FreshwaterFreshwater is defined as having alow salt concentration—usuallyless than 1%Plants and animals in freshwaterregions are adjusted to the lowsalt content and would not beable to survive in areas of highsalt concentration (i.e, ocean)
Ponds and Lakes range in size from just a few square meters to thousands of square kilometers ponds may be seasonal, lasting just a couple of months (such as sessile pools) lakes may exist for hundreds of years or more may have limited species diversity since they are often isolated from one another and from other water sources like rivers and oceans
Ponds and Lakes divided into three different “zones” determined by depth and distance from the shoreline littoral zone limnetic zone profundal zone
Littoral Zone warmest since it is shallow and can absorb more of the Sun’s heat sustains a fairly diverse community, which can include several species of algae (like diatoms), rooted and floating aquatic plants, grazing snails, clams, insects, crustaceans, fishes, and amphibians the egg and larvae stages of some insects are found in this zone vegetation and animals living in the littoral zone are food for other creatures such as turtles, snakes, and ducks
Limnetic Zone near-surface open water surrounded by the littoral zone well-lighted (like the littoral zone) and is dominated by plankton, both phytoplankton and zooplankton plankton are small organisms that play a crucial role in the food chain – most life would not be possible without them variety of freshwater fish also occupy this zone
Profundal Zone Plankton have short life spans—when they die, they fall into the deep-water part of the lake/pond much colder and denser than the other two little light penetrates all the way through the limnetic zone into the profundal zone animals are decomposers
Ponds and LakesTemperature varies seasonally. Summer from 4° C near the bottom to 22° C at the top Winter from 4° C while the top is 0° C (ice) between the two layers is a narrow zone called the thermocline where the temperature of the water changes rapidly with depth
Ponds and Lakes during the spring and fall seasons is a mixing of the top and bottom layers resulting in a uniform water temperature of around 4° C mixing also circulates oxygen throughout the lake many lakes and ponds do not freeze during the winter resulting in the top layer being a little warmer
Ponds and Lakes ice can develop on the top of lakes during winter blocks out sunlight and can prevent photosynthesis oxygen levels drop and some plants and animals may die called "winterkill."
Streams & Rivers bodies of flowing water moving in one direction found everywhere—they get their start at headwaters, which may be springs, snowmelt or even lakes travel all the way to their mouths, usually another water channel or the ocean
Watersheddescribes an areaof land thatcontains a commonset of streams andriversdrains into a singlelarger body ofwater, such as alarger river, a lakeor an ocean
Streams & Rivers characteristics change during the journey from the source to the mouth temperature is cooler at the source than it is at the mouth water is also clearer, has higher oxygen levels, and freshwater fish such as trout and heterotrophs can be found there
Streams & Rivers Towards the middle part of the stream/river, the width increases, as does species diversity—numerous aquatic green plants and algae can be found
Streams & Rivers toward the mouth the water becomes murky from all the sediments that it has picked up upstream decreasing the amount of light that can penetrate through the water less light less diversity of flora lower oxygen levels fish that require less oxygen, such as catfish and carp, can be found
WetlandsWetlands are areas of standingwater that support aquatic plants Marshes, swamps, and bogs are all considered wetlands
WetlandsPlants adapted to the very moist and humid conditions are called hydrophytes Pond lilies Cattails Sedges Tamarack Black Spruce Gum Cypress
Wetlandshighest species diversity of all ecosystemsmany species of amphibians, reptiles, birds(such as ducks and waders), and furbearerscan be found in the wetlandsnot considered freshwater ecosystems asthere are some, such as salt marshes, thathave high salt concentrations—thesesupport different species of animals, suchas shrimp, shellfish, and various grasses
River Otter Wetlands Damselfly Dragonfly Mayfly Crayfish Snails Leech Bluegill BassCatfish Sculpin Minnow Snakes Frog TurtleGreat Blue Heron Canadian Goose
Marinecover about three-fourths of the Earth’ssurface and include oceans, coral reefs,and estuariesalgae supply much of the world’soxygen supply and take in a hugeamount of atmospheric carbon dioxideevaporation of the seawater providesrainwater for the land
Oceanslargest of all the ecosystemsdominate the Earth’s surfaceseparate zones Intertidal Pelagic Abyssal Benthicgreat diversity of speciesrichest diversity of species even though itcontains fewer species than there are on land
Intertidal Zone where the ocean meets the land sometimes submerged and at other times exposed waves and tides come in and out communities are constantly changing
Intertidal Zone rocky coasts stratified vertically Where only highest tides reach a few species of algae and mollusks submerged during high tide more diverse array of algae and small animals, such as herbivorous snails, crabs, sea stars, and small fishes bottom of the intertidal zone only exposed during the lowest tides, many invertebrates, fishes, and seaweed can be found
Intertidal Zone sandier shores not as stratified waves keep mud and sand constantly moving very few algae and plants can establish themselves—the fauna include worms, clams, predatory crustaceans, crabs, and shorebirds.
Wave Regions much stronger than wind decide what grows where shores classified by amount of wave action Exposed shores – receive full brunt of the ocean for most or at least some of the time Semi-exposed shores – sheltered by barrier islands but still have to cope with waves Sheltered shores – shelter of peninsulas and inshore islands Enclosed shores river mouths and estuaries completely sheltered by either a protective rocks or a sand bar
Pelagic – Open Ocean waters further from the land, basically the open ocean generally cold though it is hard to give a general temperature range since, just like ponds and lakes, there is thermal stratification with a constant mixing of warm and cold ocean currents
Epipelagic – Open Ocean extends down to around 200m lowest depth that light can penetrate flora in the epipelagic zone include surface seaweeds fauna include many species of fish and some mammals, such as whales and dolphins many feed on the abundant plankton
Mesopelagic Zone http://oceanlink.island.net/oinfo/deepsea/meso.html "twilight zone" of the ocean photic zone above darkness below food becomes scarce – some animals migrate up to the surface at night to feed rely on food that falls down from above eat each other sometimes the only things to eat may be bigger than the hunter • developed long sharp teeth, • expandable jaws and stomachs
ctenophore – related to jellyfish Big Scale - ambush predator cilia can be illuminated Firefly squid three kinds of photophores Hatchet Fishonly a few inches long Viperfish specially adapted hinged skull Dragonfish - stomachs hold big mealsSnipeelup to 1.2m Siphonophores are colonies of animals related to jellyfish best known is Portugese Man of War http://oceanlink.island.net/oinfo/deepsea/meso.html
Bathypelagic Zone extends down from 1000 to 4000m only light is from bioluminescent organisms only food is what trickles down from above, or from eating other animals water pressure at this depth is considerable (~100 – 400 atmospheres) most animals are either black or red in color very little blue/green light penetrates this deep – red is not reflected and looks black
Narcomedusa Vampire Squid Snake Dragon Angler Fish Amphi - crustacean Ctenophore – voracious predator Deepstaria very slow swimmers, no tentacles, close flexible bells (up to a meter across) around their prey Big Red grows to over a meter across
Abyssopelagic Zone - the Abyss 4000m to the sea floor only zone deeper than this is the hadal zone areas found in deep sea trenches and canyons home to pretty inhospitable living conditions near- freezing temperatures crushing pressures
1. Ballina Angelfish2. Beaked Salmon3. A deepsea anglerfish (no common name)4. Duckbilled Eel5. A fanfin anglerfish6. Fangtooth7. Gilberts Halosaur8. Gulper Eel9. Hammerjaw10. Largescale New Laternfish11. Longray Spiderfish12. Portuguese Dogfish13. Sharpnose Sevengill Shark14. Short-tail Torpedo Ray15. Silver Lighthouse Fish16. A snaggletooth (no common name)17. Snubnosed Eel18. Southern Spineback19. Sparkling Slickhead20. Spiky Oreo21. Stoplight Loosejaw22. Triplewart Seadevil23. Viperfishhttp://www.amonline.net.au/fishes/about/fieldwork/norfanz/
The Coral Reef Biome A Look at a Marine Biome Created by Terri Street
What Is a Coral Reef?A structure formed by coral polyps,tiny animals that live in colonies.Coral polyps form a hard, stony,branching structure made oflimestone.New polyps attach to old coral andgradually build the reef.
Types of Coral ReefsFringing reefs Submerged platforms of living coral extending from the shore into the seaBarrier reefs Follow the shore but are separated from it by water Great Barrier Reef is world’s largest
Types of Coral ReefsAtolls Ring-shaped islands of coral in open sea Form on submerged mud banks or volcano craters Surround a seawater lagoon Channels connect lagoon to the sea
Coral Reef ClimateUsually found near land in shallow,warm salt waterLots of lightTropical temperatures, averaging 70°-85° FMost coral cannot survive below 65° F
Coral Reef Plants Phytoplankton Microscopic Basis for all ocean food chains
Coral Reef PlantsAlgae Green Red Brown algae takes many forms
Coral Reef Plants Seaweed and Sea grasses Brown seaweed Sea grass Shoal grass Turtle grass
Fascinating Fact: The GreatBarrier ReefWorld’s largest coral reefOver 1257 mileslongOff the northeastcoast of AustraliaOnly grows aboutone inch per year
The Great Barrier Reef: Hometo…1500 species of fish400 different types of coral4,000 mollusks500 species of seaweed215 species of birds16 species of sea snake6 species of sea turtleWhales visit during winter
Endangered Coral Reefs Major threats to coral reefs include: Ocean pollution Dredging off the coast
Endangered Coral Reefs Other dangers: Careless collection of coral specimens Sedimentation Inhibits growth of coral polyps Inhibits algae growth Upsets balance of the biome
Estuaries http://www.epa.gov/owow/estuaries/about1.htm enclosed body of water formed where freshwater from rivers and streams flows into the ocean, mixing with the salty sea water estuaries and the lands surrounding them are places of transition from land to sea, and from fresh to salt water although influenced by the tides, estuaries are protected from the full force of ocean waves, winds, and storms by the reefs, barrier islands, or fingers of land, mud, or sand that define an estuarys seaward boundary
Estuaries are semi-enclosed bodies of water wherefresh water from the land mixes with sea water. Estuaries originate as: drowned river valleys, fjords, bar-built estuaries, and tectonic estuaries. Salinity typically grades from normal marine salinity at the tidal inlet to fresh water at the mouth of the river.
Estuaries can be subdivided into three types basedupon the relative importance of river inflow andtidal mixing. Salt-wedge estuaries are dominated by the outflow from rivers. Partially-mixed estuaries are dominated by neither river inflow nor tidal mixing. In well-mixed estuaries tidal turbulence destroys the halocline and water stratification. Because river discharge and tidal flow vary, conditions within an estuary can also change, being well-mixed when river flow decreases relative to tidal mixing, to becoming a salt-wedge estuary at times of maximum river discharge.
The widely fluctuating environmental conditions inestuaries make life stressful for organisms.Estuaries are extremely fertile because nutrients arebrought in by rivers and recycled from the bottom becauseof the turbulence.Stressful conditions and abundant nutrients result in lowspecies diversity, but great abundance of the speciespresent.Despite abundance of nutrients, phytoplankton blooms areirregular and the base of the food chain is detritus washedin from adjacent salt marshes.The benthonic fauna strongly reflects the nature of thesubstrate and most fishes are juvenile forms living withinthe estuary until they mature and migrate to the ocean.
Estuaries http://www.epa.gov/owow/estuaries/about1.htm Estuaries are sometimes called “marine nurseries” habitats for many juvenile organisms, especially for fishes many fish are born and grow up in estuaries migrate to the open ocean
Lagoons are isolated to semi-enclosed, shallow,coastal bodies of water that receive little if anyfresh water inflow.Lagoons can occur at any latitude and their salinitiesvary from brackish to hypersaline depending uponclimate and local hydrology.Bottom sediments are usually sand or mud eroded whichwas from the shoreline or swept in through the tidal inlet.In the tropics, the water column is typically isothermal.In the subtropics, salinity generally increases away fromthe inlet and the lagoon may display inverse flow.
Salt marshes are intertidal flatscovered by grassy vegetation.Marshes are most commonly found in protected areaswith a moderate tidal range, such as the landward sideof barrier islands.Marshes flood daily at high tide and then drain througha series of channels with the ebb tide.They are one of the most productive environments.Marshes can be divided into two parts: Low saltmarshes and High salt marshes.Distribution and density of organisms in salt marshesstrongly reflects availability of food, need forprotection, and frequency of flooding.
Mangroves are large woody trees with adense, complex root system that growsdownward from the branches Mangroves are the dominant plant of the tropical and subtropical intertidal area Distribution of the trees is largely controlled by air temperature, exposure to wave and current attack, tidal range, substrate and sea water chemistry Detritus from the mangrove forms the base of the food chain
Bibliography1. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss5/biome/index.html2. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/biomes/marsh/freshwater.shtml 3. http://mbgnet.mobot.org/ 4. http://www.runet.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG235/biomes/intro.html5. http://archive.globe.gov/sda-bin/wt/ghp/tg+L(en) +P(seasons/Miniinvestigation)6. http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/where_we_work/ecoregions/global200/pag es/home.htm7. “Coral Reefs.” World Book. Chicago: World Book, 1998. Vol. 4, p. 257.8. “Coral Reefs.” http://kidscience.about.com/kids/kidscience/cs/coralreefs/