History of the Oregon Trail<br />Why did People travel the Oregon Trail?<br />To Start a New Life: Life was hard back east after depressions in 1837 and 1841. The promise of 320 acres of free land in Oregon for married settlers was an offer too good to refuse.<br />The Gold Rush: The California Gold Rush of 1849 caused men to head to the west coast in search of their fortune. The Oregon Trail was the only route from the east.<br />Trail of Patriots: Many pioneers traveled the Oregon Trail simply for patriotic reasons. Most of the ‘Oregon Country’ was under unpopular British control in the mid 18oo’s. Groups of men went to settle the west to free the land from their rule. The more Americans that settled there, the better chance they had to keep the land.<br />
History of the Oregon Trail<br />Trail Facts<br />About 500,000 emigrants traveled the trails from 1849 – 1866.<br />The journey was about 2000 miles.<br />The average wagon train was expected to be on the trail for 4 ½ - 6 months.<br />Historians estimate that approximately 20,000 people died along the trail.<br />Food along the trail consisted of: coffee, bacon, dry bread, cold beans, buffalo meat, tea, boiled rice and dried beef or codfish.<br />Many people walked the entire 2000 miles.<br />Emigrants needed to time their departure perfectly. Heading west too early meant the grass wouldn’t be long enough for the animals to eat along the way.<br />A family of four would need over 1000 pounds of food to sustain them on their journey. <br />Only a few miles into their trip, nearly all the emigrants realized they overloaded their wagons. They had to throw thing out along the trail.<br />
Hardships along the Trail<br /><ul><li>River Crossings: Hundreds drowned trying to cross rivers. Deeper rivers required a ferry for crossing and emigrants were charged high prices.
Wagon Accidents: If someone fell under the wagon wheels, death was instant.
Weather: Emigrants were killed by lightning strikes and hail. Pounding rains were especially difficult with no shelter.
Cholera: A disease which had no cure. People would go from healthy to dead in just a few hours.</li></li></ul><li>How Does a Class get to Oregon?<br />STEP ONE: <br /> Classes will start on the trail the first week in October. However, they need to purchase necessary supplies prior to starting. Money for supplies is equivalent to AR points the class has accumulated. The class will be unable to start the trail until they are able to purchase all necessary supplies. <br />
Food:<br />200 pounds of bacon<br />20 pounds of rice<br />50 pounds of lard<br />30 pounds of coffee<br />50 pounds of beans<br />150 pounds of sugar<br />5 pounds of baking soda<br />50 pounds of dried fruit<br />5 barrels of flour <br />15 pounds of salt and pepper<br />Weapons:<br />3 Rifles<br />1 Belt knife<br />30 pounds of lead<br />3 pistols<br />25 pounds of gunpowder<br />Necessities for the Oregon Trail<br />Classes will need to have at least 250 AR points before<br />starting the trail in October. <br />Transportation:<br />Prairie schooner<br />4-6 oxen<br />Cotton canvas cover<br />Linseed oil<br />6 Wheels<br />Yoke<br />Axle<br />Wagon Tongue<br />
How Does a Class get to Oregon?<br />STEP TWO: <br /> Classes can move up to 100 miles a week. Mileage is determined by class AR quiz participation. The more students who have taken a quiz that week, the more miles your wagon travels.<br /> NOTE: students can earn extra miles by taking quizzes over books from the WAW list or a special Oregon Trail list. Ask Mrs. Wollenberg about these.<br />
Hardships along the Trail<br /> Throughout their journey, the pioneers endured hardships. There are different ways a class can get through a hardship.<br />If the class’s AR quiz average is 70% or higher, they will get<br />through the hardship without consequence. For every <br />percentage below 70%, a mile of their journey will be taken <br />off (ie: an 62% average will be given an 8 mile setback.)<br />
Hardships along the Trail<br /> Crossing rivers and mountains: Some rivers were crossed by fording, other rivers were crossed by ferry.<br /> Depending on the crossing method, a class will either need to have a 70% average or enough money (AR points) to pay the ferry fee. When crossing mountains, classes need to have 70% average.<br />
Working Together<br />Working together was essential on a wagon train. Every single person had a responsibility to make sure everything went as planned. If one person didn’t do their part, it could potentially hold the whole wagon train up for hours or days. This is true when working together as a class –<br /> everybody needs to participate in Accelerated Reading.<br />
What does all that mean?<br />Classes need to start quizzing as soon as possible to earn points before October 1st.<br />Students need to be reading consistently. Second and third grade students may need to finish a book weekly. Older students will need to finish a book every two weeks.<br />Students need to do well on their quizzes. In order for the class’ quiz average to be high enough to get through a hardship, everybody needs to read carefully and do well on every single quiz.<br />