specialization and complex division of labour in mass societies provide rationality, efficiency, high levels of mass consumption, decline in cultural parochialism and forms of intolerance and superstition</li></li></ul><li>Mass society theory- Functionalist critique of modernity<br />along with modernity have erosion of traditional life and culture<br />replacement of local community with bureaucratic depersonalization and anonymity<br />weaker and impersonal ties of functional interdependency<br />argued that mass developed societies are in a process of demassification<br />
  20. 20.  <br />2) CONFLICT THEORIES(relates to Dialectical models of social change)<br />Strains are inherent in social structures. Source of strains/contradictions is the inherent scarcity of certain goods and values. Thus inequality is source of conflict. <br />Neo-Marxism  - differs from Marxism in the following ways:  <br />Sources of conflict - traditional Marxism too narrow an understanding of structural basis of conflict, doesn’t always derive from struggles in control of the means of production; other conflicts based on politics, religion, ethnic or ideological differences, e.g. class, status and power<br /> <br />
  21. 21. Role of Culture:<br />
  22. 22. symbolic realism of ideas, values and ideologies are semi-autonomous and not merely derivative of material base<br /> (Critical theorists analyze cultural and cultural ideologies in modern society as manifested in popular literature and mass media);<br />Culture is viewed as symbolic formations and ideologies that become tools in social struggles between various groups and classes, i.e. ideas and values produce solidarity and unity (as functionalists agree)<br />
  23. 23. It also social control associated with interests of particular groups; same as Marxism, i.e. dominant culture stems from dominant groups in society; production of culture is one way that existing system reproduces itself; when there is widespread disillusion, disbelief or cynicism about dominant symbols in society, a legitimacy crisis - change occurs<br />
  24. 24. Inevitability of revolutionary change: neo-Marxists less deterministic about outcomes, not simply total system  transformation or revolution, nor inevitable;  one result of contradictions could be reaffirming of dominance, or ongoing stalemate, or gradual reform and piecemeal changes<br />
  25. 25. Conflict can be: <br /><ul><li>unregulated: e.g. terrorism, sabotage, disorder
  26. 26. regulated by social norms: e.g. economic boycotts, parliamentary debate, marketplace competitions
  27. 27. intense conflict: high degree of mobilization, commitment, emotional involvement
  28. 28. violent conflict: random, unorganized
  29. 29. pluralized conflict: many conflicts but not necessarily related and thus not much change, gradual
  30. 30. superimposed conflict: dyadic conflicts, large cleavage between us and them, dramatic/intense change, not necessarily</li></li></ul><li>Conflict can result in:<br /><ul><li>stability as ongoing stalemate OR
  31. 31. defeat of established or insurgent groups OR
  32. 32. total or partial system change</li></li></ul><li>Any settlement of conflict is only temporary, each restructured system carries within itself the seeds of its own transformation , thus a dialectical theory. <br />Unlike Marxism which sees a utopian society with no conflict in the end, neo-Marxists are antiutopian. <br />Conflict is engine of change - has both destructive and creative consequences, destroy old orders, create new ones. <br />
  33. 33. Ralf Dahrendorf  <br />saw combination of functionalism and conflict theory, <br />Human societies are stable and long lasting yet they also experience serious conflict. <br />Social control in general is broadest basis of conflict in society. All social systems have association of roles and statuses which embody power relationships, some cluster of roles have power to extract conformity;   power relationships tend to be institutionalized as authority – normative rights to dominate; i.e. some have authority to give orders, others obliged to obey. <br />
  34. 34. What about change not rooted in conflict? E.g. cultural or technological change<br />Sees only dichotomous authority relations rather than continuous gradations of relationships<br />What of non-institutionalized power relationships – deals with authority, only one form of power;  what of violence, or age/gender/race and associated conflicts not based on economics<br />Criticisms<br />
  35. 35. 3)  INTERPRETIVE THEORIES<br /> derived from Weber, whose focus was not solely on overt behaviour and events but also on how these are interpreted, defined and shaped by cultural meanings that people give to them, i.e. interpretive understanding of social action – verstehen.  <br />All types of interpretive theories focus on way actors define their social situations and the effect of these definitions on ensuing action and interaction; human society is an ongoing process rather than an entity or structure, as humans interact they negotiate order, structure and cultural meanings.  Reality is an ongoing social symbolic construction put together by human interaction.  <br />For Functionalists and Conflict theorists, the starting point of sociological analysis of change is structure.<br />
  36. 36. For Interpretivists, change itself (interaction, process, negotiation) is the starting point, and structure is a by-product and temporary. Social change is the constant creation, negotiation and re-creation of social order. Social change can be understood by looking at change in meanings and definitions. Groups, societies, organizations become real only insofar that the actors believe they are to be real, thus a negotiated consensus about what is real emerges; i.e. society is literally a social construction, an outcome of historical process of symbolic interaction and negotiation.<br />In complex societies, there is only a partial consensus on what constitutes objective social reality, instead there is a virtual tapestry of contending realities. <br />  <br />When external factors change, this does not automatically produce social change. Rather when people redefine situations regarding those factors and thus act upon revised meanings, i.e. alter social behaviour, then there is social change. <br />BUT……..<br />
  37. 37.  <br />Symbolic interactionism: see Mead, Blumer<br />Social phenomenology: see Schutz, Berger and Luckman<br /> <br />Criticisms<br /><ul><li> Not much said about structural sources of redefinitions, 
  38. 38. Argue humans are less constrained by external factors, thus these theories are less deterministic
  39. 39. Doesn’t say whether actors seek to reconstruct reality by engaging in cooperative joint action or conflict with others so consistent with either functionalism or conflict theory. </li></li></ul><li>4)  Multiple perspectives and change: Reconciling agency and structure<br />Structures have potential to operate, agents (individuals) have potential to act;  combination of agents working within, creating and being limited by structures is referred to as human agency.  <br />Praxisis the interface between operating structures and purposely acting agents, i.e. the combination of actions of people and operation of structures in the actual outcomes of social interaction or in praxis.  <br />
  40. 40. Buckley’s morphogenesis: unique capacity of social systems to elaborate or change their form, structure or state, emphasizing the active, constructive side of social functioning<br />Archers’ double morphogenesis: both structure and agency are cojoint products of interaction, agency is shaped by and reshapes structure where structure is reshaped in the process. <br />
  41. 41. Etzioni’s active society: society is a macroscopic and permanent social movement engaged in intensive and perpetual self-transformation<br />Touraine: making of society and history is carried out by collective action, through the agency of social movements<br />Gidden’sStructuration theory: replaced static concept of structure with dynamic notion of structuration - more later (see my thesis information).<br />
  42. 42. Factors of Social Change<br />
  43. 43. Among the more significant factors of social change are new technologies, new ideas, economic power, times of extreme crisis, empowering visions, persuasive skill, new forms of organization, and conditions of systemic collapse. But perhaps the most potentially powerful factors of social change are masses of oppressed and marginalized people with a deeply held determination to become the key factors of social change for the common good.<br />
  44. 44. From within the mass of marginalized people there arises from time to time the “divine discontent” that becomes a vision for social change, the motivation to mobilize, energy for action, determination to persevere, and the steadfast commitment to pay the price for being one of the primary factors of social change. When such a body of people is driven by a vision for social justice they can overcome all other forms of power that resist social change and become the largest factors of social change.<br />
  45. 45. The book Journeys into Justicedescribes religious collaboration as a form of organizing people power that brings marginalized people together with others to become one of the factors of social change. Ten case histories are presented that vividly portray the human dynamics of successful organization for social justice. The key factors of social change are people with a profound need for a more just set of social arrangements collaborating for major goals that serve the common good.<br />Religious collaboration becomes one of these powerful factors of social change when it is rooted in deeply held values, enables diverse groups with different viewpoints to find common ground, motivates the sharing of resources, promotes patient and careful planning, and builds strategic action with a long-range perspective. As one of the factors of social change, religious collaboration becomes especially powerful when it is embodied in an organization of people who have suffered the consequences of injustice and have discovered that they can become the change that they seek.<br /> <br />
  46. 46. What Is Globalization?<br />
  47. 47. Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven international trade and investment and aided by information technology. This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the world. <br />
  48. 48. Globalization is not new, though. For thousands of years, people—and, later, corporations—have been buying from and selling to each other in lands at great distances, such as through the famed Silk Road across Central Asia that connected China and Europe during the Middle Ages. Likewise, for centuries, people and corporations have invested in enterprises in other countries. In fact, many of the features of the current wave of globalization are similar to those prevailing before the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. <br />
  50. 50. Posted on March 27th, 2007 by vinarcid0810 <br />At the end of the xx century, globalization is characterized by the variety of its manifestation.Technologic and economic globalization has been the point of departure of other types of globalization.Technological and economic globalization regards all the phases of the economic circle. In particular, there is a financial capitals’ globalization on which market, operator of all the world work connected to the principal “square” of the world thanks the telematic. <br />
  51. 51. The state is not able to controll the phenomenon because of the big sizes. This dizzy movement of money is speculative, while a little percentual regards investiments in economic activities.These alternate phases of investiments are made caser by globalization of the concerns.<br />
  52. 52. Commercial globalization is characterized by the free circulation of goods and by direct investment.Economic globalization is given by modern technologies of transports and telecommunications, so now a days, globalization is the result of that decrease in time and space.<br />
  53. 53. Then, we have ambient globalizationalso called GLOBAL CHANGE. His most important manifestation is the is the elevation of the temperature of atmosphere, because of emission of CO2.<br />Cultural globalization is given by the development of media all over the world and by the disappear of local production and lifestyle.<br />
  54. 54. At last, there is a geopolitic globalizationwhich consist in a growing and immeinterdependence of the decision and politic event of different states, the superiority of ones over others for example the USA.<br />A form of globalization meakeris the globalization of institutions. The existent politic world organisms like ONU, have a limited capability to regulate limits, to impose issues jurisdictional to powers. All this, doesn’t give the opportunity of an effective globalization of work’s market.<br />