IN SEARCH OF ECO-FRIENDLY ENERGYChandramouli Rotti,ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research,Gandhinagar, India
Contents Energy usage Global energy needs Sources of energy Fossil fuels Biomass energy Hydro energy Fission energy Fusion reaction Fuels for Fusion reactor Fusion power plant Working together for Fusion research Features of fusion energy Summary
Energy usage Transportation Electricity for lighting Cooking gas We use different sources of energy •To meet our basic needs •To increase our comfort levels What are different sources of energy Coal, Oil, Natural gas, Nuclear, hydro and others The technology progresses-- comfort level increases-- energy demand increases
Global Energy Needs Modern man Primitive man Energy for basic Energy for basic needs and comfort needs Energy consumption from each individual is increasing by rapid rate Increasing world population Ever increasing demand of energy Different sources of energy are needed to cater this ever growing need
Sources of Energy Moving water Biomass- wood, agricultural and animal waste Fossil Fuels Uranium- 235 Are they inexhaustible ? Are they environment friendly?
Fossil Fuels (Coal, Gas and Oil) The natural fuel formed deep under the earth from the pre-historic remains of living organisms is called fossil fuel. AvailabilityTypes of source Years of exhaustionCoal 220Gas 60Oil 40 Thermal power station -Conversion of coal into electricityEnvironment impact•Burning of fossil fuels produces large amount of CO2 which causes increase ingreenhouse effect leading to global warming•Burning of fossil fuels produces acidic gases such as sulphur dioxideand nitrogen oxide.
Biomass energy Biomass, is a biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms, such as wood, agricultural waste, and waste materials of animalsAvailabilityBiomass fuel is renewable i.e. Can be renewed by taking up plantation.Biogas can be steady source of energy as large population of cattle and farmanimals provide animal dungEnvironmental impactBurning biomass fuels does not produce pollutants like sulphur, that can causeacid rain.Use of biomass fuels in a well managed, sustainable production programme willnot contribute to carbon dioxide levels that cause global warming.
Hydro energyHydropower, hydraulic power or water power is power that isderived from the energy of moving water, which may be harnessed foruseful purposes.Availability Water resources like rivers are not evenly distributed in every part ofthe world.Environmental impact :It is clean, renewable and non polluting andalso prevents floods.No green house threatDams pose threat to fish populationsThe ecosystems of rivers and streams aredisrupted.
Fission Energy Fission energy is released when a heavier atom like Uranium is split into smaller nuclei. Availability Uranium is a dense metal found at an abundance of 2.8 parts per million in the Earths crust. Practically it is long lasting. The amount of energy per unit amount of fuel is very high. Environmental impactNuclear reactors do not produce carbondioxide.Nuclear waste management is a bigchallengeSafety measures are required to avoid Kaiga Nuclear power station –radiation hazards Conversion of nuclear energy into electricity
Can we ever havesafe eco-friendlyand inexhaustible source of energy
Yes why not… Fusion energy is a potential candidate for safe eco-friendly andsustainable energy source Now let’s see what is fusion energy all about
Fusion energyFusion is the process in which twolighter nuclei combine to releaseenormous energy.Fusion is the energy source of theuniverse. In stars like our sun, hydrogen isfused to helium, at a temperature of about150 million degrees Celcius.
Fusion reactionFusion is the process in which twolighter nuclei combine to releaseenormous energy.Nuclei needs very high temperature tofuse.Temperature of ~150million degrees! Isneeded.
Fusion reaction Fusion is the process in which two lighter nuclei combine to release enormous energyNuclei needs very high temperature of150 million degrees to fuse What happens to the matter at high temperatures of ~150 million degrees!
Fusion reaction Heating to millions of degrees Atoms themselves fall apart into free nuclei and free electron – This state is called PLASMA – THE FOURTH STATE OF MATTER
Fuels for Fusion ReactorWater is source of Deuterium Lithium is source of TritiumWater is abundant in nature- Lithium is abundant both inPractically inexhaustible ! earth’s crust and sea water Practically inexhaustible !
Fusion experimentsJOINT EUROPEAN TORUS (UK) JET, the Joint European Torus, is the largest fusion experiment and has successfully achieved fusion power. However, The commercial exploitation of fusion energy is yet to be realized.
Working together for Fusion Research Seven Countries are presently working together to have fusion power dream come trueITER machine to be built inFrance
Features of fusion energy •The fuel for fusion reactions are readily available. Deuterium and Tritium are virtually inexhaustible. •Unlike the burning of coal or other fossil fuels, fusion does not emit harmful toxins into the atmosphere. Hence it doesn’t contribute to global warming. •Nuclear fusion has no problems of dangerous by-products(nuclear wastes) as in case of fission reaction. The only by-product is helium that is harmless. Neutrons generated in fusion reaction cause activation of the materials used. However, proper choice of low activation materials can reduce the radio toxicity.
Summary Conventional fossil fuels are exhaustible and other non-conventional sources are inadequate, alternate sources of energy are needed to be considered. Though Fission energy is a solution, it has problems of nuclear waste and potential radiation hazard. Fusion energy option is a potential candidate for future energy source, which is clean, safe and sustainable. International research efforts are being implemented to achieve fusion power.