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Misusability workshop at Interaction 18 in Lyon

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Slides from my workshop on ethical, sustainable and inclusive design.

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Misusability workshop at Interaction 18 in Lyon

  1. 1. @axbom MANAGE MISUSABILITY DESIGN FOR DIGITAL PER AXBOM @axbom WITH A CONSCIENCE
  2. 2. Code of Conduct
  3. 3. Workshop safe space There are no wrongs, only learning.
  4. 4. MANAGE MISUSABILITY: GAMEPLAN Design for Digital with a Conscience A workshop with Per Axbom START CODE OF CONDUCT THE RIGHT THING FALLACY OF FRICTIONLESS WHY WE FAIL THE OTHER STORY OUTCOME, IMPACT AND SUSTAINABILITY THE POWER OF REFRAMING IMPACT ASSESSMENT MAKING IT HAPPEN STOP START KEEP KEEP MOVING THE FRICTION THAT CAN SAVE US ALL GETTING READY WITH PRE-SCRIPTING DESIGN FOR HUMAN THINKING UNDERSTANDING MYSELF Just follow along, and when in doubt, throw the die.
  5. 5. @axbom GOOD OR BAD?
  6. 6. The overall effect of food aid programs is the disruption of local agricultural markets, making it harder for poor countries to develop their own resources and feed themselves in the long run.
  7. 7. Loss aversion Sunk cost fallacy Anchoring Bandwagon effect Decoy effect Expectation bias Confirmation bias
  8. 8. Biases are a human trait, and
 can be a weakness. Bias is the tendency to have an opinion, or view, that is often without considering evidence and other information. As designers we are not learning about human weaknesses so that we may exploit them.
 Our job is to remedy them.
  9. 9. My boyfriend just saw two suspicious African- American men in a car. They drove their car up the street, made a U-turn, and parked.” The private social network for your neighborhood. Imagine having to realize that the platform you built to bring communities closer is in fact creating great divides within them.
  10. 10. "I'm a person of color so it really cut deep. We hated the idea that something we built would be viewed as racist… I hadn't seen it in my own neighborhood's Nextdoor and so didn't realize it was an issue for us. Once I got past that, I was powered by the challenge to do something about it." Nirav Tolia, CEO of Nextdoor
  11. 11. ✓ Listening ✓ Assuming ownership ✓ Transparency ✓ Positive friction ✓ Leadership buy-in How NextDoor managed negative impact
  12. 12. OUTCOME
  13. 13. IMPACT
  14. 14. Whenever I’m asked to autograph a copy of “Nudge,” the book I wrote with Cass Sunstein, the Harvard law professor, I sign it, “Nudge for good.” Unfortunately, that is meant as a plea, not an expectation. – Richard A Thaler
  15. 15. WEIRD
  16. 16. WEIRD Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic Replication Crisis
  17. 17. “UX is about putting people first”
  18. 18. @axbom The fallacy of frictionless
  19. 19. A B “Thanks for giving me a break buddy!”
  20. 20. LOW HIGH BRAINPOWER
  21. 21. LOW HIGH BRAINPOWER
  22. 22. profit buyer uses reptilian brain LOW HIGH BRAINPOWER
  23. 23. About | News | Press Center | Career Opportunities | Investors About | News | Press Center | Jobs | Investors About | News | Press Center | Career Opportunities | Investors
  24. 24. 76 work days http://techland.time.com/2012/03/06/youd-need-76-work-days-to-read-all-your-privacy-policies-each-year/
  25. 25. PER AXBOM Why we fail
  26. 26. Designer Company/Organization Federation/Alliance Recipients Society/Policy/Lawmakers
  27. 27. It would appear… that designers are also human beings. “Life is a Long Journey between Human Being and Being Human. Let's take at least one step each day to cover the distance.” — Drishti Bablani
  28. 28. “This works really well.
 Yes, I understand completely.” Choice-supportive bias Confirmation bias “I believe you.” Framing
  29. 29. 16 out of 20 users found the search function on the website. 4 out of 20 users could not find the search function on the website.
  30. 30. Many designers express an ethical boundary of not working for tobacco, gambling or even soda companies… …yet have no problem working with solutions that encourage people to submit to a sedentary lifestyle, engage in addictive behavior or pursue short-term rewards.
  31. 31. the anxiety is real the nudges don’t make it easier what is right?
  32. 32. “The design industry is part of the problem. There is an idea that we constantly have to produce new things. The industry is oriented around launches and designing a new one and another new one.” – Florian Idenburg, principal of SO-IL
  33. 33. The problem-solver
 is part of the problem. Wherever you go, there you are.
  34. 34. The paradox of “a seat at the table”. Instead of focusing on people, designers are focusing on numbers.
  35. 35. ACTION NEGATIVE IMPACT I saw that coming but I don’t care. Whoa! I did not see that coming… I saw that coming but didn’t have the power to stop it.
  36. 36. ACTION NEGATIVE IMPACT I saw that coming but I don’t care. Whoa! I did not see that coming… I saw that coming but didn’t have the power to stop it. What can I do to gain power? What can I do before it happens? What can I do after it happens?
  37. 37. ACTION NEGATIVE IMPACT I saw that coming but I don’t care. Whoa! I did not see that coming… I saw that coming but didn’t have the power to stop it. What can I do to gain power? What can I do before it happens? What can I do after it happens? How do I even know this?
  38. 38. PER AXBOM Understanding myself
  39. 39. The mental discomfort (psychological stress) experienced by a person who simultaneously holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values. A consequence of a person’s performing an action that contradicts personal beliefs, ideals, and values; and also occurs when confronted with new information that contradicts said beliefs, ideals, and values. Cognitive dissonance Coaching can help more than giving advice.
  40. 40. Raise your hand and take it down when you hear a question you do not agree with. ✓ I have lied. ✓ I have lied to someone I care about. ✓ When I lie it is often to protect the feelings of the person I am lying to. ✓ I believe I will continue to lie. ✓ I have based design decisions on too little data. ✓ I will continue to design with too little data.
  41. 41. Am I a good person? You are a human
  42. 42. Token absolutism Relativism - Absolutism Utilitarianism Kantian ethicsSituation ethics Virtue ethics
  43. 43. Ethical mistakes in design are not resolved by reading Kant or Bentham. Altruism Asceticism Cognitivism Consequentialism Cynicism Humanism Individualism Moral Absolutism Moral Anti-Realism Moral Nihilism Moral Realism Moral Relativism Moral Skepticism Moral Universalism Non-Cognitivism Utilitarianism Virtue Ethics Deontology Egoism Epicureanism Ethical Naturalism Ethical Non-Naturalism Ethical Subjectivism Eudaimonism Hedonism
  44. 44. Token absolutism Relativism - Absolutism Utilitarianism Kantian ethicsSituation ethics Virtue ethics
  45. 45. PERSON 1: “Does my hair look good.”
 PERSON 2: (lying) “Yes.” PERSON 1: “Awesome; I’ll keep going to this new hairdresser I’ve found then.” Outcome: Everyone feels good in the moment. Impact: Person 1 will keep having bad hair.
  46. 46. You are never just working on an interface or an information architecture. You are working on a slice of other people’s lives.
  47. 47. When do you make poor decisions?
  48. 48. Internal External Unawareness Self-serving bias Performance/speed Overconfidence bias
 Confirmation bias Choice-supportive bias Framing Fatigue Morning morality effect Organisational pressure Social pressure Conformity bias Culture Context Situational factors
  49. 49. Internal External Unawareness Tired, rushing, illness, don’t want to admit weakness emotional stress hungry Listen more to others than myself Uninformed, habits, “best practice”
  50. 50. Internal External Unawareness Tired, rushing, illness, don’t want to admit weakness emotional stress hungry Listen more to others than myself Uninformed, habits, “best practice” When we are designing, we are the external force.
  51. 51. My work is good for me My work is good for other people My work is good for the planet My work aligns with my values My work is what I do well My work is what the world needs I control the work I do I do what I want to I do what I’m able to Task / Job self-assessment Feeling / explanatory words / actions Description Feeling / explanatory words / actions Feeling / explanatory words / actions Self-assessment 1. I have a clear idea of what I want to accomplish in my professional life and what impact I want to have on society. NO YES 2. In my professional life I want to act in accordance with my own value system. NO YES 4. I feel comfortable taking risks NO YES 3. I feel responsible for voicing my values in my design work. NO YES 5. I feel comfortable with confrontation NO YES 6. Can you think of a time when you have consciously stood up for, and acted in accordance with, your values? Write it down. Think about the circumstances that made you want to take a stand.
  52. 52. Internal External Unawareness Tired, rushing, illness, don’t want to admit weakness emotional stress Listen more to others than myself Uninformed, habits, “best practice” When we are designing, we are the external force.
  53. 53. @axbom The material outcome of design
  54. 54. Richard Lee, New Zealand
  55. 55. o bir mühendis he is an engineer o bir doktor he is a doctor o bir asker he is a soldier o bir hemşire she is a nurse o bir öğretmen she’s a teacher o bir polis He-she is a police Hän on ruma He’s ugly Hän on kaunis She is beautiful Hän on insinööri He is an engineer Hän on sihteeri She’s a secretary Hän on asianajaja He is a lawyer Hän on lastentarhanopetta She is a kindergarten teacher Original Google Translate
  56. 56. Prejudice that causes negative impact is already woven into the fabric of the Internet. If you don’t take a stand and make considered choices for change, minorities and underserved groups will keep being hurt.
  57. 57. The legacy of city planner Robert Moses
  58. 58. People who are already being hurt are the ones who are most likely to get hurt by your design. We talk a lot about empathy in UX but we rarely talk about how empathy itself is prejudiced.
  59. 59. Gender and sexuality minorities Religious minorities Racial minorities Ethnic minorities Age minorities People with disabilities People in poverty Sufferers of crime
  60. 60. adjective having or showing laziness or negligence. Synonyms: lax, negligent, neglectful, remiss, careless, slapdash, slipshod, lackadaisical, lazy, inefficient, incompetent, inattentive, offhand, casual, disorderly, disorganized;
  61. 61. The Chlamydia Home Test Kit male female
  62. 62. The Chlamydia Home Test Kit vagina penis
  63. 63. The Chlamydia Home Test Kit vagina penis A United Nations fact sheet estimates that up to 1.7 per cent of the population “is born with intersex traits”.
  64. 64. I will never get inclusion on my own. No matter who my friends are. I need to work hard to include a diverse mix of people in the design process. And I need to listen for negative impact all the time. My name is Per and I am a white man. I am a middle-aged, cisgender, privileged, liberal designer with a boatload of prejudice.
 I am not a person you should trust for answers. I love my job but I need to love people first.
  65. 65. DickPicLocator
  66. 66. How Period Apps Are Profiting Off Your Private Data & Selling Your Sex Life Pennsylvania schools spying on students using laptop webcams, claims lawsuit Search Risk – How Google Almost Killed ProtonMail Google is under fire for watching you while you shop even when you're not online When a computer program keeps you in jail Designers have a choice: Build for a better future or build to add to the noise Using a fitness app taught me the scary truth about why privacy settings are a feminist issue The Rich See a Different Internet Than the Poor Former Facebook exec says social media is ripping apart society Don’t Nudge Me: The Limits of Behavioral Economics in Medicine Google lets you report ads that know ‘too much’ about you, but there's a creepy catch Laptops And Phones In The Classroom: Yea, Nay Or A Third Way?
  67. 67. IF YOU SEND AN EMAIL TO FRANCE ON THE WEEKEND, DOES ANYBODY READ IT?
  68. 68. The other story 2. GOAL/PROBLEM 3. ENCOUNTER 4. CLIMAX 5. GAIN 1. PERSON
  69. 69. Excluded Unwanted Participants Included People who may benefit from the solution but no effort is placed into designing for them. People you do not want using the solution. They could get hurt, or they could hurt others. All people who are taking part in a solution by reading, buying, listening or otherwise engaging. People outside are non-participants. People who manage to use the solution anyway, but could be thrown out any time because you are not looking out for them. People who manage to use the solution anyway, putting themselves and others at risk. You may not be aware they’re there. The people you are intentionally designing for, measuring and following up on. A segment of the people you are intentionally designing for but who are still experiencing negative impact.
  70. 70. 2. GOAL/PROBLEM 3. ENCOUNTER 4. CLIMAX/CRISIS 5. IMPACT/GAIN/LOSS 1. PERSON The story of getting hurt
  71. 71. @axbom The friction that can save us
  72. 72. A B
  73. 73. A higher conversion rate is not equivalent to “better for the person”.
  74. 74. when it is better to NOT pursue the higher-performing option in an A/B-test. It is the responsibility of UX professionals to help decide
  75. 75. Ask a psychiatrist
  76. 76. Buying milk online 6 for 70kr
  77. 77. YOUR WEBSITE HOME      INFO        ABOUT        CONTACT WE ARE UNIQUE READ MORE We are extremely unique and different from our competitors by having a website that looks exactly the same. Always. Three. Columns. We could have four columns. But everyone else has three. Feeling creative we added pic of smiling woman here. Yup, the website layout says we can offer only 3 services. Idea stolen, with utmost respect, from Dave Ellis. / novolume.co.uk
  78. 78. LOW HIGH BRAINPOWER
  79. 79. @axbom Adding friction
  80. 80. You will find the password by reading the welcome information carefully. In this film you will find the password for logging in to the booking system, 5 small characters. Your username is in the confirmation e-mail. Code of conduct explained whilst giving out one letter of the password every thirty seconds.
  81. 81. Friction creates loyal, active and serious relationships.
  82. 82. Contextual disclosure
  83. 83. Incremental deblurring
  84. 84. Controlhandover
  85. 85. •Error prevention •Prevent misuse •Stop people who will not benefit •Filter out “bad” users •Build Skills •Build Knowledge •Encourage Self-reflection •Focus on goal fulfilment, not task completion Why friction?
  86. 86. We design thinking LOW HIGH BRAINPOWER LOW HIGH BRAINPOWER
  87. 87. Adding friction How to limit phone-use across the day.
  88. 88. @axbom Impact assessment
  89. 89. input investments and resources output product/service provided outcome immediate achievements impact medium/long-term consequences cultural economic environmental health / well-being political scientific social technological measured rarely measured Impact represents an intended or unintended significant change that affects people on an individual or societal level. Impact represents an intended or unintended significant change that affects people and/or the planet.
  90. 90. input investments and resources output product/service provided outcome immediate achievements impact medium/long-term consequences cultural economic environmental health / well-being political scientific social technological measured rarely measured Impact represents an intended or unintended significant change that affects people on an individual or societal level. In finance, we have developed shared fundamentals, which include risk, return, liquidity, volatility… to manage financial goals. For impact, there is a shared understanding that impact refers to material effects experienced by people and planet, both positive and negative and include 5 dimensions: what, how much, who, contribution and risk.
  91. 91. Own chocolate Invest in chocolate Weight gain Acne Addiction Eat chocolate Soon hungry again Hungry? INPUT OUTPUT OUTCOME IMPACT ✓ Hunger corrected
  92. 92. Notifications built Communicate need Stress/Anxiety False positives Concentration lapses Notifications sent
 User reminded
 People act on the notification Lower work performance Lots on your mind? INPUT OUTPUT OUTCOME IMPACT PUSH NOTIFICATIONS Diminishing trust
  93. 93. Your go-to design choice for
 interrupting human relationships and disrupting concentration. Notifications LOOK OVER HERE!
  94. 94. WHAT HOW MUCH WHO CONTRIBUTION RISK Induced stress A lot Overworked psychologists Big Patient harm The Impact Management Project is the voice of over 700 practitioners from across geographies and disciplines. Online behavioral therapy. Notifications to psychologists.
  95. 95. Peak Notification Hey friend! I just wanted to take a slice out of your life. Bye!
  96. 96. Peak Asshole Allow notifications? YES NO
  97. 97. input investments and resources output product/service provided outcome immediate achievements impact medium/long-term consequences cultural economic environmental health / well-being political scientific social technological measured rarely measured Impact represents an intended or unintended significant change that affects people on an individual or societal level. The best way to adopt an ethical mindset is to include impact risk assessment in your work.
  98. 98. What How much Who Racial profiling People of color Important negative outcome Important positive outcome Neutral Marginal effect Deep effect For few For many Short-term Long-term Slowly Quickly Well-served Underserved IMPACT ASSESSMENT Adapted from www.impactmanagementproject.com
  99. 99. AI therapist Effect: Negative WHAT HOW MUCH WHO CONTRI- BUTION RISK Positive For few For many Brief Long-lasting Well-served Much worse than what will likely occur Likelihood that this effect will happen Likelihood that this eff Much better than what will likely occur Underserved Low High Marginal Deep Effect: Negative For few Brief Well-served Much worse than what will likely occur Low Marginal
  100. 100. Effect: Negative Positive For few WHO: For many Favored Much worse than doing nothing Much better than doing nothing Unfavored Short term Long term AI therapist Barn rapporterar övergrepp till ett AI. Barn i hem med våld
  101. 101. Effect: Negative WHAT HOW MUCH WHO CONTRI- BUTION RISK Positive For few For many Brief Long-lasting Well-served Much worse than what will likely occur Likelihood that this effect will happen Likelihood that this effect will happen Much better than what will likely occur Underserved Low High Marginal Deep Effect: Negative Positive For few For many Brief Long-lasting Well-served Much worse than what will likely occur Much better than what will likely occur Underserved Low High Marginal Deep
  102. 102. @axbom Taking action How to follow your value system
  103. 103. Internal External Unawareness Tired, rushing, illness, don’t want to admit weakness emotional stress Listen more to others than myself Uninformed, habits, “best practice”
  104. 104. Ethics fatigue Practice makes our voice and action more likely. It’s not about deciding what the right thing to do is, but rather about how to get it done. Even though we may all sometimes act unethically, the fact is that we all do sometimes also act ethically.
  105. 105. What enables a voice to speak up? Anticipating situations where their values would be tested. If we feel confident that voice and action are possible, we are able to see issues more clearly, our raise questions that make our collective clarity possible.
  106. 106. Sometimes individuals can more effectively address values conflicts in the workplace by talking about what discourages ethical action and engaging colleagues in addressing those factors than by tackling the issue head-on. CHANGE THE FRAME
  107. 107. Talking to someone else is often critical.
  108. 108. Expected or Standard Practice “Everyone does this, so it’s really standard practice. It’s even expected.” Materiality “The impact of this action is not material. It doesn’t really hurt anyone.” Locus of Responsibility “This is not my responsibility; I’m just following orders here.” Locus of Loyalty “I know this isn’t quite fair to the customer but I don’t want to hurt my reports/team/boss/company.” Gentile, Mary C.. Giving Voice to Values: How to Speak Your Mind When You Know What’s Right (Kindle Locations 2326-2330). Yale University Press. Kindle Edition.
  109. 109. “Everyone does this, so it’s really standard practice. It’s even expected.” If everyone really is doing this, what would be the consequences for business practice and consumer trust? Would we be comfortable if everyone knew we were doing this? Who do we want to know we are doing this and what does that tell us? If it is accepted, why are there often so many laws, regulations, policies against it?
  110. 110. What if you were going to act on your values, what would you say and do? FROM
 SHOULD we voice our values 
 TO HOW should we voice our values?
  111. 111. We need to do this. Hang on, I’m concerned about the impact of this decision. Maybe you have the answer.
  112. 112. What long term impact can we expect? What is this in 10 years? SHORT TERM / LONG TERM
  113. 113. What alternative routes have we considered? ALTERNATIVE PATHS
  114. 114. At what point are we willing to abort? What is the indended longevity of this solution? ADDICTIVE CYCLES
  115. 115. emotion/health/security/ autonomy/economy What values are we supporting? What values are at stake? COST CONSIDERATION
  116. 116. What story are we supporting? What stories have we not considered? people/culture/nation/politics THE OTHER STORY
  117. 117. REPUTATION AND TRUST
  118. 118. You either design the system or you get designed by the system.
  119. 119. @axbom Final words Your promise to your profession
  120. 120. ✓ I didn’t know it ✓ I didn’t mean it ✓ I was forced ✓ It wasn’t me ✓ I didn't understand Instead of this…
  121. 121. ✓ Listen (for real) ✓ Assume ownership ✓ Overcome your biases ✓ Be transparent ✓ Use positive friction ✓ Make ethics and impact assessment part of your process ✓ Use pre-scripting to practice and prepare …do this.
  122. 122. In every work situation you are in, ask yourself: 1. Who is in this room? 2. Whose voice is being heard? 3. Whose voice(s) are missing? Then, for each question, ask why. 1. What problem are we solving? 2. How do we know it’s a problem? 3. Why are we solving it now? 4. What can go wrong?
  123. 123. The first dishonest act is the most important one to prevent. – Dan Ariely 100% attentiontoethics 97% 90% 80% 70% slippery slopeincrementalism
  124. 124. Responsible design is a muscle that needs practice to grow. Don’t ignore it, exercise every day.
  125. 125. We will have to take risks - even career-threatening ones - at some point in our work lives. Just because we CAN make something doesn’t mean we SHOULD.
  126. 126. Workshop take-aways What I will STOP doing What I will KEEP doing What I will START doing
  127. 127. Free book preview: misusability.com in progress Worksheets: misusability.com/workshop/lyon per@axbom.se
  128. 128. @axbom per@axbom.se axbom.me

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