Story related with Bastille Prison- 1789 July 14 Causes for the outbreak of the French Revolution 1. Political Causes a. Absolute Monarchy b. Financial Crisis due to wars c. Interference of Queen in administration d. Corrupt and Cruel Administration 2. Social Causes (Social condition in 18th century) a. Inequality in Society b. Privileges based on birth
3. Economical causes a. Financial Crisis b. High Tax c. Subsistence Crisis 4. Rise of Middleclass People 5. Role of Philosophers a. Rousseau b. Voltaire c. Montesquieu d. John Lock Short Notes- Absolute Monarchy and Constitutional Monarchy, Livre, Clergy, Tithe, Taille, Subsistence Crisis
The Outbreak of the Revolution 1. major events 2. National Assembly 3. Tennis Court Oath 4. Time Line France- from A.M to C.M The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizens Political Symbols France from Constitutional Monarchy to Republic 1. Reign of Terror 2. A Directory rules in France The Role of Woman in French Revolution
Impacts of the French Revolution 1. Abolition of Slavery 2. Contribution to the World Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte Short Notes
The French Revolution had broke out in the year 1789. Various factors contributed for the outbreak of the French revolution like 1. Political Causes 2. Social causes 3. Economical causes 4. Rise of Middle Class People 5. Role of Philosophers.
Political Causes (a) Absolute Monarchy In absolute Monarchy king is the supreme power In 1774, King Louis XVI from bourbon dynasty ascended the throne of France at the age of 20. His regime was inefficient and unpopular He believed in the Divine Rights of King It means the right to rule comes from God and Kings are answerable to God Only. The will of King was the Law of the Land
(b) Financial Crisis due to the wars. France had engaged lot of wars in long period of time. Under Louis XVI France assisted the American colonies in their war against Britain. France had provided the Americans Naval Forces and Soldiers. As a result the treasury became empty after this wars.
(C ) Queen’s Interference in administration Louis XVI has married Queen Mary Antoinette an Austrian princes. She led a luxurious life without knowing the miserable conditions of the poor people. The public money lavishly spent by the queen The queen interfered in state appointments in order to promote her favorites.(d)Cruel and Corrupt Administration The prisoners were treated with extreme severity Many of the prisoners died because of tortures. Breaking the bones was the common punishments Nobles were appointed as judges and they imposed heavy fines
Social Causes (Social Condition in 18th century)(a ) Inequality in Society The French society had mainly divided into three Estates CLERGY (First Estate) NOBILITY (Second Estate) Third Estate 1. Big Business men, merchants, Judges and Lawyers 2. Peasants and Artisans 3. Small Peasants, landless labour, Servants
First Estate: Clergy It included the Archbishops, Bishops and Priests. They enjoyed many privileges They were exempted from taxes One fifth of the land was owned by the churchSecond Estate: Noble Class They enjoyed all important positions in the French administration. They led very luxury life and they were exempted from taxes They enjoyed feudal privileges and they were collected dues from peasants.
Third Estate : Underprivileged Section Three different categories of people. The largest section of the Third Estate consisted of the peasants almost 90 percent of the population. The burden of the tax fell chiefly on the Third estate They cultivated the land owned by Churches, Nobles and Richer section in the third estate.
(b) Privileges Based on Birth• The first two estates enjoyed lot of privileges in the society.• They were exempted from the tax system• The burden of the taxes carried by the third estates especially peasants.• They were forced to work in the houses and fields of the noble class, army and construction of the roads etc…
Economic Causes( a) Financial Crisis As a result of the long years of the war had drained the financial resources of France. Lenders who gave the state credit, now began to charge 10 per cent interest on loans. These factors led a huge financial crisis in France(b) High tax System For to overcome the financial crisis and meet the expenses like- maintaining court, maintain army and running government office and university the state decided to increase the tax system.
The churches had collected the taxes from the peasants called- Tithes All the members of the third estate had to pay the tax to the state. These included two types of tax- Direct and Indirect tax The Direct tax, called- Taille The indirect tax imposed for the use of salt and tobacco. The burden of the tax system mainly carried by the peasant community
(C ) Subsistence Crisis The population of France increased from 1715 to 1789 (23 million to 28million) It increased the demand of the food grains As a result of the bad harvest the prices of the bread also increased. But the labourers in the workshops has got very less and fixed wages. The gap between the rich and poor had increased. All these factors led a subsistence crisis in France