The Economic Impact of theAchievement Gap in Saudi Arabia     Alexander W. Wiseman, PhD
The Economic Impact of Education         Education develops human capital                     Human capital = attainment +...
Cognitive Skills Matter                                                      Improved                                     ...
Economic Implications  If national economic health is measured bystudent achievement (i.e., cognitive skill), then     Sau...
EXHIBIT 1: Saudi Arabia Behind in Mathematics EducationTIMSS rankings show Saudi Arabia trailing other countries worldwide...
EXHIBIT 2: Saudi Arabia Behind in Science EducationTIMSS rankings show Saudi Arabia trailing other countries worldwide and...
Overwhelmingly Underperforming Given the relatively low levels of economicallydisadvantaged students in Saudi Arabia, Saud...
EXHIBIT 3: QUALITY AND DISADVANTAGE IN MATHEMATICS EDUCATION31 countries have higher average math scores in spite of havin...
EXHIBIT 4: QUALITY AND DISADVANTAGE IN SCIENCE EDUCATION31 countries have higher average science scores in spite of having...
Erasing SES AdvantagesOtherwise economically advantaged students perform on par with the most economically disadvantaged b...
EXHIBIT 5: QUALITY AND EQUITY OF MATHEMATICS INSTRUCTION36 countries have higher average math scores and better resources ...
EXHIBIT 6: QUALITY AND EQUITY OF SCIENCE INSTRUCTION33 countries have higher average science scores and better resources f...
Cost-Effectiveness Sacrificed   A Saudi education is among the least cost-effective in the world. Most countries with high...
EXHIBIT 7: COST EFFECTIVENESS OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION37 countries have higher average mathematics scores and lower per pu...
EXHIBIT 8: COST EFFECTIVENESS OF SCIENCE EDUCATION38 countries have higher average science scores and lower per pupilexpen...
Maximize Impact Saudi Arabia needs to maximize educationalimpacts on cognitive skill development without      increasing t...
EXHIBIT 9: PER PUPIL SPENDING COST EFFECTIVENESS (MATHEMATICS)Saudi Arabia spends an average amount compared to other coun...
EXHIBIT 10: PER PUPIL SPENDING COST EFFECTIVENESS (SCIENCE)Saudi Arabia spends an average amount compared to other countri...
Potential for Economic GrowthSaudi students score more frequently and withmore variation at the lowest levels in both math...
EXHIBIT 11: DISTRIBUTION OF MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENTSaudi Arabian students scored more frequently and with more variation a...
EXHIBIT 12: DISTRIBUTION OF SCIENCE ACHIEVEMENTSaudi Arabian students scored more frequently and with more variation at th...
EXHIBIT 13: GDP POTENTIAL BY MATHEMATICS BENCHMARK AVERAGEThe Saudi Arabian GDP could potentially double if all students p...
EXHIBIT 14: GDP POTENTIAL BY SCIENCE BENCHMARK AVERAGEThe Saudi Arabian GDP could potentially double if all students perfo...
Sustainability is Key  Even if Saudi students perform at the highestlevel, it will take more than a one-time increase  in ...
EXHIBIT 15: GDP DIFFERENCE BY MATHEMATICS BENCHMARK AVERAGEIncreased mathematics performance could potentially raise Saudi...
EXHIBIT 16: GDP DIFFERENCE BY SCIENCE BENCHMARK AVERAGEIncreased science performance could potentially raise Saudi Arabian...
Economic Growth is Cumulative   GDP growth is cumulative. The higher Saudicognitive skill levels become, the higher GDP an...
WeaknessesSaudi students among the lowest performing in the world.                                                        ...
Strengths     Saudi students – on average – have SES on their side.                                                       ...
Final ThoughtsEducation, achievement and economicproductivity are linked in a knowledgeeconomy.                           ...
Alexander W. Wiseman, PhD   aww207@lehigh.edu
The Economic Impact of the Achievement Gap in Saudi Arabia
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The Economic Impact of the Achievement Gap in Saudi Arabia

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Please visit my website for more information: http://www.comparative-education.com/. To cite this presentation, please use the following: Wiseman, A. W. (2011, March). The Economic Impact of the Achievement Gap in Saudi Arabia. Paper presented at the International Exhibition and Forum for Public Education, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

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The Economic Impact of the Achievement Gap in Saudi Arabia

  1. 1. The Economic Impact of theAchievement Gap in Saudi Arabia Alexander W. Wiseman, PhD
  2. 2. The Economic Impact of Education Education develops human capital Human capital = attainment + performance Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu Attainment + performance = productivity Higher productivity = economic advantage___Card, D. (2000). Estimating the Return to Schooling: Progress on Some Persistent Econometric Problems. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Fasano, U., &Goyal, R. (2004). Emerging Strains in GCC Labor Markets. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.Ramirez, F. O., Luo, X., Schofer, E., & Meyer, J. W. (2006). Student Achievement and National Economic Growth. American Journal of Education, 113(1), 1-30.
  3. 3. Cognitive Skills Matter Improved New Cognitive Knowledge Skills Technologies Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu Increased Innovative Economic Economic Growth Capacity___Hanushek, E. A., &Woessmann, L. (2010). The Economics of International Differences in Educational Achievement. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Jamison, E. A., Jamison, D. T., &Hanushek, E. A. (2007). The Effects of Education Quality on Income Growth and Mortality Decline. Economics of Education Review, 26, 772-789.
  4. 4. Economic Implications If national economic health is measured bystudent achievement (i.e., cognitive skill), then Saudi Arabia is economically unhealthy. Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  5. 5. EXHIBIT 1: Saudi Arabia Behind in Mathematics EducationTIMSS rankings show Saudi Arabia trailing other countries worldwide and inGulf Cooperation Council in mathematics achievement Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  6. 6. EXHIBIT 2: Saudi Arabia Behind in Science EducationTIMSS rankings show Saudi Arabia trailing other countries worldwide and inGulf Cooperation Council in science achievement Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  7. 7. Overwhelmingly Underperforming Given the relatively low levels of economicallydisadvantaged students in Saudi Arabia, Saudistudents are overwhelmingly underperforming. Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  8. 8. EXHIBIT 3: QUALITY AND DISADVANTAGE IN MATHEMATICS EDUCATION31 countries have higher average math scores in spite of having moreeconomically-disadvantaged students than Saudi Arabia Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  9. 9. EXHIBIT 4: QUALITY AND DISADVANTAGE IN SCIENCE EDUCATION31 countries have higher average science scores in spite of having moreeconomically-disadvantaged students than Saudi Arabia Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  10. 10. Erasing SES AdvantagesOtherwise economically advantaged students perform on par with the most economically disadvantaged because resource shortages affect instruction at school. Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  11. 11. EXHIBIT 5: QUALITY AND EQUITY OF MATHEMATICS INSTRUCTION36 countries have higher average math scores and better resources for mathinstruction at school than Saudi Arabia Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  12. 12. EXHIBIT 6: QUALITY AND EQUITY OF SCIENCE INSTRUCTION33 countries have higher average science scores and better resources forscience instruction at school than Saudi Arabia Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  13. 13. Cost-Effectiveness Sacrificed A Saudi education is among the least cost-effective in the world. Most countries with highaverage math and science scores spend less per pupil than Saudi Arabia. Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  14. 14. EXHIBIT 7: COST EFFECTIVENESS OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION37 countries have higher average mathematics scores and lower per pupilexpenditures than Saudi Arabia Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  15. 15. EXHIBIT 8: COST EFFECTIVENESS OF SCIENCE EDUCATION38 countries have higher average science scores and lower per pupilexpenditures than Saudi Arabia Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  16. 16. Maximize Impact Saudi Arabia needs to maximize educationalimpacts on cognitive skill development without increasing the costs of education. Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  17. 17. EXHIBIT 9: PER PUPIL SPENDING COST EFFECTIVENESS (MATHEMATICS)Saudi Arabia spends an average amount compared to other countriesworldwide per point on the TIMSS mathematics test ($9.01/point) Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  18. 18. EXHIBIT 10: PER PUPIL SPENDING COST EFFECTIVENESS (SCIENCE)Saudi Arabia spends an average amount compared to other countriesworldwide per point on the TIMSS science test ($8.35/point) Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  19. 19. Potential for Economic GrowthSaudi students score more frequently and withmore variation at the lowest levels in both mathand science, but Saudi Gross Domestic Product (GDP, per capita) could double if students Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu performed at the highest levels. The question is whether or not this is the appropriate causal direction of effect. Potential change in GDP by student performance is estimated in the following analyses.
  20. 20. EXHIBIT 11: DISTRIBUTION OF MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENTSaudi Arabian students scored more frequently and with more variation at thelowest international benchmarks in mathematics Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  21. 21. EXHIBIT 12: DISTRIBUTION OF SCIENCE ACHIEVEMENTSaudi Arabian students scored more frequently and with more variation at thelowest international benchmarks in science Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  22. 22. EXHIBIT 13: GDP POTENTIAL BY MATHEMATICS BENCHMARK AVERAGEThe Saudi Arabian GDP could potentially double if all students performed atthe highest levels demonstrated for mathematics achievement Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  23. 23. EXHIBIT 14: GDP POTENTIAL BY SCIENCE BENCHMARK AVERAGEThe Saudi Arabian GDP could potentially double if all students performed atthe highest levels demonstrated for science achievement Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  24. 24. Sustainability is Key Even if Saudi students perform at the highestlevel, it will take more than a one-time increase in cognitive skills to match GCC average GDP. Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  25. 25. EXHIBIT 15: GDP DIFFERENCE BY MATHEMATICS BENCHMARK AVERAGEIncreased mathematics performance could potentially raise Saudi ArabianGDP, but will still lag relative to the Gulf Cooperation Council average. Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  26. 26. EXHIBIT 16: GDP DIFFERENCE BY SCIENCE BENCHMARK AVERAGEIncreased science performance could potentially raise Saudi Arabian GDP, butwill still lag relative to the Gulf Cooperation Council average. Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  27. 27. Economic Growth is Cumulative GDP growth is cumulative. The higher Saudicognitive skill levels become, the higher GDP and the lower average skills required to meet and exceed the GCC average. Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu
  28. 28. WeaknessesSaudi students among the lowest performing in the world. Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu Saudi students perform at levels indicative of extreme disadvantage. Saudi education is not cost-effective.
  29. 29. Strengths Saudi students – on average – have SES on their side. Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu Saudi schools are funded at levels comparable to the highest achieving countries in the world. Small increases can quickly add up because the cumulativeeffect of cognitive skill improvement on economic productivity.
  30. 30. Final ThoughtsEducation, achievement and economicproductivity are linked in a knowledgeeconomy. Alexander W. Wiseman, Lehigh University, aww207@lehigh.edu Evidence suggests that Saudi Arabia’s economy is in danger and will decline unless cognitive skills improve. Saudi students and educators have the potential to reverse these trends.
  31. 31. Alexander W. Wiseman, PhD aww207@lehigh.edu

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