The Consistency and Controversy of Gender: Egalitarian Educational Norms and Practices in Muslim and Post-Soviet Countries
Presented at the 2011 Annual Meeting Comparative and International Education Society Montreal, Canada The Consistency and Controversy of Gender: Egalitarian Educational Norms and Practices in Muslim and Post-Soviet CountriesAlexander W. WisemanHayarpi Papikyan
Situating the discussion• GCC _ Gulf Cooperation Countries Target countries: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia, UAE• CIS _ Commonwealth of Independent States Target countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbe kistan• Mainly Muslim countries _ countries where more than 65% of the population is Muslim
Overlapping categories●Religion and culture●Schooling structure●Education system- gender parity●Rural-urban split●limitation of women in labor market●Ideological transition during last 20 years●The transformation we are interested in…
In the six countries of CIS the right to education is ensured by the constitution. • Inheritance of Soviet system The Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics October 7, 1977 Chapter 6 Article 35. Women and men have equal rights in the USSR. Exercise of these rights is ensured by according women equal access with men to education and vocational and professional training, equal opportunities in employment, remuneration and promotion, and in social and political, and cultural activity, and by special labor and health protection measures for women; by providing conditions enabling mothers to work; by legal protection, and material and moral support for mothers and children, including paid leaves and other benefits for expectant mothers and mothers, and gradual reduction of working time for mothers with small children.• Commitment to MDGs, EFA• Commitment to preserve the ethnic and cultural identity of the population, promote a democratic society, and develop human resources to cope with a competitive market led economy
United Nations Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights “Universal Declaration of Human Rights” Article 26(http://www.unhchr.ch/udhr/lang/eng.pdf) 1. Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. 2. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. 3. Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.
UNESCO “Education for All”“In the World Declaration on Education for All, adopted in1990 in Jomtien, Thailand, the world community adopted anexpanded vision of what basic education means, calling for alearning environment in which everyone would have thechance to acquire the basic elements which serve as afoundation for further learning and enable full participationin society.This vision implied both access to education for everybody,and meeting the diverse learning needs of children, youthand adults. It focused on learning societies, and saw broaderand deeper partnerships at every level as the way forward.” http://www.unesco.org/education/efa/global_co/comprehensive_efa_strategy_summary.shtml
The Six EFA Goals1. Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children2. Ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to, and complete, free and compulsory primary education of good quality.3. Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life-skills programmes4. Achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults.5. Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality.6. Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills. http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=43811&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
Research Question How do gender-separated systems in the GCCcompare to the secular Muslim countries of the CIS?